Y.M.C.A. (song)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

YMCA by Village People US vinyl single A-side label.jpg
One of A-side label variants of U.S. 7-inch vinyl single
Single by Village People
from the album Cruisin'
B-side"The Women"
ReleasedOctober 17, 1978
Recorded1978; Sigma Sound Studios (New York City, New York)
Producer(s)Jacques Morali
Village People singles chronology
"Macho Man"
"In the Navy"

"Y.M.C.A." is a song by the American disco group Village People. It was released in 1978 as the only single from their third studio album, Cruisin' (1978). The song was written by Jacques Morali (also the record's producer) and singer Victor Willis.[1] A medley with "Hot Cop" reached #2 on Billboard's Dance Music/Club Play Singles chart[2], while the song reached #2 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts in early 1979, placing behind both "Le Freak" by Chic and "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?" by Rod Stewart.[3] Outside the US, "Y.M.C.A." reached #1 in the UK around the same time, becoming the group's biggest hit. It is one of fewer than 40 singles to have sold 10 million (or more) physical copies worldwide.

The song remains popular and is played at many sporting events in the US and Europe, with crowds joining in on the dance in which arm movements are used to spell out the four letters of the song's title.

"Y.M.C.A." appeared as the Space Shuttle wake-up call on day 11 of mission STS-106.[4]

In 2009, "Y.M.C.A." set a Guinness World Record when over 44,000 people danced to Village People's live performance of the song at the 2008 Sun Bowl game in El Paso, Texas.[5] "Y.M.C.A." is #7 on VH1's list of "The 100 Greatest Dance Songs of the 20th Century."[6]

In 2020, "Y.M.C.A" was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National Recording Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[7][8] In its official press release, the Library noted that "back in its heyday, 'Y.M.C.A.' was a hit around the world, going to No. 1 on the charts in over 15 countries, and its ongoing popularity is evidence that, despite the naysayers, disco has never truly died."[7]


In the US, the YMCA began building single room occupancy (SRO) facilities in the 1880s to house people from rural areas who moved into cities to look for work.[9] The typical YMCA SRO housing provides "low-income, temporary housing for a rent of $110 per week" (in 2005) for stays that are typically three to six months long.[10] By 1950, 670 of the 1,688 YMCAs in the US provided SRO spaces, which made 66,959 beds available.[9] By the 1970s, the typical YMCA tenants were more likely to be homeless people and youth facing life issues, rather than people migrating from rural areas.[9]

Victor Willis, lead singer and lyricist, recalls that while in the studio, producer Jacques Morali asked him, "What exactly is the YMCA?" After Willis explained it to him, he saw the expression on Morali's face and said, "Don't tell me, Jacques, you want to write a song about it?" and they quickly wrote the track for the album Cruisin'.[11] In 2015, Willis won a legal case against Can't Stop Productions, successfully claiming that he and Morali had written this and other Village People songs together, without any involvement from executive producer Henri Belolo, who was credited on the song's original release. The production company claimed that Belolo had written French lyrics that were then adapted by Willis, but this claim was rejected by the court which ruled that Belolo's name as co-writer should be removed.[12]

Upon the song's release, YMCA threatened to sue the band over trademark infringement. The organization ultimately settled with the composers out of court and later expressed pride regarding the song saluting the organization.[13]

Composition and background[edit]

Lyrical content[edit]

Taken at face value, the song's lyrics extol the virtues of the Young Men's Christian Association. However, in the gay culture from which the Village People stemmed, the song was implicitly understood as celebrating YMCA's reputation as a popular cruising and hookup spot, particularly for the younger men to whom it was addressed.[14] The initial goal of Village People producers Morali and Belolo was to attract disco's gay audience by featuring popular gay fantasy in their music.[15] Although co-creator Morali was gay and the group was initially intended to target gay men, the group became more popular and more mainstream over time.[16]

Conversely, Willis had said that he wrote the song in Vancouver, British Columbia[17] and, through his publicist, that he did not write "Y.M.C.A." as a gay anthem,[18] but rather as a reflection of the fun activities that young urban black youth experienced at YMCA, such as basketball and swimming. However, Willis has often acknowledged his fondness for double entendre.[19][20]

In an article for Gothamist, writer Abbey White states the atmosphere of YMCA was "more complicated than the lyrics portray, with gay culture and working-class workouts coexisting in a single communal space", creating "a mix of white-collar and blue-collar residents, along with retired seniors and veterans", with about half of the residents being gay.[21] While the song gives the impression that YMCA SROs in the 1970s had a party atmosphere, Paul Groth states that YMCA SRO units actually had "more supervision of your social life — a kind of management as to how you behaved...[than] in a commercial rooming house, which mostly wanted to make sure the rooms were rented", without monitoring who you brought to your room.[21]

Song structure[edit]

The song, played in the key of G♭ major, begins with a brass riff, backed by the constant pulse that typified disco. Many different instruments are used throughout for an overall orchestral feel, another disco convention, but it is brass that stands out.

As with other Village People hits, the lead vocals are handled by Willis and the background vocals are supplied by Willis and professional background singers. The distinctive vocal line features the repeated "Young man!" ecphonesis, followed by Willis singing the verse lines. The background vocals join in throughout the song.

Willis' version of the song is used in the Village People film Can't Stop the Music, though by that time Ray Simpson had replaced him as the policeman.


Billboard Magazine stated that "Y.M.C.A." is "another example of [the Village People's] droll humor, playing off its gayness with hard hat themes."[22] Billboard also called Y.M.C.A (and its B-side, "The Women") one of the best cuts on the Cruisin' album.[23] Although the song did not reach #1 in the United States, it became a #1 hit throughout the world and has remained popular at parties, sporting events, weddings and functions ever since.

Music video[edit]

The music video of "Y.M.C.A." was filmed in New York City in July 1978. The location shown in the music video is at 213 West 23rd Street, although some scenes featured the exterior of the McBurney Branch YMCA at 125 14th Street. Other filming locations in the city included the West Side Piers and Hudson River Park. The video features the band singing the song and dancing all over the city and ends with the camera zooming in on the Empire State Building.

Origin of dance and hand movement[edit]

The YMCA dance demonstrated in a photomontage. In this rendition, the M (second from left) is done in a popular variant.
Members of the grounds crew of Yankee Stadium pause to do the YMCA dance.

YMCA is also the name of a group dance with cheerleader Y-M-C-A choreography invented to fit the song. One of the phases involves moving arms to form the letters Y-M-C-A as they are sung in the chorus:

Y —arms outstretched and raised upwards
M —made by bending the elbows from the 'Y' pose so the fingertips meet in front of the chest[24]
C —arms extended to the left
A —hands held together above head

The dance originated on Dick Clark's American Bandstand. During the January 6, 1979 episode, which featured the Village People as guests throughout the hour, the dance was performed by audience members while the group performed the song. Clark then said to Willis that he would like to show him something, playing the song again with the audience doing YMCA hand gestures. Willis immediately picked up on the dance and mimicked the hand movements back at the audience as other Village People members stared at him with puzzled looks. Clark then turned to Willis and said, "Victor, think you can work this dance into your routine?" Willis responded, "I think we're gonna have to."[25] In a 2008 retrospective article for Spin, Randy Jones has opined that the dance may have originated as a misunderstanding: the group's original choreographed dance had the group clapping above their heads during the chorus and he believes that the audience, believing them to be making the letter "Y", began following suit.[26]

Following the sixth inning of New York Yankees baseball games at Yankee Stadium, the grounds crew traditionally grooms the infield while leading the crowd in the dance.[27]

Impact and legacy[edit]

VH1 placed "Y.M.C.A." at #7 on their list of "100 Greatest Dance Songs" in 2000,[28] while Paste Magazine ranked the song #1 on their list of "The 60 Best Dancefloor Classics" in February 2017.[29]

In 2012, in a landmark ruling in accordance with the Copyright Act of 1976, Willis terminated his copyrights granted to the publishers Can't Stop Productions and Scorpio Music.[30] In March 2015, it was determined that the sole writers of the song were Morali and Willis.[31]

In March 2020 the US Library of Congress added the song to its National Recording Registry, which preserves for posterity audio that is "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".[32]


  • Victor Willis - vocals
  • Russell Dabney – drums
  • Alfonso Carey – bass guitar
  • Jimmy Lee – guitar
  • Rodger Lee – rhythm guitar
  • Nathanial Wilkie – Fender Rhodes piano, clavinet
  • Bitter Sweet – hand claps

Chart performance[edit]

Sales and certifications[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/sales
Belgium 300,000[69]
Canada (Music Canada)[70] 2× Platinum 300,000^
France (SNEP)[72] Gold 1,450,000[71]
Germany (BVMI)[73] Gold 250,000^
Netherlands (NVPI)[75] Platinum 250,000[74]
Japan (RIAJ) 302,000[76]
United Kingdom (BPI)[78] Platinum 1,500,000[77]
United States (RIAA)[79] Platinum 2,000,000

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

Touché feat. Krayzee version[edit]

Single by Touché feat. Krayzee
from the album Kids In America
ReleasedSeptember 14, 1998
FormatCD maxi
Length3:09 (single version)
3:14 (album version)
LabelBMG, Hansa
Songwriter(s)Jacques Morali, Victor Willis
Producer(s)Dieter Bohlen
Touché feat. Krayzee singles chronology
"I'll Give You My Heart"
"This Goodbye Is Not Forever"

In 1998, Touché covered the hit for their album Kids in America with Krayzee. In this version Touche take over the vocal parts and only the rap contributes to Krayzee. In Belgium, this cover version was a top ten hit, while the success in the German-speaking countries, however, was rather modest.

Music video[edit]

In the music video Touche and Krayzee perform the song in a city area, accompanied by elaborate effects.[80]

Track listing[edit]

CD maxi

  1. "YMCA" (Rap Version) - 3:09
  2. "YMCA" (Vocal Version) - 3:14
  3. "Promise To Believe" (Touché) - 3:57
  4. "I Want Your Body" (Touché) - 3:19


Chart (1998) Peak
German Singles Chart 31
Austrian Singles Chart 31
Swiss Singles Chart 23[81]
Belgium (Flanders) (Ultratop) 10[82]

Other cover versions and parodies[edit]

  • In 1997, Pepsi launched a Super Bowl ad, where five bears danced to an alternate version with "P-E-P-S-I".[83][84]
  • In 2002, the song was featured in a Diet Dr Pepper commercial, which is parodied as "It's fun to eat at 4:30 PM", and was performed by They Might Be Giants as Retirement Village People.[85]
  • In 2004, Fisher-Price produced a Sesame Street toy that sings a parody of "YMCA" as ELMO.[86]
  • On July 2, 2004, Colin Powell, then the U.S. Secretary of State, performed a modified version of "YMCA" for his fellow foreign government officials at the ASEAN security meeting in Jakarta. His lyrics includes the lines: "President Bush, he said to me: 'Colin, I know you will agree. I need you to run the Department of State. We are between a rock and a hard place."[87]
  • In September 2012, a Slovenian musical group and stand-up comedians Slon in Sadež released a Slovene parody of the YMCA-song with the title "NNLB". It makes fun of the irresponsible financial management of the largest bank in Slovenia Nova Ljubljanska banka (NLB), causing a severe, long-lasting financial and economic crisis in Slovenia.[88]
  • On January 29, 2013, the song was remixed in the animated series Phineas and Ferb, centered around O.W.C.A. (Organization Without a Cool Acronym). Changing the lyrics to "It's fun to work at the O.W.C.A." It was released on January 29, 2013. The song debuted on the air on Radio Disney along with accompanying music videos on both Disney Channel and Disney XD on February 1st of that year.[89][90]
  • On March 2, 2013, during the opening monologue on Saturday Night Live, Jay Pharoah parodied President Barack Obama giving a press conference about the recent budget cuts in Congress, saying that there were going to be cuts on the military, social service workers, federal construction projects, and Native American funding. The representatives of each of the four Village People characters did the arm dance in order after Pharaoh recited the appropriate verse of the song.[91]
  • The song was covered in the 2013 Universal animated film Despicable Me 2 by Gru's minions dressed like the Village People. This version was included on the film's soundtrack.[92]
  • In November 2013, Chris Pennington released a parody of the song directed at Montreal Canadiens head coach Michel Therrien, entitled "Why not P.K.?", expressing sentiment that Therrien was not giving star Canadiens defenceman P. K. Subban enough ice time.[93]
  • In June 2017 YMCA Australia partnered with singer Boy George to release a cover of the song for a campaign on youth issues. This was the first time that any YMCA had embraced the song since its initial release.[94] Boy George's version is part of the #whynot? campaign launched by YMCA Australia that aims to provide a voice to young people to speak out on issues that affect them.[95]


  1. ^ Littlefield, Dana (March 5, 2015). "Village People cop wins 50% of 'YMCA' rights". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on November 3, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  2. ^ "The Village People Awards". Allmusic. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  3. ^ "Top 100 Songs | Billboard Hot 100 Chart". Billboard.
  4. ^ "Audio Wakeup Call Index". Spaceflight.nasa.gov. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  5. ^ Peterson, Jan (February 2, 2012). "Dancing Without the Stars: "YMCA" and Other Record-Breaking Dance Events – Yahoo TV". Tv.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  6. ^ "the VH1's 100 Greatest Dance Songs @". Disco-disco.com. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  7. ^ a b "National Recording Registry Class Produces Ultimate 'Stay at Home' Playlist". Library of Congress – National Recording Registry. March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  8. ^ "The Village People's YMCA is preserved for posterity". BBC News. March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c Stern, Seth (October 26, 2005). "New YMCA would drop low-income housing". Forestparkreview.com. Forest Park Review. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  10. ^ Stern, Seth (October 26, 2005). "New YMCA would drop low-income housing". Forestparkreview.com. Forest Park Review. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  11. ^ Victor Willis Interview, SiriusXM Radio, Studio 54 Channel, Marc and Myra Show, September 24, 2013
  12. ^ Chris Cooke, "Victor Willis wins a 50% stake in YMCA", CMU.com, 6 March 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2019
  13. ^ "How Did the Real YMCA React to the Disco Song About It?". Mentalfloss.com. February 20, 2019. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  14. ^ Neumann, Caryn E. glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture YMCA
  15. ^ "The Village People – FREE The Village People information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Village People research". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  16. ^ Juzwiak, Rich. "Village Person Says "Y.M.C.A." Isn't About Gays, Is Probably Lying". Gawker.com. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  17. ^ "'Macho Man,' 'Y.M.C.A.' about straight fun: publicist – CTV News". CTV.ca. August 2, 2007. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  18. ^ "Village People Cop: Y.M.C.A. Not about Gay Cruising". August 3, 2007. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  19. ^ Boles, Benjamin (February 7, 2014). "Gay Village People Co-Founder Says 'YMCA' Not A Gay Song". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  20. ^ Varga, George (August 2, 2015). "Victor Willis on life & music, post-Village People". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  21. ^ a b White, Abbey (December 20, 2018). "The Real Story Of The YMCA That Inspired The Village People's Gay Anthem=". Gothamist.com. Gothamist. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  22. ^ "Top Single Picks" (PDF). Billboard. October 14, 1978. p. 78. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  23. ^ "Top Album Picks" (PDF). Billboard. October 7, 1978. p. 82. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  24. ^ "Official Village People website, July 4, 2004". Officialvillagepeople.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  25. ^ American Bandstand 1978
  26. ^ Pearlman, Jeff (May 27, 2008). "Y.M.C.A (An Oral History)". Spin.com. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  27. ^ "NY- Yankee Stadium- 7th Inning Stretch". I Photo New York. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  28. ^ "Rock On The Net: VH1: 100 Greatest Dance Songs". Rockonthenet.com.
  29. ^ "The 60 Best Dancefloor Classics". pastemagazine.com. February 28, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  30. ^ Gardner, Eriq (May 8, 2012). "Village People Songwriter Victor Willis Wins Case Over Termination of 'Y.M.C.A.' Rights". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  31. ^ Eriq Gardner (March 5, 2015). "Jury Decides Village People 'Y.M.C.A.' Songwriter Has 100 Percent Song Share". The Hollywood Reporter.
  32. ^ "The Village People's YMCA is preserved for posterity". BBC News. March 25, 2020.
  33. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 329. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  34. ^ "Australia n°1 Hits – 70's". Worldcharts.co.uk. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  35. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Village People – Y.M.C.A." (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40.
  36. ^ "Ultratop.be – Village People – Y.M.C.A." (in Dutch). Ultratop 50.
  37. ^ "Y.M.C.A. in Canadian Adult Contemporary Chart". Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  38. ^ "Y.M.C.A. in Canadian Disco Singles Chart". Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on December 28, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  39. ^ "Y.M.C.A. in Canadian Top 15 12inch Chart (with Macho man)". Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on December 28, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  40. ^ "Y.M.C.A. in Canadian Top Singles Chart". Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on December 28, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  41. ^ a b "Toutes les Chansons N° 1 des Années 70" (in French). Infodisc.fr. June 3, 2013. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  42. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Village People – Y.M.C.A.". GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
  43. ^ "Ireland singles charts". Irishcharts.ie. Archived from the original on June 2, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
  44. ^ https://www.ukmix.org/showthread.php?45645-Israel-Singles-Charts-1987-1995/page4
  45. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – Village People" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40.
  46. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Village People – Y.M.C.A." (in Dutch). Single Top 100.
  47. ^ "Charts.nz – Village People – Y.M.C.A.". Top 40 Singles.
  48. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Village People – Y.M.C.A.". VG-lista.
  49. ^ John Samson. "Y.M.C.A. in South African Chart". Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  50. ^ Salaverri, Fernando (February 1979). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
  51. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Village People – Y.M.C.A.". Singles Top 100.
  52. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Village People – Y.M.C.A.". Swiss Singles Chart.
  53. ^ a b c "Village People". Official Charts Company. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  54. ^ "Village People Chart History - Billboard Hot 100". Billboard. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  55. ^ "Village People Chart History - Dance Club Songs". Billboard. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  56. ^ "Village People Chart History - Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs". Billboard. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  57. ^ "Cash Box Top 100 2/03/79". Tropicalglen.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  58. ^ "The ARIA Australian Top 100 Singles Chart – Week Ending 03 Apr 1994". ARIA. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
  59. ^ "Y.M.C.A. and Y.M.C.A. '93 in Irish Chart". IRMA. Archived from the original on June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2013. Only results when searching "Y.M.C.A."
  60. ^ "Y.M.C.A. '93 in New Zealand Chart". IRMA. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  61. ^ "Official Dance Singles Chart Top 40". officialcharts.com.
  62. ^ "Indice per Interprete: V". HitParadeItalia (it). Retrieved July 6, 2013.
  63. ^ Hung, Steffen. "australian-charts.com - Forum - Top 100 End of Year AMR Charts - 1980s (ARIA Charts: Special Occasion Charts)". Australian-charts.com. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  64. ^ Canada, Library and Archives (July 17, 2013). "Image : RPM Weekly". Collectionscanada.ca. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  65. ^ "The Official New Zealand Music Chart". Nztop40.co.nz. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  66. ^ "Top 100 Hits of 1979/Top 100 Songs of 1979". Musicoutfitters.com. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  67. ^ "Cash Box YE Pop Singles - 1979". Tropicalglen.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  68. ^ "Billboard Hot 100 60th Anniversary Interactive Chart". Billboard. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  69. ^ Anthonissen, Juul (May 12, 1979). "From The Music Capitals Of The World - Brussels" (PDF). Billboard. p. 69. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
  70. ^ "Canadian certifications – Village People – YMCA". Music Canada. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  71. ^ "Les Singles en Or" (in French). Infodisc.fr. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  72. ^ "French certifications – Village People – Y.M.C.A." (in French). InfoDisc. Select VILLAGE PEOPLE and click OK. 
  73. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Village People; 'Y.M.C.A.')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  74. ^ "Gold/Silver Record Chart". Billboard. December 26, 1974. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  75. ^ "Dutch single certifications – Village People – Y.M.C.A." (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. Enter Y.M.C.A. in the "Artiest of titel" box.
  76. ^ "List of best-selling international singles in Japan". JP&KIYO. 2002. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
  77. ^ "Pride special: Celebrating the biggest selling singles by LGBT artists". The Official Charts Company. June 25, 2016.
  78. ^ "British certifications – Village People – Y.M.C.A." British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved March 29, 2012. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Type Y.M.C.A. in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
  79. ^ "American certifications – Village People – Y.M.C.A." Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
  80. ^ "Touche - YMCA (ft. Krayzee, prod. Dieter Bohlen)". YouTube.
  81. ^ "Touché feat. Krayzee - YMCA - hitparade.ch". Hitparade.ch.
  82. ^ "Touché feat. Krayzee - YMCA". Ultratop.be.
  83. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSRN-qt8n2w
  84. ^ https://superbowl-ads.com/1997-bears-dance-to-ymca/
  85. ^ https://adland.tv/adnews/diet-dr-pepper-retirement-village-people-full-2003-030-usa
  86. ^ https://money.cnn.com/pf/features/popups/new_toys/frameset.9.exclude.html
  87. ^ "Powell goes disco for Asean forum". BBC News. July 2, 2004. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  88. ^ http://www.sloninsadez.com/ Official Slon in Sadež website. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  89. ^ Y.M.C.A. (Phineas and Ferb Remix) [From "Phineas and Ferb"] - Single by The Agents of O.W.C.A., retrieved February 22, 2020
  90. ^ Y.M.C.A. (Phineas and Ferb remix) Music Video - Phineas and Ferb - Disney Channel Official, retrieved February 22, 2020
  91. ^ David Badash (March 4, 2013). "Funny Or Not Funny? SNL's Obama Explains Sequester Using 'Village People'". The New Civil Rights Movement. Archived from the original on November 6, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  92. ^ "'Despicable Me 2′ Soundtrack Announced". Film Music Reporter. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  93. ^ "P.K. Subban Anthem Implores More Ice Time for Defenseman, Catchy Song Inspired by Village People (Audio)". NESN. November 18, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
  94. ^ Delaney, Brigid (June 20, 2017). "YMCA partners with Boy George to embrace eponymous gay anthem for first time". The Guardian. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  95. ^ "YMCA Why Not". Whynot.org.au. Retrieved August 13, 2017.

External links[edit]

External video
Original 1978 music video