Page semi-protected

Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Donald Trump 2020 presidential campaign
Campaign2020 United States presidential election
CandidateDonald Trump
President of the United States
Mike Pence
Vice President of the United States
AffiliationRepublican Party
AnnouncedJune 18, 2019[a]
HeadquartersTrump Tower,
Manhattan, New York City, New York (main base)
Key peopleBill Stepien (campaign manager)
Michael Glassner (campaign committee manager)[1]
Tim Murtaugh (communications director)[2]
Kayleigh McEnany (national press secretary)[2]
Lara Trump (senior consultant)[3]
Brad Parscale (senior advisor, digital and data strategies)
Kimberly Guilfoyle (senior adviser)[4]
Katrina Pierson (senior adviser)[5]
Bill Shine (senior adviser)[6]
John McEntee (senior adviser)[7]
Marc Lotter (strategic communications director)[2]
John Pence (campaign committee deputy executive director)[1]
Bradley Crate (campaign treasurer)[8]
Cole Blocker (finance director)[2]
Megan Powers (administrative operations director)[2]
Chris Carr (political director)[2]
Justin Clark (senior political adviser)[2]
ReceiptsUS$358,199,769.41[9] (December 31, 2019)
Keep America Great![10][11]
Promises made, promises kept[12]
Jobs! Jobs! Jobs!
Keep America Working

The 2020 Donald Trump presidential campaign is an ongoing re-election campaign by President of the United States Donald Trump, who took office on January 20, 2017.

Donald Trump began his reelection campaign unusually early for an incumbent president. He began spending his reelection effort within weeks of his election and officially filed his campaign with the Federal Election Commission on the day of his inauguration. Since February 2017, Trump has held several rallies and fundraisers for this campaign. He has visited key electoral states. The campaign has raised funds and ran two nationwide advertising campaigns. Trump has confirmed in several stump speeches that the slogans for the 2020 race will be "Keep America Great" and "Promises Made, Promises Kept".[13][14][15]

On November 7, 2018, Trump confirmed that Mike Pence would be his vice presidential running mate in 2020.[16] On June 18, 2019, Trump held an official campaign launch event at the Amway Center in Orlando, Florida.[17][18]


Trump's predecessors merged their campaign committees into their party's committee following their election victories. Following his 2016 election victory, Trump eschewed this presidential tradition and retained a separate campaign committee which continued raising funds. In December 2016, the campaign raised $11 million.[19] These moves indicated that Trump was already eyeing a 2020 run.[20]

Trump started spending money on the 2020 race on November 24, 2016 (sixteen days after the end of the 2016 election). The earliest campaign disbursement that his committees reported was spent towards the 2020 presidential primaries was for the purchase of a Delta Air Lines ticket on this date.[21]

Trump officially filed his reelection campaign with the FEC on January 20, 2017, the day of his inauguration.[22][14][15][23] Trump launched his reelection campaign earlier in his presidency than his predecessors did. Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush and Ronald Reagan all declared their candidacies for reelection in the third year of their presidencies.[24][25] Trump filed the papers for his reelection campaign approximately 47 months prior to the date of the election.[24] In contrast, both Reagan and George H. W. Bush did so approximately twelve, George W. Bush approximately eighteen, and both Clinton and Obama approximately nineteen months before those elections.[24]

While previous presidents had held rallies in the early days of their presidency to garner support for legislation, such rallies differed from Trump's in that they were funded by the White House rather than by campaign committees.[25][26] One of the advantages of having his campaign committee fund the events is that organizers can more discriminately screen attendees, refusing entry to non-supporters.[27] Trump's February 2017 rally in Melbourne, Florida, was the earliest campaign rally for an incumbent president.[28][29]

By filing for his campaign as early as he did, Trump gave himself a head start on fundraising. This can theoretically help discourage primary challengers.[29]

Since his three predecessors (Bill Clinton, George W. Bush and Barack Obama) won reelection, if Trump is reelected, it would be the first time in American history that there have been four consecutive presidents who were elected to two terms.[30][31]

Permanent campaign

Although Trump's early campaign filing is extraordinarily unusual, aspects of a "permanent campaign" are not entirely unprecedented in American politics. Such a phenomenon had a presence in the White House at least as early as the presidency of Bill Clinton. Under the advice of Sidney Blumenthal, Clinton's staff continued to engage in campaign methodology once in office, using polling for assistance in making decisions.[28][32]

Political observers who bolster the opinion that a permanent campaign has had a significant impact on recent presidencies argue that decisions by presidents have increasingly been made with considerations to their impact on voter approval.[33]

The concept of a permanent campaign also describes the focus which recent presidents have given to electoral concerns during their tenures in office, with the distinction between the time they have spent governing and the time they have spent campaigning having become blurred.[33] Political observers consider the rise in presidential fundraising as a symptom of the permanent campaign.[33]

The disproportionately large amounts of time presidents have spent visiting key electoral states (and a comparatively small amount of they have spent visiting states that pose little electoral importance to them) has been pointed to as evidence of ulterior electoral motives influencing presidential governance, emblematic of the blurred lines between campaigning and governance in the White House.[33][32] For instance, George W. Bush embarked on 416 domestic trips during his first three years in office. This was 114 more than his predecessor Bill Clinton made in his first three years.[32] In his first year, 36% of Bush's domestic trips were to the 16 states that were considered swing states after having been decided the closest margins during the 2000 election.[32] In his second year, 45% of his domestic travel was to these states, and his third year 39% of his domestic travel was to these states.[32]

According to the Associated Press, a data analysis firm named Data Propria, launched in May 2018 to provide ad-targeting services and run by former officials of Cambridge Analytica, is working on public relations for the Trump 2020 re-election campaign.[34][35][36]

In April 2020, in an unprecedented move, the Treasury released the coronavirus pandemic relief checks with Trump's name on them.[37]


Presidential approval ratings, while rising slightly throughout the second half of his first term, have generally shown Trump to be one of the least popular presidents in the history of modern opinion polling during a presidential election year.[38][39][40] In the midst of the coronavirus pandemic in early spring 2020, however, Trump's approval rating saw a small but notable rally in support.[41][42] However, his approval rating has ticked down in the spring and summer of 2020.[43][44][45] Opinion polls conducted in 2020 have generally shown presumptive Democratic nominee Joe Biden leading Trump nationally in general election matchups, with the former vice president's advantage often extending beyond that of the survey's margin of sampling error.[46][47][48]

A 2017 report from the American Association for Public Opinion Research found that in 2016 national pre-election polls "were generally correct and accurate by historical standards" in estimating Hillary Clinton's popular vote victory. The report states that pre-election polls "indicated that Clinton had about a 3 percentage point lead, and they were basically correct; she ultimately won the popular vote by 2 percentage points." However, the report notes that polls conducted statewide "clearly under-estimated Trump's support in the Upper Midwest."[49]

Political observers point out that presidential job approval is highly partisan, writing: "The 92% approval among Republicans and 42% among independents are close to his highest ratings for those groups. Meanwhile, his approval rating among Democrats, currently 8%, hasn't been above 13% since he took office in February 2017. The current 84-point gap in approval between Republicans and Democrats is just a few points shy of the record polarization Gallup found in late January and early February."[50]

Domestic trips made by Donald Trump as U.S. president

The following maps document the frequency with which President Trump has visited each state and territory during his presidency.

  Washington, D.C.
  7 or more visits
  6 visits
  5 visits
  4 visits
  3 visits
  2 visits
  1 visit
  0 visits

2017 campaign developments

January 2017: Launch

On January 10, 2017, Politico reported that President Trump would be keeping his campaign offices in Trump Tower open in order to lay the groundwork for a re-election campaign.[20] By that time his campaign offices at Trump Tower already included a staff of about ten people led by Republican strategist Michael Glassner.[20][1] Glassner's deputy is John Pence, nephew of Vice President Mike Pence.[1] The campaign staff was focused on data-building and fundraising for a 2020 reelection campaign.[20][51]

On January 18, Trump revealed, in an interview with The Washington Post, that he had decided Keep America Great would be his 2020 reelection campaign slogan.[10][13] Two days later, on the day of his inauguration, Trump filed a form with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) declaring that he qualified as a candidate for the 2020 presidential election.[22][15][23]

February 2017: First rally

Trump speaking at his first campaign rally in Florida

By February 1, 2017, Trump's reelection campaign had already raised over $7 million.[52]

The first rally organized by the campaign was held on February 18, 2017, in Melbourne, Florida,[53] and was attended by an estimated 9,000 supporters.[54] It was the earliest an incumbent president had ever held a reelection campaign rally.[28] During the rally, Trump defended his actions and criticized the media.[28] He referred to a nonexistent incident ("last night in Sweden ...") while criticizing the asylum policies of several European countries.[55] After backlash from the press and the Swedish government,[56][57] Trump said he was referring to a Fox News program aired the previous day.[58][59]

On February 24, Trump spoke at the Conservative Political Action Conference,[60] an annual event which has often held a presidential straw poll.[61] However, the CPAC 2017 straw poll did not include a preference survey on presidential candidates.[62]

Trump laying a wreath at the tomb of Andrew Jackson at The Hermitage prior to his Nashville, Tennessee rally
Trump speaking at his rally in Nashville, Tennessee, March 15, 2017
Rally in Louisville, Kentucky, March 20, 2017

March 2017: Second and third rallies

On March 4, there were a series of local rallies held by allies of the campaign in some 50 cities.[63] Several of the rallies were met by counter-demonstrations[64] where some protesters were arrested.[65][66] Other events were held around the country throughout March, some of which resulted in violence.[67]

The campaign's second rally was held a month later in Nashville on March 15, and coincided with the 250th birthday of Andrew Jackson. Prior to the rally, Trump paid tribute to Jackson and laid a wreath at his tomb.[68][69][70][71] During the rally, Trump promised to repeal the Affordable Care Act (also known as "Obamacare") and defended his revised travel ban, which was put on hold by Derrick Watson, a federal judge in Hawaii, hours later.[72]

A third rally was held by the campaign in Louisville on March 20. At the rally, Trump promoted efforts to repeal Obamacare.[73]

On March 29 it was reported that Lara Trump, the daughter-in-law of the president, had been hired as a consultant by the campaign's digital vendor Giles-Parscale.[74]

April 2017: Fourth rally

By mid-April, the Trump campaign had a staff of around twenty employees.[75]

Trump gave a speech on April 28 at an event for the National Rifle Association.[76][77]

Trump and Pence arrive in Pennsylvania on April 29 for their rally in Harrisburg.

Trump held his fourth campaign rally on April 29 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, which coincided with the hundredth day of Trump's presidency.[78][79] It also took place the same night as the White House Correspondents' Dinner, which Trump did not attend.[79][80] In addition to Trump, Vice President Pence also spoke at the April 29 rally.

May 2017: Launch of first advertising campaign

On May 1, the campaign announced that they were spending $1.5 million on national advertisements touting Trump's accomplishments in the first hundred days."[81][82][83] The ad buy, which included advertisements targeted at voters who supported specific agenda items of Trump's presidency,[82] came approximately 42 months before election day 2020,[23][83][84] or any other major party's candidate declarations.[84][85] found several inaccuracies in the advertisement,[86] and Eric Zorn of the Chicago Tribune described the 30-second advertisement as being, "stuffed with Trump's signature misleading puffery".[85] Additionally, original versions of the ad showed Trump shaking hands with H. R. McMaster, an active-duty military member who was barred from participating in any political advocacy while in uniform.[87] Subsequent airings of the advertisement substituted this clip.[82][87]

The ad claimed that the "fake news" media refused to report the successes of the administration,[82][84][88] but Forbes pointed out that the ad itself cited mainstream media sources including CNBC, The Boston Globe and The New York Times.[88] Because of this accusation against the news media, CNN decided to stop running the ad, a decision that campaign manager Michael Glasner criticized as an action to "censor our free speech".[89][90][91] ABC, CBS and NBC later joined CNN in refusing to play the ad.[92] Lara Trump, a consultant to the campaign and the daughter-in-law of the president, called the ad removals "an unprecedented act of censorship in America that should concern every freedom-loving citizen."[92][93]

On May 8, shortly after reporter Cecilia Vega asked White House press secretary Sean Spicer about statements that Trump's 2016 campaign had issued in regards to temporarily banning Muslims from entering the United States, Trump's campaign website purged itself of all campaign statements from the 2016 campaign.[94][95][96] Campaign chairman Michael Glassner later announced that the website was being redesigned. The redesign of Trump's campaign website was seen by media sources as laying the groundwork for a full-bodied reelection campaign.[97][98][99] The Washington Examiner's David Druckert pointed out on Twitter that the redesigned website featured an image of Trump with a uniformed military officer on its 'Donate' page, which violated the Department of Defense's regulation that prohibits uniformed military officers from engaging in any political activity.[100]

On May 18, Trump hosted chairmen of the Colorado, Iowa, Michigan, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio and Pennsylvania state parties at the White House. Each of their states are considered to be presidential swing states.[101] On May 25, Trump's sons Donald Jr. and Eric along with Eric's wife Lara held a series of meetings at the Washington, D.C., offices of the Republican National Committee (RNC) to outline campaign strategy.[102][103][104]

June 2017: Fifth rally, first fundraiser and visits to swing states

Counter-protesters at the Pittsburgh Not Paris Rally

On June 1, President Trump announced his plans to withdraw from the Paris Agreement saying, "I was elected to represent the citizens of Pittsburgh, not Paris." Soon afterwards, the campaign announced it would hold a Pittsburgh Not Paris Rally across from the White House.[105][106] The rally was held June 3 at Lafayette Square.[105][107][108] The event was sponsored by the Fairfax County Republican Committee and the Republican Party of Virginia.[105][106][108][109][110][111] Relatively few people attended the event,[105][109] with estimates varying from 200 people (including counter-protesters)[109][111] to "dozens" of supporters.[109][110] By comparison, more people attended the anti-Trump March for Truth, which was held the same day.[112]

Trump began campaigning in Iowa in June. Iowa was considered to be a perennial swing state[113] and the Iowa caucus is scheduled as the earliest presidential primary election.[114] Iowa has also been home to nonbinding straw polls held ahead of the primaries (Trump won the 2015 straw poll among Republican candidates).[115]

On June 7, Trump delivered what the New York Daily News described as a "campaign-style speech" in Cincinnati, Ohio.[116] Five days later, reports surfaced that Trump was making plans to embark on a more expansive tour that would visit several battleground states.[117]

Trump in Iowa holding his fifth official rally of the campaign

Trump held his fifth official campaign rally in Cedar Rapids in eastern Iowa.[118][119] The area, home to a large population of working class whites, was seen as a strong region for Trump to find a base of political support.[120] The date for the rally, having been changed several times, was ultimately held on June 21,[121] marking the first time in his presidency that Trump traveled west of the Mississippi River.[122] At the rally, Iowa GOP state chairman Jeff Kaufmann verbally attacked Nebraskan senator Ben Sasse, who was speculated by some as a potential challenger to Trump in the 2020 Republican primaries.[123][124][125]

Vice President Mike Pence attended Joni Ernst's 3rd Annual Roast and Ride fundraiser, held on June 3 at the Central Iowa Expo near Boone, Iowa.[118][119][126][127] The previous editions of this event have included presidential campaign appearances. Trump himself had previously attended Ernst's fundraiser in 2016 while campaigning in Iowa, and seven Republican presidential contenders attended the event in 2015.[126]

On June 28, the president hosted a fundraiser at his company's hotel in Washington, D.C., benefitting the Trump Victory Committee, a joint committee that raises funds both for his reelection campaign and for the RNC.[128][129][130][131][132][133] The fundraiser was the first event Trump hosted for the Victory Committee since becoming president,[128] as well as the first presidential campaign fundraiser.[130] The event was co-organized by RNC chairwoman Ronna Romney McDaniel and RNC National Finance Chairman Steve Wynn.[129][133] The fundraiser was attended by about 300 guests and was reportedly expected to gross $10 million.[134][135][136][137] Trump was joined at the event by First Lady Melania Trump and top White House advisors.[138] Among those reported to have been in attendance at the fundraiser were Mica Mosbacher, Dean Heller and Katrina Pierson.[138][139][140] Additionally, Harold Hamm and a number of high-profile figures were spotted in the hotel's lobby during the event.[137] Press were barred from the event, a break of precedent since reporters were permitted to the first fundraisers held by each of Trump's two predecessors.[141] Trump's decision to host the event at a venue from which he personally profits garnered criticism.[130][134][142][143][144]

Throughout June, the president also gave speeches at events in the swing-states of Florida, Ohio, and Wisconsin.[120]

Lara Trump made appearances on behalf of the campaign at events in New York and Texas during the month of June.[145] In New York, Lara spoke at the Sheraton New York Times Square Hotel on June 20 for the annual New York Republican State Committee gala.[146]

By the end of June, Trump had visited fewer states in his first six months in office compared to his two immediate predecessors, Barack Obama and George W. Bush.[122] Both Obama and Bush had visited every time zone in the continental United States, while Trump had so far visited only the Eastern and Central time zones.[122] Obama and Bush also took both overnight and multiple-day trips throughout the country while Trump's domestic travels had largely been limited to a two-hour flight radius of Washington, D.C., and his overnight stays were at Camp David, Mar-a-Lago and Trump National Golf Club in Bedminster.[122] One of the benefits Trump was speculated to obtain from such trips is more favorable coverage from local news outlets in the areas visited.[120] Most of Trump's trips to Wisconsin were focused on the Milwaukee area in the southeast part of the state, which Trump won in 2016 by a smaller margin than Mitt Romney had in 2012.[120]

July 2017: Sixth rally

On July 1, Trump delivered a speech at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts during an event honoring veterans. The event was sponsored by First Baptist Dallas and the Salem Media Group. The event was described as resembling one of Trump's campaign rallies.[147]

On July 6, The Hill and Newsweek reported that 2020 campaign merchandise bearing Trump's name (including merchandise supporting and opposing his candidacy) was selling more than those with the names of prospective opponents.[148][149]

First Daughter and Advisor to the President Ivanka Trump introduced Vice President Pence at a GOP fundraiser.[150]

In its July 15 financial disbursement filing, the campaign reported that on June 27, nearly two-weeks before news of the Trump campaign–Russian meeting first surfaced, having made a payment Alan Futerfas, who is now defending the president's son Donald Trump Jr. for his involvement in that meeting.[151][152][153][154]

On July 24, Trump gave a highly political address at the National Scout Jamboree, a traditionally non-political event. This was emblematic of Trump's tendency to treat normally apolitical events as though they are campaign rallies.[155]

Donald and Melania Trump at the campaign's sixth rally

Trump held his sixth campaign rally on July 25 at the Covelli Centre in Youngstown, Ohio.[156][157] During the speech, Trump reveled in addressing an audience outside of the national capital.[157] He also condemned "predators and criminal aliens" and called them "animals". Chicago Tribune writer Rex W. Huppke criticized this comment, comparing it to the previous day's remarks at the National Scout Jamboree.[158] Trump also made remarks on the homicide rate in Chicago, and called on the mayor, Rahm Emanuel, to "get tough"; Emanuel responded the following day, stating: "It is not about being tough, it's about being smart and strategic."[159]

September 2017

Crowd at the Mother of All Rallies

On September 16, groups supporting Trump organized a rally on the National Mall named the Mother of All Rallies.[160][161][162][163] Organizers were originally hoping to draw one million attendees. However, in planning for security, the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia expected that only 1,800 people would attend and, ultimately, about one thousand people attended.[163][162][164]

A national organization had originally planned to hold "We Support Trump" rallies across the nation on September 9, however subsequently reneged on those plans.[165] However, an independent rally in support of Trump was subsequently announced to be held on that date in Georgetown, Delaware, in a county where Trump got a majority of the vote in 2016.[165] The Georgetown rally was sponsored by the Sussex County Republican Committee and attended by 100 people.[166][167]

On September 26, Trump attended a campaign fundraising dinner hosted by the Republican National Committee in New York City. The event was reported to have raised nearly $5 million, with major donors spending up to $250,000 to dine with President Trump.[168] Trump scheduled for a quick meeting with Nikki Haley and other U.N. officials immediately prior the fundraiser; travel expenses were reportedly filed as "government business", and therefore taxpayer-funded.[168] Trump's pattern of mixing travel for fundraising activities with travel for government business has drawn criticism from government watchdog organizations.[168]

Trump was scheduled to headline a fundraiser in Dallas on September 27, which was canceled by its organizers in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey.[169]

October 2017

On October 16, Trump indicated his desire to see his 2016 general election opponent, Democrat Hillary Clinton, run again in 2020. Clinton had previously asserted that she had no desire to run for public office again.[170]

On October 25, the president traveled to Texas for a fundraiser hosted by the Dallas County Republican Party for both the RNC and his reelection campaign.[169][168][171] The event was closed to the media. Mark Knoller noted, "By my count, this will be Pres Trump's 10th political fundraiser since taking office. 9 of 10 were closed to press coverage including today."[172]

November 2017

In early November, ethics watchdogs and political analysts expressed concerns over Trump's daughter-in-law Lara Trump assuming a greater role in the White House, while also continuing to be an active member of Trump's reelection campaign.[173] Lara Trump, while working for the reelection campaign, had reportedly held private political meetings with government officials such as Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke, Veteran Affairs Committee chairman Phil Roe and Representative Ron DeSantis.[173]

December 2017

President Trump held a rally in Pensacola, Florida.[citation needed]

In December 2017, polls showed that more than 40 percent of Americans wanted Trump impeached, reportedly higher than the percentage of Americans who said at the time that they planned to vote for him in 2020.[174]

2018 campaign developments

February 2018

In February 2018, the Trump campaign sent out an email with a photo of Trump paying a hospital visit to a student survivor of the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. After stating that Trump prioritises the safety of American students and schools, the email linked to the campaign's donations page.[175]

Brad Parscale was chosen as Trump's 2020 campaign manager in February 2018.

On February 25, the Drudge Report announced that the president had chosen Brad Parscale as the campaign manager for his re-election campaign.[176] Parscale was the digital strategist for the previous campaign as the head of Giles-Parscale, which raised some concerns about how the campaign would conduct its advertising.[177]

March 2018

On March 10, Trump held a rally in Moon Township, Pennsylvania. He campaigned for Rick Saccone for the local special election and also declared that his 2020 campaign slogan would be "Keep America Great!".[178]

On March 13, Trump made his first trip to the state of California as president to attend a campaign fundraiser at the Beverly Hills home of Tampa Bay Buccaneers owner Ed Glazer.[179] The same day, it was announced that Katrina Pierson and John McEntee had been hired by the campaign as senior advisors.[180][181]

April 2018

In 2018, Trump skipped the White House Correspondent's Dinner, holding a rally on the same night (as he had the previous year), this time in Washington, Michigan.[182]

May 2018

In May, Trump held a rally in Indiana where he once again shared that his 2020 campaign slogan would be "Keep America Great!". Although he had already revealed this before, Trump told the supporters at his rally,

'Keep America Great!' Because we are doing so well that in another two years when we start the heavy campaign, 'Make America Great Again' wouldn't work out too well. It's going to be 'Keep America Great' because that's exactly where we are headed. But don't tell anybody. I don't want anybody to know.[183]

June 2018

On June 20, President Trump held a rally in Duluth, Minnesota, supporting Republican Congressional candidate Pete Stauber in the 2018 midterm elections[184] and addressing his own 2020 prospects in the state[185] among other subjects. The rally came on the day the president had signed an executive order on the treatment of immigrant families with children.[184] At the rally he said enforcement at the border would be "just as tough" under the executive order.[185]

Trump traveled to the Nevada Republican Convention in Las Vegas on Saturday, June 23, and also appeared on the trip at a fundraiser for U.S. senator Dean Heller. Along with policy issues Trump addressed Heller's challenger, U.S. representative Jacky Rosen, as "Wacky Jacky". The president continued, asking of the simultaneous Nevada Democratic Party convention in Reno featuring Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, "Wacky Jacky is campaigning with Pocahontas, can you believe it?"[186]

On June 27, the president held a rally in Fargo, North Dakota, supporting Representative Kevin Cramer in his challenge to sitting Senator Heidi Heitkamp. President Trump also addressed, at the rally, the just-announced news of the retirement from the Supreme Court of Justice Anthony Kennedy. Cramer addressed the issue of abortion and Heitkamp's position on the Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act as his reason for entering the race. "'On behalf of the most forgotten people,' Mr. Cramer said to the president as both men took the stage to deafen applause, 'the unborn babies, thank you for standing for life.'"[187]

October 2018

During a campaign rally in Houston on October 22, Trump defined himself as a nationalist. He acknowledged the controversial use of this word, stating: "We're not supposed to use that word, [...] but I'm very proud. I think it should be brought back."[188][189]

November 2018

The campaign finances a number of rallies,[190] in support of Republican candidates in the Midterm election. These are somewhat successful, as the Senate's Republican majority is slightly increased.[191] However, the Republicans lost their majority with 40 seats in the House of Representatives.

December 2018

The campaign makes the unprecedentedly early move to merge the campaign's field operations with that of the Republican National Committee.[192] The campaign tapped White House political director Bill Stepien and Director of Public Liaison Justin Clark as senior political advisors, who would focus on delegate organization and to ensure the 2020 Republican National Convention would run smoothly,[193] though this is doubtful due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

2019 campaign developments

January–March 2019

In January, in a unanimous vote, the Republican National Committee informally endorsed the president's campaign and coordination between the two entities formally began.[194]

In February, a state-by-state effort was launched by Trump's campaign team to oppose any presidential challenges from within the Republican Party. The campaign has used endorsements, lobbying and state-party rule changes to ensure Trump does not face opposition during the Republican nominating convention, with a senior campaign adviser calling it a "process of ensuring that the national convention is a television commercial for the president for an audience of 300 million and not an internal fight."[195][196]

El Paso rally

The first rally of the year took place at the El Paso County Coliseum, in El Paso, Texas on February 12. It was highlighted by pro-wall talking points and a BBC cameraman filming the event, getting into a scuffle with a supporter that the president disavowed.[197]


From February 28 to March 3, the annual Conservative Political Action Conference, or CPAC took place in National Harbor, Maryland. This year, the usual straw poll was not held, and on the last day, Trump made a two-and-a-half hour-long speech,[198] which was covered live by C-SPAN and Fox News, and was prominently featured in media throughout the world.

Grand Rapids

On March 28, the president held a rally in Grand Rapids, Michigan, during which he revelled in his alleged "exoneration" calling for Democrats to apologize for the Russia investigation and to stop the "ridiculous bullshit." [199]

Trump also attacked Adam Schiff, the chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, as "little pencil-neck ... who has the smallest, thinnest neck I've ever seen", and someone who is "not a long-ball hitter". The president then ticked through those he felt wronged him as the crowd chanted, "Lock them up! Lock them up!"[200]

April–June 2019

In April, Trump visited the border at Calexico, California[201] before attending campaign events in Los Angeles and Las Vegas.[202][203]

The New York Times reported in June 2019 that after Trump had been briefed on internal polling showing he was trailing Joe Biden in several key states, he instructed aides to deny it and to publicly state that other data showed him doing well. The next day, Trump tweeted, "The Fake (Corrupt) News Media said they leaked into polling done by my campaign ... They reported Fake numbers that they made up & don't even exist," later telling reporters, "we are winning in every single state that we polled." Public polls at the time showed Trump trailing in key states such as Texas, Michigan and Pennsylvania.[204][205][206] Days later, the Trump campaign severed ties with some of its internal pollsters.[207] Trump also said that "something weird" is happening at Fox News after their poll also showed him losing to several Democratic candidates.[208]

On June 12, 2019, during an interview with ABC News, Trump said that were a foreign country to offer damaging information on a political opponent, his reaction would be: "I think I'd want to hear it ... There's nothing wrong with listening." Trump also said the "FBI director is wrong" about the need to inform the FBI about a foreign government attempting to influence an election.[209][210][211] Trump initially claimed his comments were mischaracterised, prompting ABC News to release a transcript.[211] On June 13, Federal Election Commission chairwoman Ellen Weintraub stated: "It is illegal for any person to solicit, accept, or receive anything of value from a foreign national in connection with a U.S. election."[212] On June 14, Trump told Fox News: "If I don't hear what it is, you're not going to know what is ... Now, if I thought anything was incorrect or badly stated, I'd report it to the Attorney General, the FBI."[211]

A joint report published in June 2019 by the Center for Public Integrity, NBC News and CNBC detailed that the 2016 and 2020 Trump campaigns have yet to pay bills totaling over $800,000 to 10 city governments for costs incurred to ensure public safety concerning Trump campaign rallies. The rallies took place from January 2016 to August 2016, and from September 2018 to February 2019.[213]

On June 18, 2019, Trump officially launched his re-election campaign at a rally at the Amway Center in Orlando, Florida.[214]

On June 21, 2019, writer E. Jean Carroll alleged via New York magazine that Trump raped her in a department store dressing room in 1995 or 1996. Two friends of Carroll confirmed to New York that Carroll had previously confided in them regarding the incident. Trump denied ever meeting Carroll, although New York had published a photo of Trump and Carroll together in 1987.[215][216][217]

On June 24, 2019, Trump and the GOP launched WinRed, a centralized small-dollar fundraising platform designed to compete with Democrats' ActBlue.[218][219]

July 2019

At a campaign rally on July 17 in North Carolina, Trump criticized four Democratic congresswomen (Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Ayanna Pressley, Ilhan Omar, and Rashida Tlaib), stating: "They never have anything good to say. That's why I say, 'Hey if you don't like it, let 'em leave' ... if they don't love it, tell them to leave it."[220][221] Trump said this in spite of his own history of criticizing previous United States administrations and policies, including his 2016 campaign slogan "Make America Great Again" indirectly asserting America was no longer "great", and his first presidential speech decrying "American carnage".[222][223] In his speech, Trump referenced Tlaib, when she called Trump a 'motherfucker', in which Trump stated: "that's not somebody that loves our country."[224] Trump also named Omar and continued that Omar "looks down with contempt" on Americans, the crowd of Trump supporters reacted by chanting 'send her back!'[225][226] After the rally, Trump tweeted: "What a crowd, and what great people". Asked about the chants on July 18, Trump said he disagreed with the chants, and claimed he had tried to stop them by "speaking very quickly".

August 2019

At an August 1 campaign rally in Cincinnati, Ohio, Trump declared: "We will be ending the AIDS epidemic shortly in America, and curing childhood cancer very shortly." This echoed his earlier comments during the June 2019 Orlando, Florida rally, when Trump pledged: "we will come up with the cures to many, many problems, to many, many diseases – including cancer".[227] Despite attacking four Democratic congresswomen as being too critical of America, Trump continued a recent trend of criticizing major American cities; at the rally, Trump singled out the cities of San Francisco, Los Angeles and Chicago. Trump said that Democrats governing liberal cities "deliver poverty for their constituents and privilege for themselves", with federal funding becoming "stolen money and it's wasted money". He also blamed protesters interrupting his rally on the premise that Cincinnati "must have a Democrat mayor". Trump accused Baltimore of having a higher homicide rate (55.8 of 100,000 people) than the country Afghanistan; which was true, but then the murder rate for American cities in 2017 (5.3 of 100,000 people) was barely lower than the Afghan homicide rate in 2012 (6 of 100,000 people). However, Trump did not propose any policies to solve the problems he says exists in these American cities.[228][229]

On August 7, following the 2019 Dayton shooting and the 2019 El Paso shooting, Trump visited Dayton, Ohio, and El Paso, Texas. That day, Trump fired back at Democratic presidential candidates Beto O'Rourke ("be quiet") and Joe Biden ("boring") who had previously criticized him.[230][231] Trump additionally labelled Democratic presidential candidate Julian Castro as a "fool" and "not much" of a man.[232] While talking to medical staff at El Paso, Trump mentioned that his February 2019 campaign rally in the city had drawn a much bigger crowd than O'Rourke's campaign rally that same day. A campaign-style video of Trump shaking hands and posing for photos during the visit was released by the White House.[233]

September 2019

On September 11, Trump tweeted that he has not "even started campaigning yet".[234]

As the Trump–Ukraine scandal emerged and Trump faced an impeachment inquiry, the Trump campaign launched a $10 million television and web campaign with a video claiming Joe Biden had offered Ukraine $1 billion if they fired a prosecutor who was "investigating his son's company", including video of Biden boasting that the prosecutor had been fired.[235] Hunter Biden served on the board of directors of Burisma Holdings, the owner of which was investigated, but Biden himself was not investigated. Then-vice president Biden had in March 2016 threatened to withhold $1 billion in loan guarantees if Ukraine did not fire the prosecutor, Viktor Shokin. The Obama administration and other governments and non-governmental organizations were concerned that Shokin was not adequately pursuing corruption in Ukraine, was protecting the political elite, and was regarded as "an obstacle to anti-corruption efforts." In particular, he was seen to be slow-walking the Burisma investigation.[236][237] The ad asserted that Trump had acted to fight corruption and Democrats were impeaching him for it. No evidence has surfaced of any malfeasance by the Bidens.[238]

Previously, in sworn testimony, the administration officials said Giuliani directly conveyed the president's demands to them that Ukraine launch investigations into the son of former Vice President Joe Biden and a long-debunked 2016 election-related conspiracy. However, Trump later denied sending Rudy Giuliani to Ukraine to push Biden.[239]

October–December 2019

As the impeachment investigation continued, the campaign spent copious amounts of money defending the president against it.[240][241]

Prior to December 12, three lawsuits claimed Trump's business dealings have been violating the Constitution. All these cases advanced to critical stages in federal courts.[242] On the night of December 18, coinciding with the vote to impeach him, Trump held a rally in Battle Creek, Michigan. He received criticism for suggesting the deceased representative John Dingell may have gone to hell.[243]

The Associated Press acquired a recording of senior Trump campaign advisor Justin Clark telling Wisconsin Republicans that "traditionally it's always been Republicans suppressing votes in places" and 2020 would be the time to "start playing offense a little bit" to protect their voters. Clark asserted to the AP that he was speaking about how "Republicans historically have been falsely accused of voter suppression."[244]

In October, the Trump campaign ran a Facebook ad that falsely claimed Joe Biden offered to bribe Ukrainian officials to not investigate his son, Hunter Biden.[245]

2020 campaign developments

January 2020

The impeachment trial began on January 16.[246]

  • January 9: First campaign rally of 2020 is held at the 8,000 seat Huntington Center in Toldeo, OH.[247]
  • January 14: Monster Rally in Green Bay, WI[248]
  • January 28: Monster Rally in Wildwood, NJ[249]
  • January 30: Monster Rally at Drake University's Knapp Center in Des Moines, IA[250]
  • January 31: The Kansas state convention begins, being the second official event of the Republican race.

February 2020

  • February 1: At the Kansas state convention, the entire selection process takes place, culminating with the official binding of the delegation to President Trump, giving him his second state.
  • February 2: The Iowa caucuses: the president gets 31,464 or 97.1% of the vote.[251]
  • February 10: Monster Rally at the SNHU Arena in Manchester, NH[252]
  • February 13: The New Hampshire primary the President gets 129,461. pr 85.7% of the votes cast.[253]
  • February 22: The Nevada state committee awards all its delegates to President Trump.[254]

March 2020

  • March 3: Super Tuesday. With over 60% of delegates selected by this date. The race for the nomination is formally over.
  • March 5: Facebook removes Trump campaign ads directing users to participate in an "Official 2020 Congressional District Census" on what was actually a campaign fundraising site.[255]

April 2020

  • April 23: The Trump campaign released a new app which offers rewards for sharing Trump's tweets.[256]
  • Late April: Trump scolded campaign manager Brad Parscale after data from two polls, one from the Trump's own campaign and one the Republican National Committee, showed Trump losing to Joe Biden in swing states, reported The Washington Post and CNN. At one point, Trump said he may sue Parscale, although it is unclear whether he was joking. Both Trump and Parscale denied that Trump had shouted. Parscale did not deny a conflict, and he did not deny Trump saying he may sue. Trump told the media he does not "believe the polls".[257][258]

May 2020

  • May 4: CNN sent a "cease and desist" letter to the Trump campaign regarding its ad, "American Comeback", which had begun running the previous evening on cable television.[259] The ad selected words from a CNN interview and inserted them into a different context, making it a clear example of "deceptive editing", The Washington Post explained.[260]

June 2020

  • June 8: After a CNN poll found Trump 14 percentage points behind Joe Biden, Trump on Twitter declared the poll "FAKE", saying he had "retained highly respected pollster, McLaughlin & Associates", to analyze that poll. The Republican Party's congressional campaign arm has advised Republicans to avoid employing McLaughlin & Associates after it predicted in 2014 that Republican Representative Eric Cantor would win re-election in a Republican primary by 34 points, but Cantor actually lost by around 10 points. Later in 2018, McLaughlin & Associates predicted that Republican Representative Rob Woodall would win re-election by 27 points, but Woodall ended up winning by only 0.2 points.[261]
  • June 9: The Trump campaign sent a cease-and-desist letter to CNN over their poll, demanding a retraction and apology. CNN refused.[262] During June, Trump also suggested he might sue campaign manager Brad Parscale for presenting polling data showing the president trailing in several key states. The New York Times describes this incident as a jest, rather than a serious threat, and participants in the call say Parscale responded to the threat by saying, "I love you, too."[263]
  • June 10: Amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, the Trump campaign said the president would resume his campaign rallies, the first being at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on June 19.[264] Ticketholders must "assume all risks related to exposure to COVID-19", and cannot hold the Trump campaign liable for resultant illness or injury.[265] The rally was later pushed back by one day to June 20, out of respect for the original date falling on Juneteenth (which was deemed insensitive due to the Tulsa race massacre and killing of George Floyd).[266]
  • June 12: The RNC decided not to write a new platform for 2020, reusing 2016's, which denounces the "current president".[267]
  • June 15: In a tweet, campaign manager Brad Parscale indicated that ticket requests for the June 20 rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, had surpassed a million.[268][269]
  • June 20: Trump held his first campaign rally in months at the BOK Center in Tulsa. The seating capacity of the arena is 19,199[270] and in the days leading up to the event, Parscale said more than 800,000 people had registered for the rally.[271] Attendance at the rally was just under 6,200, according to the Tulsa Fire Department.[272] The numbers projected by the campaign were way off due to TikTok users and K-pop fans reserving tickets and not showing up.[273][274] Trump spent 14 minutes (around 1/8th of the length of his speech) talking about walking slowly down a ramp.[275][276]
  • June 23: President Trump holds rallies in Phoenix and Yuma, Arizona.[277][278]

July 2020

As the COVID-19 pandemic and George Floyd protests continued into July, public polling showed Trump's approval significantly weakening, causing him to fall behind Joe Biden in key battleground states as well as states that historically vote Republican, such as Georgia, Texas and Kansas.[279][280][281] On July 4, Politico reported that Trump was "trailing [Biden] by double digits in recent polls".[282]

Celebrating Independence Day with an address at Mount Rushmore, Trump said he was in a battle against a "new far-left fascism." The New York Times characterized Trump as using the address "to mount a full-on culture war against a straw-man version of the left that he portrayed as inciting mayhem and moving the country toward totalitarianism." The Washington Post reported that while "amplifying racism and stoking culture wars have been mainstays of Trump's public identity for decades, they have been particularly pronounced this summer as the president has reacted to the national reckoning over systemic discrimination by seeking to weaponize the anger and resentment of some white Americans for his own political gain."[283][284]

On the evening of July 4, musician and entrepreneur Kanye West announced his campaign for the presidency. Los Angeles Times reported that "It's unclear whether West has filed any of the necessary paperwork to formally join the race between incumbent Donald Trump – for whom West has expressed admiration", and said this "might be part of an effort to draw Black supporters away from Biden to help Trump."[285]

Vice President Pence and White House Press Secretary Kayleigh McEnany claimed that Joe Biden had asserted police had "become the enemy". Biden's words were taken out of context, as he had actually said the use of military-grade heavy equipment by police officers can look like "the military invading" communities and thus makes police "become the enemy" in the perception of some in the community.[286] According to Media Matters, Trump surrogate Sean Hannity also misrepresented Biden's words to his radio and television audiences at least 17 times in July.[287]

On July 10, the Trump campaign postponed a rally planned for the next day in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, with Tim Murtaugh, the campaign's communications director citing "safety reasons because of Tropical Storm Fay".[288] On July 15, Trump announced that he had promoted former deputy campaign manager Bill Stepien to campaign manager, replacing Brad Parscale.[289][290]

On July 19, in an interview aired on Fox News, Trump called the network's poll showing Biden leading by 8% "fake", further saying he would "have to see" if he would accept a loss in the election, citing postal voting as a way it would be rigged against him.[291] According to CNN, "There is no credible evidence that mail-in voting is rife with corruption,"[292] and "the concerted push by Trump to delegitimize mail-in ballots is raising alarm bells among Republican operatives, who are worried the President's demand for in-person voting will mainly serve to dampen turnout among his own supporters."[293][b]

During the first half of July, the campaign ran a television ad more than a thousand times targeted at women in Ohio, falsely asserting that Joe Biden proposes to "defund the police", which would increase home invasions and rapes, concluding that "You won't be safe in Joe Biden's America." Trump won Ohio by eight points in 2016 but polls showed he was in a statistical tie with Biden in July.[296] Across numerous other states, Trump ran another ad falsely accusing Biden of proposing to defund the police, with a simulated 911 call response:

You have reached the 9-1-1 police emergency line. Due to the defunding of the police department, we're sorry but no one is here to take your call. If you are calling to report a rape, please press one. To report a murder, press two. To report a home invasion, press three. For all other crimes, leave your name and number and someone will get back to you. Our estimated wait time is currently for five days. Goodbye.[297]

In June and July, the campaign spent over $2 million on Facebook ads. One claims (with 308 variations) that "Dangerous MOBS of far-left groups are running through our streets and causing absolute mayhem. They are DESTROYING our cities and rioting."[298] In July, television ads were aired intending to portray the violent turmoil of a future Biden presidency—utilizing images of turmoil occurring during Trump's presidency.[299][298]

In mid-July, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Institute formally asked the Trump campaign and Republican National Committee to stop using Reagan's name and likeness for fundraising. The request came after a campaign email solicitation offered commemorative coins with images of Trump and Reagan.[300]

On July 23, Trump announced the cancellation of the Jacksonville portion of the 2020 Republican National Convention, citing rising COVID-19 numbers.[301] On July 30, he publicly suggested delaying the election due to COVID-19, despite the authority to make such a change lying with Congress.[302] Some of the most prominent leaders of the Republican Party rejected that such a prospect would be considered.[303] Later the same day, Trump walked back his comments, while repeating his condemnation of postal voting.[292][b] Responding to the comments and the president's handling of the pandemic, Timothy Egan writes in a New York Times opinion piece that Trump "should do humanity a favor and surrender now," saying this could "save many lives of supporters who have listened to the lethal quackery from the presidential podium."[304] According to multiple high-ranking Republicans, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has signaled to Republican Senate candidates that they may distance themselves from Trump if they feel it will help them salvage their own campaigns.[305]

At the end of July, the Trump campaign temporarily halted television advertising to reassess its messaging strategy. A campaign official attributed the pause to the recent change in campaign leadership, stating, "We'll be back on the air shortly, even more forcefully exposing Joe Biden as a puppet of the radical left-wing." The campaign had $146.6 million budgeted for television and radio ads from Labor Day until November.[306] Television advertising was expected to resume on August 3, with a focus on states that will vote the earliest.[307]


While Donald Trump donated and loaned funds to his previous campaign during the Republican primaries, thus far he has not donated any of his own money to his reelection campaign. Instead, his reelection campaign has solely solicited donations.[308]

Trump began fundraising for his reelection campaign immediately upon being inaugurated, years earlier into his presidency than his predecessors had.[155]

Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. quarterly financial summaries
Quarter Cash on hand
at beginning
Receipts Disbursements Cash on hand
at end
Debts owed
to campaign
Debts owed
by campaign
2017 Q1[309] 7,611,702.92 7,120,150.93 6,370,250.57 8,361,603.28 0.00 0.00
2017 Q2[310] 8,361,603.28 7,954,888.84 4,369,374.54 11,947,117.58 0.00 0.00
2017 Q3[311] 11,947,117.58 10,129,336.13 4,071,599.06 18,004,854.65 0.00 0.00
2017 Q4[312] 18,004,854.65 6,895,755.62 2,791,451.84 22,109,158.43 0.00 0.00
2018 Q1[313] 22,109,158.43 10,106,775.80 3,876,088.55 28,339,845.68 0.00 0.00
2018 Q2[314] 28,339,845.68 8,368,358.11 3,621,333.93 33,086,869.86 0.00 0.00
2018 Q3[315] 33,086,869.86 10,026,045.24 7,705,411.15 35,407,503.95 0.00 0.00
2018 Q4[316] 35,407,503.95 6,946,974.43 23,061,577.18 19,292,901.20 0.00 1,035,597.65
Total 2017–2018[317] 7,611,702.92 67,548,285.10 55,867,086.82 19,292,901.20 0.00 1,035,597.65
2019 Q1[318] 19,292,901.20 30,304,180.03 8,834,888.53 40,762,192.70 0.00 528,116.26
2019 Q2[319] 40,762,192.70 26,516,845.63 10,541,672.69 56,737,365.64 0.00 294,070.29
2019 Q3[320] 56,737,365.64 40,958,012.84 14,479,108.22 83,216,270.26 0.00 216,915.00
2019 Q4[321] 83,216,270.26 45,980,113.53 26,410,679.60 102,785,704.19 0.00 170,377.55
2020 Q1[322][323][324] 102,785,704.19 34,258,184.38 38,573,302.28 98,470,586.29 0.00 234,670.08
Grand total 7,611,702.92 245,565,621.50 154,706,738.14 98,470,586.29 0.00 234,670.08

Funding pace

Logo of the Trump Make America Great Again Committee

At the end of the first quarter of 2017, the campaign's three committees ("Donald J. Trump for President", "Trump Victory", and "Trump Make America Great Again Committee") reported raising a combined $13.2 million, the majority of which had come from small donors.[75]

Trump's campaign and the Republican National Committee ultimately raised a combined $55 million in the first quarter. According to the National Review's Kelly Jane Torrance, Barack Obama and the Democratic National Committee had raised roughly $16 million in the same period of Obama's first term.[11]

On March 17, 2017, the campaign saw what was its highest single-day contribution total, with the campaign and its joint-fundraising-committee raising a combined total of $314,000.[325][326] By the end of May the RNC had raised more than $62 million in 2017. The RNC had already received more online donations than they had in the entire year of 2016.[138]

On April 14, 2019, the campaign announced that it had raised $30 million in the first quarter of 2019, far outpacing the campaigns of his individual Democratic opponents in the same period. Average donations were $34.26, and nearly 99 percent of donations to the campaign were $200 or less. In addition, the Republican National Committee brought in $45.8 million in first-quarter 2019.[327]

Notable expenditures and allegations of grifting

In April 2017, The Wall Street Journal determined that the Trump campaign had reported spending nearly $500,000 in payments to companies owned by Trump, amounting to more than 6% of the $6.3 million that the campaign reported spending.[328] Additionally, the campaign spent more than $4 million on memorabilia (such as hats).[11]

In the third quarter of 2017, the Trump campaign spent $4.1 million (27% of its expenditures) on legal fees, including the personal legal expenses of Trump and his family.[329][330] By this point, 10% of the campaign's overall spending since the beginning of the year had been on legal fees.[330]

As of March 2019, Trump's campaign had spent almost twice as much on Facebook and Google ads as the entire Democratic field combined.[331]

In its first two years since it was launched in January 2017, the Trump 2020 campaign paid more than $890,000 in rent for space in Trump Tower,[332][333] and the Republican National Committee paid $225,000.[333] As of July 2020, the campaign's committees directed more than $17.4 million of campaign donor money to Trump properties while the Republican National Committee paid $2.6 million.[334][335]

Between January 2017 and March 2020, Trump's reelection committees paid $38.9 million to companies owned by Trump 2020 campaign manager Brad Parscale. In the analysis of Democratic political consultant James Carville, "They're all just fleecing the campaign ... Everybody is trying to take everything they can get on the way out."[336] Former GOP strategist Rick Wilson, noting that Parscale bought a Ferrari, a Land Rover, a waterfront house and a yacht, said the campaign's leaders "are taking Donald Trump to the cleaners."[337]

In April 2020, it was revealed that Brad Parscale was paying $180,000 per year to Kimberly Guilfoyle, the girlfriend of Donald Trump Jr., and another $180,000 per year to Lara Trump, wife of Eric Trump. Parscale was paying them through his company, not through the campaign or the party. "I can pay them however I want to pay them," Parscale told reporters. Two anonymous Republicans in the White House suggested that the payments were deliberately made this way so the campaign didn't have to report them. Paul Ryan, an expert on campaign finance with the watchdog group Common Cause, said, "It's donor money." Stuart Stevens, a top aide in Mitt Romney's 2012 presidential campaign, accused Parscale of being "a money launderer".[338]

Groups supporting Trump

The Republican Party

On January 23, 2019, the Republican National Committee, in a unanimous vote, informally endorsed the president.[194][195]

Super PACs

Super PACs supporting Trump's reelection campaign include Committee to Defend the President,[8] Great America PAC,[8] and Great America Committee.[339][340]

The Great America PAC received donations from, among others, former racer Walker Evans[341] and Insperity executive Jay Mincks.[342]

The Committee to Defend the President super PAC received contributions from, among others, Enterprise Products executive Ralph S. Cunningham.[343]

The Center for Public Integrity published an analysis of 2017 first-quarter federal campaign spending records which revealed that two Super PACs supporting Trump, Great America PAC and Committee to Defend the President, had spent a combined $1.32 million on the 2020 election campaign.[8] Ted Harvey serves as the chairman of the Committee to Defend the President. Eric Beach and Ed Rollins serve as co-chairmen of Great America PAC.[8] Both PACs have previously been accused by the FEC of poorly maintaining financial records, and had been threatened with penalties.[8] The Center for Public Integrity also found that several other pro-Trump PACs had already been founded in 2017, but most of them had yet to be very active. One such PAC was America First Action, which was founded by the CEO of a political consulting firm for which Trump's 2020 campaign treasurer is the senior vice president.[8]

On May 17, 2017, Mike Pence filed FEC paperwork to form Great America Committee, a PAC that would be headed by his former campaign staffers Nick Ayers and Marty Obst.[339][340] This is the first time in U.S. history a sitting vice president has founded such a political organization.[339]

On August 7, Marc Lotter, a spokesperson for Mike Pence, confirmed to MSNBC's Hallie Jackson that the vice president had hosted Republican donors, including mega-donors Charles and David Koch, at Number One Observatory Circle.[150]

At the end of the third quarter, the FEC calculated that in 2017 super PACS and other outside groups supporting Trump had spent more than $2 million.[344]

Amount spent by outside groups in support of campaign

Table displays the amount that groups have reported to the FEC they have spent in support of Trump's candidacy (As of June 2020)[345]

Group Amount
The Committee to Defend the President 10,238,007.24
Great America PAC 9,040,257.11
Other 4,250,388.10
Total 23,528,652.45

Other groups

In late January 2017, several members of Trump's 2016 campaign staff formed America First Policies, a pro-Trump political nonprofit. Those involved included former deputy campaign chairs Rick Gates and David Bossie. Brad Parscale[346] and Katrina Pierson were also involved. Additionally involved were Nick Ayers and Marty Obst, both of whom served as advisors to Mike Pence during the 2016 campaign.[347] Trump's former White House deputy chief of staff Katie Walsh has also joined the organization.[102] Near the end of May, members of the organization (including Walsh) participated in meetings at the RNC's D.C. offices with members Trump's family to discuss campaign strategy.[102][103][104]

In 2017, Matt Braynard, a key member of Trump's 2016 campaign staff, established the organization Look Ahead America.[348] The organization has taken steps to target inactive voters in places such as New Hampshire.[348] Trump came close to winning New Hampshire in the 2016 election.[348] Look Ahead America has claimed that it will not be coordinating their efforts with the president.[348]

In August 2018, a group called the 45 Alliance was formed. All three of the group's officers had served on Trump's transition team, and two of them also served in Trump's White House. During the calendar year in which the 45 Alliance was formed, it was entirely funded by Trump for America, a nonprofit that supported Trump's transition ($150,000); by America First Policies ($150,000); and by the Republican National Committee ($75,000). Neil Corkery is in charge of the 45 Alliance's finances. "He has ties to several high-profile dark money operations," Walker Davis wrote, "like the Wellspring Committee and Judicial Crisis Network. In 2018, an anonymous million-dollar contribution to President Trump's inauguration was linked to him."[349]


2020 campaign rallies
Date of rally City State Venue Estimated attendance Source
Monday, February 11, 2019 El Paso TX El Paso County Coliseum 6,000 [350]
Thursday, March 28, 2019 Grand Rapids MI Van Andel Arena 14,000 [351]
Saturday, April 27, 2019 Green Bay WI Resch Center 10,000 [352]
Wednesday, May 8, 2019 Panama City Beach FL Aaron Bessant Park Amphitheater 7,500 [353]
Monday, May 20, 2019 Montoursville PA Williamsport Regional Airport 15,000 [354]
Tuesday, June 18, 2019 Orlando FL Amway Center 20,000 [355]
Wednesday, July 17, 2019 Greenville NC Williams Arena 8,000 [356]
Thursday, August 1, 2019 Cincinnati OH U.S. Bank Arena 17,500 [357]
Thursday, August 15, 2019 Manchester NH SNHU Arena 11,000 [358]
Monday, September 9, 2019 Fayetteville NC Crown Expo Center 5,500 [359]
Monday, September 16, 2019 Rio Rancho NM Santa Ana Star Center 8,000 [360]
Thursday, October 10, 2019 Minneapolis MN Target Center 20,000 [361]
Thursday, October 17, 2019 Dallas TX American Airlines Center 21,000


Tuesday, November 26, 2019 Sunrise FL BB&T Center (Sunrise, Florida) 20,000 [363]
Tuesday, December 10, 2019 Hershey PA Giant Center 12,000 [364]
Wednesday, December 18, 2019 Battle Creek MI Kellogg Arena 5,400 [365]
Thursday, January 9, 2020 Toledo OH Huntington Center 8,000 [366]
Tuesday, January 14, 2020 Milwaukee WI UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena 12,000 [367]
Tuesday, January 28, 2020 Wildwood NJ Wildwoods Convention Center 7,500 [368]
Thursday, January 30, 2020 Des Moines IA Knapp Center 7,600 [369]
Monday, February 10, 2020 Manchester NH SNHU Arena 12,000 [370]
Wednesday, February 19, 2020 Phoenix AZ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum 14,000 [371]
Thursday, February 20, 2020 Colorado Springs CO Broadmoor World Arena 8,500 [372]
Friday, February 21, 2020 Las Vegas NV Las Vegas Convention Center 15,000 [373]
Friday, February 28, 2020 North Charleston SC North Charleston Coliseum 13,000 [374]
Monday, March 2, 2020 Charlotte NC Bojangles' Coliseum 10,000 [375]
Saturday, June 20, 2020 Tulsa OK BOK Center 6,200 [376]
Tuesday, June 23, 2020 Phoenix AZ Dream City Church 3,000 [377]


The Trump campaign uses "geofencing." This technology detects when a smartphone is within a narrow geographic area like a church or a sports stadium, and it captures identifying information from that device. This allows political marketers to gather names, addresses, and voter registration status of the people who were present at the event and who presumably share some ideological, religious, or other demographic affinities. In January 2020, the New York Times reported that "the Trump campaign is far ahead of the Democratic Party in the use of this technology."[378]


Speaking in April 2020, Noam Chomsky said Trump's re-election would be a disaster. According to Chomsky, the Trump policies have been extremely destructive to not only America but to the entire world, and he fears that, given four more years, those policies will probably accelerate: "What this is going to mean for health is bad enough [but] it will get worse. What this means for the environment or the threat of nuclear war, which no one is talking about but is extremely serious, is indescribable."[379]

Political positions

See also


  1. ^ Informally announced on February 17, 2017
  2. ^ a b On August 3, 2020, Trump said he had the right to issue an executive order concerning mail-in voting. He elaborated, "We haven't got there yet, but we'll see what happens."[294] On August 4, he tweeted:

    Whether you call it Vote by Mail or Absentee Voting, in Florida the election system is Safe and Secure, Tried and True. Florida's Voting system has been cleaned up ... so in Florida I encourage all to request a Ballot & Vote by Mail![295]


  1. ^ a b c d Scott, Eugene (April 17, 2017). "Trump campaign raking in money for 2020, disclosures show". CNN. Retrieved April 27, 2017. Trump's campaign committee has spent about $6.3 million during the first quarter of 2017. That includes giving more than $70,000 to the campaign committee's manager, Michael Glassner, who was Trump's deputy campaign manager, and more than $40,000 to John Pence, Vince [sic] President Mike Pence's nephew, who serves as the committee's deputy director.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Bender, Michael C. (February 19, 2019). "Trump adds senior campaign staff for 2020 race as risk of a GOP primary challenger rises". MarketWatch. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  3. ^ "Lara Trump becomes face of Donald Trump's 2020 re-election campaign". The Daily Telegraph. London. October 19, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  4. ^ "Don Jr.'s Girlfriend Kimberly Guilfoyle Lands Top Trump Campaign Role". The Daily Beast.
  5. ^ "Trump campaign hires Katrina Pierson". The Hill.
  6. ^ "Bill Shine resigns from the White House to advise Trump's 2020 campaign". CNBC.
  7. ^ "Trump body man Johnny McEntee leaving White House for campaign". POLITICO.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Levinthal, Dave (May 5, 2017). "Pro-Trump super PACs have already spent $1 million on Election 2020". The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
  9. ^ "TRUMP, DONALD J – Candidate overview –".
  10. ^ a b Tumulty, Karen (January 18, 2017). "How Donald Trump came up with 'Make America Great Again'". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  11. ^ a b c "'Keep America Great': Trump Reelection Effort Raised $13M So Far, Report Says". Fox News. April 15, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
  12. ^ Benen, Steve (March 21, 2017). "Trump picks the wrong slogan: 'Promises made, Promises kept'". MSNBC. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  13. ^ a b "Trump Reveals 2020 Re-Election Slogan: 'Keep America Great!'". FOX News Insider. Fox News. January 18, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  14. ^ a b "FEC Form 99/Form 2" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. January 20, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  15. ^ a b c Gold, Matea. "President Trump tells the FEC he qualifies as a candidate for 2020". The Washington Post. pp. January 20, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  16. ^ Groppe, Maureen (November 7, 2018). "President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence renew their political vows in advance of 2020". USAToday. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  17. ^ "Trump Officially Kicks Off 2020 Campaign at Orlando Rally". Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  18. ^ Colvin, Jill; Lemire, Jonathan; Schneider, Michael. "Trump rehashes gripes, rips 'radical' Dems in 2020 launch". APNews. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  19. ^ Vogel, Kenneth P. (January 31, 2017). "Trump raised $11 million in December". Politico. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d Isenstadt, Alex (January 10, 2017). "Trump laying the groundwork for 2020 reelection bid". Politico. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  21. ^ Bump, Philip (May 1, 2017). "Donald Trump started spending money on the 2020 race on Nov. 24". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Details for Candidate ID : P80001571". Federal Election Commission.
  23. ^ a b c Herbert, Geoff (May 1, 2017). "President Trump launches first campaign ad for 2020 election – 1282 days away". Advance Digital. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  24. ^ a b c Morehouse, Lee (January 31, 2017). "Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day". Meredith Corporation. Archived from the original on January 30, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
  25. ^ a b Diamond, Jeremy; Zeleny, Jeff (April 28, 2017). "Trump rallies: Campaign-funded, for a reason". CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
  26. ^ "Trump Returns to Campaign-Style Events to Shore Up Support After Setbacks". Newsweek. Reuters. February 17, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  27. ^ Santhanam, Laura (August 3, 2017). "Watch: Trump blasts Democrats, Russia investigations at campaign rally in Huntington, West Virginia". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  28. ^ a b c d Graham, David A. "Trump Kicks Off His 2020 Reelection Campaign on Saturday". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
  29. ^ a b "A Look At How Trump Is Already Campaigning For 2020". All Things Considered. August 23, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
  30. ^ Schmuhl, Robert (September 24, 2012). "The Last Time America Had So Many Two-Term Presidents was the 1820s". Columbian College of Arts and Sciences (George Washington University). Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  31. ^ Sharockman, Aaron (April 10, 2014). "How rare is it that we had three presidents re-elected consecutively? Very rare". Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  32. ^ a b c d e Corrado, Anthony; Tenpas, Kathryn Dunn (March 30, 2004). "Permanent Campaign Brushes Aside Tradition". Brookings Institution. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  33. ^ a b c d "The Rise of the President's Permanent Campaign". University of Kansas. n.d. Retrieved July 11, 2017. Brendan Doherty provides empirical evidence of the growing focus by American presidents on electoral concerns throughout their terms in office, clearly demonstrating that we can no longer assume that the time a president spends campaigning for reelection can be separated from the time he spends governing. To track the evolving relationship between campaigning and governing, Doherty examines the strategic choices that presidents make and what those choices reveal about presidential priorities. He focuses on the rise in presidential fundraising and the targeting of key electoral states throughout a president's term in office – illustrating that recent presidents have disproportionately visited those states that are important to their political prospects while largely neglecting those without electoral payoff. He also shows how decisions about electoral matters previously made by party officials are now made by voter-conscious operatives within the White House.
  34. ^ Jeff Horwitz (June 15, 2018). "AP: Trump 2020 working with ex-Cambridge Analytica staffers". Associated Press. Retrieved June 18, 2018 – via
  35. ^ Teri Robinson (June 18, 2018). "Data Propria, heir to Cambridge Analytica, working for RNC, possibly Trump campaign". Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  36. ^ Adi Robertson (June 15, 2018). "Trump's 2020 campaign is reportedly using former Cambridge Analytica employees to target voters". Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  37. ^ "Today's Headlines from The Washington Post". Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  38. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (January 21, 2020). "Trump Third Year Sets New Standard for Party Polarization". Gallup. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
  39. ^ "Trump Is The Most Unpopular President Since Ford To Run For Reelection". FiveThirtyEight. January 7, 2020. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
  40. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (May 29, 2020). "Presidential Job Approval Related to Reelection Historically". Gallup. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  41. ^ Jeffrey M. Jones (March 24, 2020). "President Trump's Job Approval Rating Up to 49%". Gallup. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  42. ^ Blanton, Dana (April 9, 2020). "Fox News Poll: Trump job approval hits new high as voters rally during crisis". Fox News. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  43. ^ Alana Wise (April 10, 2020). "Trump's Approval Rating Slumps Amid Coronavirus Fallout". NPR. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  44. ^ Justin McCarthy (April 16, 2020). "Trump's Job Rating Slides; U.S. Satisfaction Tumbles". Gallup. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  45. ^ Santhanam, Laura (June 26, 2020). "More Americans disapprove of Trump now than at any other time in his presidency". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  46. ^ Yeip, Randy (July 26, 2020). "What Polling Can Tell Us 100 Days From the Election". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  47. ^ Blanton, Dana (July 19, 2020). "Fox News Poll: Biden holds lead over Trump as coronavirus concerns grip nation". Fox News. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  48. ^ "Biden Widens Lead Over Trump To 15 Points In Presidential Race, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Trump Job Approval Rating Drops To 36 Percent". Quinnipiac University. July 15, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  49. ^ "An Evaluation of 2016 Election Polls in the U.S." American Association for Public Opinion Research. May 4, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  50. ^ Megan Brenan (March 3, 2020). "Trump Job Approval Rating at 47%". Gallup. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  51. ^ "Donald Trump is already looking to 2020". Boston Globe. Associated Press. January 13, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  52. ^ "Trump already has socked away more than $7 million for his 2020 reelection". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
  53. ^ Superville, Darlene; Riechmann, Deb (February 18, 2017). "Outside of Washington, Trump slips back into campaign mode". Fox News. West Palm Beach, Florida. Associated Press. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  54. ^ Miller, Zeke J. (February 19, 2017). "Trump Is Already Campaigning For Reelection in 2020". 'Fortune. Time Inc. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  55. ^ "A newspaper has documented 'everything that happened in Sweden last night'". The Independent. February 20, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  56. ^ Topping, Alexandra. "'Sweden, who would believe this?': Trump cites non-existent terror attack". The Guardian. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
  57. ^ "Facts about migration and crime in Sweden". Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  58. ^ Donald Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (February 19, 2017). "My statement as to what's happening in Sweden was in reference to a story that was broadcast on @FoxNews concerning immigrants & Sweden" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  59. ^ Chan, Sewell (February 19, 2017). "'Last Night in Sweden'? Trump's Remark Baffles a Nation". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  60. ^ Guardian Wires (February 24, 2017). "Donald Trump addresses CPAC 2017". Retrieved August 23, 2017 – via YouTube.
  61. ^ "CPAC 2015 Straw Poll: Rand Paul wins again – but Scott Walker is surging". The Washington Times. February 28, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  62. ^ "CPAC 2017 Straw Poll Results". American Conservative Union and The Washington Times. February 25, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  63. ^ Stanglin, Doug; Alexander, Bryan (March 4, 2017). "Thousands of supporters 'March 4 Trump' at rallies across USA". USA Today. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  64. ^ Bailey, Chelsea; McCausland, Phil (March 4, 2016). "Trump supporters across the nation gather for 'March 4 Trump'". NBC News. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  65. ^ Wang, Amy B (March 5, 2017). "Pro-Trump rally in Berkeley turns violent as protesters clash with the president's supporters". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  66. ^ Campuzano, Eder (March 4, 2017). "March 4 Trump meets resistance during Lake Oswego rally". The Oregonian. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  67. ^ Carcamo, Cindy; Elmahre, Adam; Brazil, Ben (March 26, 2017). "Violence erupts at pro-Trump rally in Huntington Beach". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  68. ^ Beckwith, Ryan Teague (March 13, 2017). "President Trump Will Lay a Wreath at Andrew Jackson's Grave". Time Magazine. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  69. ^ Meyer, Myer; Ebert, Joel (March 15, 2017). "Trump tours The Hermitage, lays wreath on Andrew Jackson's tomb". The Tennessean. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  70. ^ Schuessler, Jennifer (March 15, 2017). "A History of Presidents, Mostly Democrats, Paying Homage to Jackson". The New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
  71. ^ Graham, Chris (March 16, 2017). "Why is Donald Trump paying homage to Andrew Jackson and what are the comparisons?". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  72. ^ "Replay: President Trump speaks at rally in Nashville". The Tennessean. March 15, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  73. ^ Thomas, Ken; Bykowicz, Julie (March 20, 2017). "Trump takes push for Obamacare repeal to Louisville rally". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  74. ^ Bykowicz, Julie (March 29, 2017). "Lara Trump Hired by Trump Campaign's Digital Vendor". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  75. ^ a b Vogel, Kenneth P. (April 15, 2017). "Trump's reelection campaign raised $13.2 million in first quarter". Politico. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  76. ^ Terkel, Amanda (April 28, 2017). "Trump Warns 'Pocahontas' May Run For President In 2020". HuffPost. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  77. ^ Gregg, Christina (April 28, 2017). "Trump suggests potential 2020 election battle against 'Pocahontas' Elizabeth Warren". AOL. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  78. ^ Malawskey, Nick (April 26, 2017). "As President Trump heads to Harrisburg, anti-Trump rally planned". Advance Digital. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  79. ^ a b Jagannathan, Meera (April 23, 2017). "President Trump to hold rally same night as White House Correspondents' Dinner in Harrisburg, which he once called a 'war zone'". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
  80. ^ "Trump avoiding White House Correspondents' Dinner". Tribune Content Agency, LLC. April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  81. ^ "Trump's campaign up with $1.5 million ad buy to tout early presidency". Politico. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  82. ^ a b c d Tilett, Emily (March 1, 2017). "Trump Campaign launches latest attack on media in $1.5 billion ad buy". CBS News. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  83. ^ a b Benen, Steve (May 2, 2017). "Team Trump flubs the first ad of the 2020 election cycle". MSNBC. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  84. ^ a b c DePaolo, Joe (May 1, 2017). "'America is Winning': Donald Trump Launches 2020 Campaign Ad on His 102nd Day in Office". Mediaite. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  85. ^ a b Zorn, Eric (May 5, 2017). "No rest for the campaign weary: Trump 2020 ads begin". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  86. ^ Robertson, Lori (May 2, 2017). "Trump's TV Campaign Ad". Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  87. ^ a b Sheth, Sonam (May 1, 2017). "Trump reelection campaign pulls first 100 days ad amid concerns it may have violated federal law". Business Insider. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
  88. ^ a b Joyella, Mark (May 1, 2017). "Trump Releases Campaign Ad, And Yes, He's Running Against The News Media". Forbes. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  89. ^ Agard, Chancellor (May 2, 2017). "CNN refuses to air 'false' Trump campaign ad". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  90. ^ "Trump campaign says CNN refuses to run ad touting success". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Associated Press. May 2, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  91. ^ Gold, Hadas (May 2, 2017). "CNN: We didn't run Trump ad because of 'fake news' graphic". Politico. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  92. ^ a b Romano, Nick (May 6, 2017). "Trump's reelection team says ABC, NBC, CBS blocked 'Fake News' ad". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  93. ^ Trump, Lara (May 5, 2017). "All Mainstream TV Networks Block Paid Campaign Ad Setting a Chilling Precedent Against Free Speech". Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  94. ^ Salaky, Kristin (May 8, 2017). "All Statements Scrubbed From Trump Campaign Site – Including Travel Ban". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  95. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (May 8, 2017). "Trump call for Muslim ban deleted from site after reporter's question". The Hill. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  96. ^ Marcin, Tim (May 9, 2017). "The White House is Trying to Make Trump's Muslim Ban Disappear". Vanity Fair. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  97. ^ Miller, S.A. (May 9, 2017). "Trump campaign launches new website in re-election bid". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  98. ^ May, Charlie (May 10, 2017). "Donald Trump launches a new website to gear up for 2020 re-election campaign". Salon. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  99. ^ Fredericks, Bob (May 9, 2017). "Trump launches new site for re-election campaign". New York Post. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  100. ^ Marcin, Tim (May 9, 2017). "Donald Trump's New Website Features Military Personnel, Tweets, Merchandise". Newsweek. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  101. ^ Goodin, Emily (June 30, 2017). "White House Courting Key States Ahead of Election Season". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
  102. ^ a b c Costa, Robert (May 27, 2017). "Trump family members met with GOP leaders to discuss strategy". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  103. ^ a b Benen, Steve (May 30, 2017). "Trump's family takes new steps to blur ethical boundaries". MSNBC. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  104. ^ a b Reyner, Solange (May 27, 2017). "Trump Family Members Meet With RNC Leaders to Discuss Strategy". Newsmax. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  105. ^ a b c d Benen, Steve (June 5, 2017). "Trump campaign's 'Pittsburgh, not Paris' rally draws 'dozens'". MSNBC. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  106. ^ a b Juliano, Nick (June 2, 2017). "Trump campaign plans 'Pittsburgh, not Paris' rally to cheer climate deal exit". Politico. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  107. ^ Chait, Johnathan (June 3, 2017). "Trump Chooses Most Ironic Location in the Entire World for Anti-France Rally". New York. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
  108. ^ a b Vitali, Ali (June 2, 2017). "Trump Campaign Touts 'Pittsburgh Not Paris' Rally". NBC News. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  109. ^ a b c d Subbaraman, Nidhi (June 3, 2017). "Trump Supporters And Some Climate Change Deniers Rallied To Thank Him For Leaving The Paris Agreement". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  110. ^ a b Sheth, Sonam (June 3, 2017). "The White House hyped up a 'Pittsburgh, not Paris' rally – and Trump skipped it to go to his golf club". Business Insider. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  111. ^ a b Connley, Courtney (June 3, 2017). "Trump supporters rally outside White House for 'Pittsburgh Not Paris' event". ABC News. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  112. ^ Colarossi, Sean (June 3, 2017). "Trump's 'Pittsburgh, Not Paris' Rally A Massive Flop Compared To Nationwide 'March For Truth'". Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  113. ^ "The Odds Of An Electoral College-Popular Vote Split Are Increasing". FiveT hirtyEight. November 1, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2017.[permanent dead link]
  114. ^ McDermott, Monika (January 5, 2012). "Iowa's bad track record for picking GOP winners". CBS News. Retrieved June 9, 2017. For a few months every four years the state of Iowa becomes a focal point for the nation as it holds its first-in-the-nation presidential nominating contest – the Iowa caucuses.
  115. ^ Richardson, Bradford (August 17, 2015). "Iowa State Fair attendees pick Sanders over Clinton". The Hill. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  116. ^ Edelman, Adam (June 7, 2017). "Trump touts $1 trillion infrastructure plan during Ohio speech". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 13, 2017. telling a crowd of Cincinnati supporters that the U.S. "deserves the best infrastructure in the world". Trump's campaign-style speech, at the Rivertowne Marina
  117. ^ Bedard, Paul (June 12, 2017). "It's on: Trump to hit 2020 battleground states to pitch infrastructure, jobs". Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  118. ^ a b "Cedar Rapids Trump rally postponed". The Gazette (Cedar Rapids). May 27, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  119. ^ a b Morin, Rebecca (May 15, 2017). "Trump cancels Iowa rally". Politico. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  120. ^ a b c d Wagner, John; Parker, Ashley (June 20, 2017). "'He loves rallies': Trump Looks Beyond Washington for Support". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  121. ^ Diamond, Jeremy (June 21, 2017). "Trump set for victory lap at Iowa rally". CNN. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
  122. ^ a b c d Liptak, Kevin (June 28, 2017). "President homebody: Trump stays close to the White House". CNN. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  123. ^ Glueck, Katie (July 7, 2017). "How not to primary Donald Trump". McClatchy. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  124. ^ Albert, Tim (June 22, 2017). "Iowa GOP Chairman Rips 'Arrogant Academic' Ben Sasse". Politico. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  125. ^ Petroski, William (July 8, 2017). "Reynolds: Yes, Senator Sasse, you're welcome in Iowa". Des Moines Register. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  126. ^ a b Boshart, Rod (May 11, 2017). "Vice President Mike Pence coming to Iowa". The Gazette. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  127. ^ Chaitlen, Daniel (June 3, 2017). "Mike Pence and Sen. Joni Ernst arrive at Iowa event riding motorcycles". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  128. ^ a b Isenstadt, Alex (May 31, 2017). "Trump to hold reelection fundraiser in June". Politico. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  129. ^ a b "Invitation". Politico. n.d. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  130. ^ a b c Sinclair, Harriet (June 21, 2017). "Trump's 2020 Re-Election Campaign to Kick Off With $35,000-Per-Ticket Dinner At Own Hotel in Washington, D.C." Newsweek. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  131. ^ Ballhaus, Rebecca. "Trump to Hold First 2020 Campaign Fundraiser at Trump Hotel in Washington". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  132. ^ Bykowicz, Julie (June 21, 2017). "Trump to host Trump re-election fundraiser at Trump hotel". Associated Press. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  133. ^ a b Drucker, David M. (June 21, 2017). "Trump kicking off 2020 fundraising with high dollar DC fundraiser". Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
  134. ^ a b Squiteri, Jason (June 28, 2017). "Dem congressman: 'Just plain wrong' for Trump to hold fundraiser at own hotel". CNN. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  135. ^ Bykowicz, Julie; Colvin, Jill (June 28, 2017). "Trump rakes in $10 million at first re-election fundraiser". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  136. ^ Brown, Willie (July 1, 2017). "Trump twisting arms for 2020". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  137. ^ a b Isenstadt, Alex (June 28, 2017). "Trump rips media, mocks Pelosi at closed-door fundraiser". Politico. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  138. ^ a b c Bykowicz, Julie; Colvin, Jill (June 29, 2017). "Trump trashes media, cheers wins at $10 million fundraiser". Associated Press. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  139. ^ Nuzzi, Olivia (July 9, 2017). "Scenes From the Swamp: (Almost) Inside Trump's $35,000-Per-Plate Reelection Fundraiser". New York Magazine. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  140. ^ Man, Anthony. "Donald Trump's supporters in South Florida kick in cash for his re-election". Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  141. ^ Liptak, Kevin; Malloy, Allie (June 28, 2017). "White House disinvites press from fundraiser". CNN. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  142. ^ "President Trump's politicking raises ethics flags". CNBC. Associated Press. July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  143. ^ Williams, Janice (June 28, 2017). "Trump 2020 Campaign is Getting Underway at D.C. Hotel, As President Ignores Conflict of Interest Accusations". Newsweek. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  144. ^ The New York Times Editorial Board (June 30, 2017). "Mr. Trump's For-Profit Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  145. ^ Glueck, Katie (June 7, 2017). "The face of Donald Trump's 2020 campaign". McClatchy. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  146. ^ Figueroa, Laura (June 20, 2017). "Trump's daughter-in-law, Florida guv headline GOP dinner". Newsday. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  147. ^ Mark, Michelle (July 1, 2017). "'I'm president and they're not': Trump slams media in speech honoring veterans". Business Insider. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  148. ^ Kurtz, Judy (July 6, 2017). "Trump winning against Dems in 2020 merchandise sales". The Hill. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  149. ^ Sinclair, Harriet (July 9, 2017). "Trump 2020 Merchandise Is Outperforming Democrat Products". Newsweek. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  150. ^ a b Warren, Michael (August 8, 2017). "White House Watch: Is Mike Pence Running a Shadow Campaign for 2020?". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  151. ^ "Image# 201707159066696382 Report of Receipts and Disbursements by an Authorized Committee of a Candidate for the Office of President or Vice President" (PDF). Federal Elections Commission. July 15, 2017. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  152. ^ Berman, Mark; Gold, Matea (July 15, 2017). "Trump campaign paid firm of lawyer representing Trump Jr. before emails were made public". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  153. ^ Manchester, Julia (July 15, 2017). "Trump campaign paid Trump Jr.'s lawyer weeks before Russia meeting revelation". The Hill. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  154. ^ Sheth, Sonam (July 15, 2017). "Trump campaign paid Trump Jr.'s lawyer $50,000 last month – before revelations that Trump Jr. met with a Russian lawyer". Business Insider. Reuters. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  155. ^ a b Barabak, Mark K. (August 23, 2017). "Analysis Again breaking ground, Trump takes the permanent campaign to new heights". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
  156. ^ Alex Pappas (July 25, 2017). "Trump celebrates ObamaCare vote, but avoids criticizing Jeff Sessions at Ohio rally". Fox News. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  157. ^ a b Merica, Dan (July 26, 2017). "Trump makes 'presidential' pitch at Ohio rally". CNN. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  158. ^ Huppke, Rex W. (July 27, 2017). "Trump's abnormal behavior knows no boundries". Chicago Tribune. Chicago.
  159. ^ Janssen, Kim (July 27, 2017). "Trump's message for Emanuel: 'Get tough'". Chicago Tribune. Chicago.
  160. ^ Langille, Sean (August 16, 2017). "Pro-Trump 'Mother of All Rallies' scheduled for September". The Washington Examiner. Clarity Media Group. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  161. ^ ""Mother of all Rallies" President Trump supporters gather in rally". Odessa, Texas: KOSA-TV. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  162. ^ a b Blumenthal, Paul; Marans, Daniel. "Juggalos Draw Bigger Crowd On The National Mall Than Pro-Trump Rally". HuffPost. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  163. ^ a b Shugerman, Emily (September 16, 2017). "Trump supporters organised a rally for 1 million people. Only 1,000 turned up". The Independent. London: Independent Print Limited. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  164. ^ "Pro-Trump 'Mother of All Rallies' eclipsed by Juggalo event in Washington DC (Video)". RT. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  165. ^ a b Hughes, Gray; Ferrar, Doug (August 31, 2017). "Rally to support President Trump planned for Sept. 9 in Georgetown". The Daily Times DelmarvaNow (Gannett Company). Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  166. ^ Duvernay, Adam (September 9, 2017). "President Donald Trump supporters rally in Georgetown". Delaware Online (The News Journal). Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  167. ^ Coles, Caroline (September 9, 2017). "Sussex County Republican Committee Sponsors Trump Rally". WBOC-TV. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  168. ^ a b c d Riotta, Chris (October 25, 2017). "Trump Flies to Texas For His Re-Election Fundraiser and Writes It Off As Taxpayer Expense". Newsweek. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  169. ^ a b "Donald Trump to visit Dallas for fundraiser". Dallas Morning News. Associated Press. October 9, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
  170. ^ Hayes, Christal (October 16, 2017). "Trump Wants to Run in 2020 Election Against the Woman He Already Beat: Hillary Clinton". Newsweek. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  171. ^ Johnson, Jenna (October 25, 2017). "Trump in Texas: 'I'm the builder president. Remember that.'". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  172. ^ Mark Knoller [@markknoller] (October 25, 2017). "By my count, this will be Pres Trump's 10th political fundraiser since taking office. 9 of 10 were closed to press coverage including today" (Tweet). Retrieved January 6, 2020 – via Twitter.
  173. ^ a b Riotta, Chris (November 3, 2017). "Lara Trump Taking on White House Duties in Troubling and Unprecedented Move, Officials Say". Newsweek. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  174. ^ Schwarz, Sam (December 20, 2017). "SUPPORT FOR DONALD TRUMP'S IMPEACHMENT IS HIGHER THAN HIS RE-ELECTION CHANCES". Newsweek. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  175. ^ Cole, Devan (February 25, 2018). "Trump campaign emails photo of Parkland survivor, asks for donations". CNN. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  176. ^ Isenstadt, Alex; Samuelsohn, Darren (February 27, 2018). "Trump picks loyalist Parscale to run 2020 campaign". Politico. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  177. ^ Jones, Rhett (February 27, 2018). "Trump's New Campaign Manager Is Already Facebook's Worst Nightmare". Gizmodo. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  178. ^ Stewart, Martina (March 10, 2018). "Trump In Pennsylvania: I Need Rick Saccone To Help 'Keep America Great!'". NPR. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
  179. ^ Breech, John (March 15, 2018). "Buccaneers owner hosts Donald Trump at home fundraiser just months after NFL spat".
  180. ^ Levin, Bess (March 14, 2018). "TRUMP 2020 CAMPAIGN NOW ACCEPTING ALL WHITE HOUSE REJECTS". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  181. ^ Manchester, Julia (March 13, 2018). "Trump campaign hires Katrina Pierson". The Hill. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  182. ^ Gray, Kathleen; Siacon, Aleanna; Egan, Paul (April 26, 2018). "Trump skips press dinner for rally: 'I'd rather be in Washington, Mich., than Washington, D.C.'". USA Today (Detroit Free Press). Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  183. ^ McGraw, Meredith (May 14, 2018). "Trump stumps for Republicans and debuts new campaign slogan in Indiana". ABC News. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  184. ^ a b Murphy, Mike, "At Minnesota rally, Trump brags he's more elite than 'the elite'", MarketWatch, June 21, 2018. June 23, 2018.
  185. ^ a b Sorkin, Amy Davidson, "Never Mind the Children. In Duluth, Trump Celebrates Himself", The New Yorker, June 21, 2018. June 23, 2018.
  186. ^ Salama, Vivian, "Trump Tests His Appeal in Nevada, a State Clinton Won" (subscription required), Wall Street Journal, June 23, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  187. ^ Rogers, Katie, "Trump, at the rally, Vows to Carry On Anthony Kennedy's Legacy With Court Pick", The New York Times, June 27, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  188. ^ Cillizza, Chris. "Trump used a word he's 'not supposed to.' Here's why". CNN.
  189. ^ Cummings, William. "'I am a nationalist': Trump's embrace of controversial label sparks uproar". USA TODAY.
  190. ^ "Is Trump Transforming Midterms With Arena-Size Rallies? – RealClearPolitics". Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  191. ^ "Senate Election Results 2018: Live Midterm Map by State & Analysis". Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  192. ^ Dan Merica. "Trump gears up for 2020 re-election by tightening grip on party". CNN. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  193. ^ Isenstadt, Alex (January 7, 2019). "Trump campaign moves to stave off mayhem at 2020 convention". Politico. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  194. ^ a b "Republican Party to Express 'Undivided Support' for Trump". VOA. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  195. ^ a b Miller, Zeke; Peoples, Steve (February 4, 2019). "Trump campaign takes steps to prevent a challenge within GOP". AP NEWS. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  196. ^ Miller, Zeek. "Trump campaign takes steps to prevent a challenge within GOP". ABC News. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  197. ^ "Trump Supporter Violently Shoves BBC Cameraman At Rally In El Paso, Texas".
  198. ^ Lybrand, Holmes. "Fact-checking Trump (and others) at CPAC". CNN.
  199. ^ Re, Gregg (March 28, 2019). "Trump, in fiery first rally since Mueller vindication, calls on Dems to stop 'ridiculous bullsh--' [sic]". Fox News.
  200. ^ Choi, Matthew (March 28, 2019). "Trump rips into 'pencil-necked' Schiff, 'sick, sick' Democrats". Politico. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  201. ^ "Trump visits US–Mexico border: Live updates". April 5, 2019.
  202. ^ Nicholas, Peter (April 3, 2019). "Donald Trump's Never-Ending Campaign Keeps Getting Angrier". The Atlantic.
  203. ^ Morrissey, Ruben Vives, Alejandra Reyes-Velarde, Kate. "Live: Trump departs LAX for Las Vegas".
  204. ^ Karni, Annie; Haberman, Maggie (June 10, 2019). "Trump Needs a Target to Stay Interested in His Campaign. For Now, It's Biden" – via
  205. ^ Oprysko, Caitlin. "Trump dismisses 2020 polling that show him in danger". POLITICO.
  206. ^ "Trump Defends 'Fake Polls' Claim: 'We Are Winning In Every State We Polled'". June 12, 2019.
  207. ^ "Trump campaign cutting ties with pollsters after internal numbers leaked". NBC News. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  208. ^ Wise, Justin (June 17, 2019). "Trump hits polling on Fox News: 'Something weird going on at Fox'". The Hill. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  209. ^ Miller, Zeke; Colvin, Jill (June 13, 2019). "Trump says he'd 'want to hear' foreign dirt on 2020 rivals". Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  210. ^ Beech, Eric; Alexander, David. "Trump: Nothing wrong with accepting dirt from foreign governments on opponents". Reuters. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  211. ^ a b c Engelmayer, Caroline; Megerian, Chris. "Trump again claims he would consider foreign help for his campaign". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  212. ^ Klar, Rebecca (June 13, 2019). "FEC chair responds to Trump saying he'd accept foreign intel on opponent: 'It is illegal'". The Hill. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  213. ^ Levinthal, Dave. "Why the Trump campaign won't pay police bills". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
  214. ^ Schneider, Michael; Lemire, Jonathan; Colvin, Jill. "Trump launches 2020 re-election campaign". Associated Press. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  215. ^ "Trump dismisses E. Jean Carroll rape allegation as 'fiction'". BBC News. June 22, 2019. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  216. ^ Edelman, Adam (June 22, 2019). "Advice columnist E. Jean Carroll claims Trump sexually assaulted her in 1990s". NBC News. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  217. ^ "Trump faces rape accusation from author E. Jean Carroll". Axios. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  218. ^ Crabtree, Susan (July 16, 2019). "Backlash Ensues as RNC's WinRed Fundraising Hammer Falls". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  219. ^ Bufkin, Ellie (June 24, 2019). "GOP launches 'WinRed' in attempt to maximize online donations". Washington Examiner. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  220. ^ Reichmann, Deb (July 17, 2019). "Trump slams congresswomen; crowd roars, 'Send her back!'". Associated Press. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  221. ^ Rizzo, Salvador (July 18, 2019). "Trump falsely claims he tried to stop 'Send her back!' chants about Rep. Ilhan Omar". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  222. ^ "Trump renews attacks on Omar, praises 'send her back' crowd". Al Jazeera. July 20, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  223. ^ Baker, Peter (July 16, 2019). "Once Trump Talked About 'American Carnage.' Now He Says Critics Should Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  224. ^ Allen, Jonathan (July 18, 2019). "After House rejects 'stupid' impeachment, Trump fuels rally crowd chant of 'send her back!' at Omar". NBC News. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  225. ^ Yen, Hope; Seitz, Amanda (July 18, 2019). "Trump goes after Omar at rally". Associated Press. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  226. ^ McDonald, Scott (July 17, 2019). "Trump Slams Progressive Democrat Women, Talks 'Bulls**t' [sic] at North Carolina Rally". Newsweek. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  227. ^ Dunham, Jackie (August 2, 2019). "Trump pledges to end AIDS epidemic, cure childhood cancer 'very shortly'". CTV News. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  228. ^ Dawsey, Josh; Sonmez, Felicia; Hughes, Laura (August 1, 2019). "Trump escalates attacks on Baltimore and other cities – says federal funds have been 'stolen,' 'wasted'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  229. ^ Rupar, Aaron (August 2, 2019). "At Cincinnati rally, Trump turns Baltimore violence victims into political pawns". Vox. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  230. ^ Crowley, Michael; Haberman, Maggie; Smith, Mitch; Shear, Michael (August 7, 2019). "Trump Uses a Day of Healing to Deepen the Nation's Divisions". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  231. ^ Samuels, Brett (August 7, 2019). "Trump lashes out at cable news coverage of Biden speech while flying to El Paso". The Hill. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  232. ^ Morin, Rebecca (August 7, 2019). "'Keep fighting Juaquin!' Trump attacks Castro brothers in deleted tweet that misspelled one of their names". USA Today. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  233. ^ "Self-promotion: Trump boasts of rally crowd size during hospital visit to console Texas massacre survivors". Agence France Presse and Jiji Press. August 9, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  234. ^ Donald Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (September 11, 2019). "... This is a phony suppression poll, meant to build up their Democrat partners. I haven't even started campaigning yet, and am constantly fighting Fake News like Russia, Russia, Russia. Look at North Carolina last night. Dan Bishop, down big in the Polls, WINS. Easier than 2016!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  235. ^ Axelrod, Tal (September 27, 2019). "Trump campaign doubles down on Biden-Ukraine allegations in new TV ad". TheHill. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  236. ^ Cullison, Alan (September 22, 2019). "Biden's Anticorruption Effort in Ukraine Overlapped With Son's Work in Country". The Wall Street Journal. Messrs. Trump and Giuliani have suggested that Joe Biden pushed for the firing of Ukraine's general prosecutor, Viktor Shokin, in March 2016 to stop an investigation into Burisma. In Ukraine, government officials and anticorruption advocates say that is a misrepresentation ... Mr. Shokin had dragged his feet into those investigations, Western diplomats said, and effectively squashed one in London by failing to cooperate with U.K. authorities ... In a speech in 2015, the U.S. ambassador to Ukraine, Otto Pyatt, called the Ukrainian prosecutor "an obstacle" to anticorruption efforts
  237. ^ Baker, Peter (September 23, 2019). "Instead of 'No Collusion!' Trump Now Seems to Be Saying, So What if I Did?" – via
  238. ^ Daniel Dale, Tara Subramaniam and Holmes Lybrand. "A readers' guide to fact-checking Trump's Ukraine controversy". CNN. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  239. ^ Wilkie, Christina (November 27, 2019). "Trump denies sending Rudy Giuliani to Ukraine to push Biden, election probes". CNBC. Retrieved November 29, 2019.
  240. ^ "Almost all of Trump's TV campaign ads discuss impeachment: report". December 20, 2019 – via
  241. ^ O'Sullivan, Donie. "Trump campaign blitzes Facebook with ads attacking impeachment inquiry". CNN.
  242. ^ "Trump Still Faces 3 Lawsuits Over His Business Empire". Retrieved December 18, 2019.
  243. ^ Rupar, Aaron (December 19, 2019). "The White House's defense of Trump's Dingell comments shows there's no bottom". Vox.
  244. ^ "Trump adviser: Expect more aggressive poll-watching in 2020". AP NEWS. December 20, 2019.
  245. ^ Isaac, Mike (June 16, 2020). "Now You Can Opt-Out of Seeing Political Ads on Facebook". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  246. ^ Rebecca Ballhaus, Lindsay Wise, and Natalie Andrews. "McConnell Says GOP Doesn't Have Votes to Block Impeachment Witnesses". WSJ. Retrieved June 17, 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  247. ^ Baker, Peter. "At First Rally of Election Year, Trump Boasts About Strike on Iranian General". Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  248. ^ April 27, Tim Hains On Date; 2019. "Full Replay: Trump MAGA Rally In Green Bay". Retrieved June 17, 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  249. ^ Oona Goodin-Smith, Amy S. Rosenberg, Ellie Rushing, Pranshu Verma, Andrew Seidman. "Trump in Wildwood: Trump and Van Drew complete their political embrace at rally". Inquirer. Retrieved June 17, 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  250. ^ "Trump plans Iowa rally in days before Democratic caucuses". NBC News. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  251. ^ "2020 Iowa Republican Caucus Election Results | Des Moines Register". Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  252. ^ "It's Official: Trump Will Rally On Eve Of New Hampshire Primary". Bedford, NH Patch. January 23, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  253. ^ "2020 New Hampshire 2020 Republican primary results | The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  254. ^ "ICYMI: NV Republicans plan delegate vote on same day as Democratic caucus | Nevada Republican Party". Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  255. ^ Adamy, Emily Glazer and Janet (March 6, 2020). "Facebook Removes Trump Campaign Ads, Citing Census Interference Policy". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  256. ^ Dana Bash; Bridget Nolan. "Trump's new campaign app gamifies voter outreach". CNN. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  257. ^ Diamond, Jeremy (April 30, 2020). "Trump erupts at campaign manager as reelection stress overflows". CNN. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  258. ^ Dawsey, Josh (April 30, 2020). "Trump presented with grim internal polling showing him losing to Biden". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 30, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  259. ^ Stelter, Brian (May 4, 2020). "CNN sends Trump campaign cease-and-desist letter for misleading ad". CNN. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  260. ^ Kessler, Glenn (May 6, 2020). "The Trump campaign's egregious editing of a CNN clip: Trump's 'American Comeback' ad celebrates his coronavirus response, but parts are misleading". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  261. ^ Bump, Philip (June 8, 2020). "This is Trump's most spectacularly wonderfully terrible tweet ever". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  262. ^ Cummings, William (June 10, 2020). "Trump campaign sends CNN 'cease and desist' letter, demands it retract poll that found Biden up 14 points". USA Today. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  263. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Karni, Annie (April 29, 2020). "Polls Had Trump Stewing, and Lashing Out at His Own Campaign". The New York Times.
  264. ^ Cohen, Max (June 10, 2020). "Trump to resume campaign rallies with June 19 event in Tulsa". Politico. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  265. ^ Colvin, Jill; Miller, Zeke. "Downplaying virus risk, Trump gets back to business as usual". Associated Press. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  266. ^ Baker, Peter; Haberman, Maggie (June 13, 2020). "Trump Moves Tulsa Rally Date 'Out of Respect' for Juneteenth". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  267. ^ "The 2020 Republican platform: Make America 2016 again". Grist. June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  268. ^
  269. ^ Singman, Brooke (June 15, 2020). "Trump campaign touts 1 million ticket requests for Tulsa rally". Fox News.
  270. ^ "BOK Center Tickets and Seating Chart". Secure Box Office. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  271. ^ "800,000 register for Trump's Tulsa rally amid pandemic, campaign manager says". Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  272. ^ "Tulsa Fire Department says Trump rally attendance was about 6,200". Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  273. ^ Evelyn, Kenya (June 21, 2020). "Trump 'played' by K-pop fans and TikTok users who disrupted Tulsa rally". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  274. ^ Politi, Daniel (June 21, 2020). "Trump Had Promised a Huge Rally in Tulsa. He Spoke to a Half-Empty Arena". Slate Magazine. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  275. ^ politicsEmailEmailBioBioFollowFollow, Philip Bump closePhilip BumpNational correspondent focused largely on the numbers behind. "Analysis | Trump spent one of every eight minutes in Tulsa complaining about coverage of his West Point speech". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  276. ^ "Trump spends 14 minutes at rally talking about that time he walked down a ramp". NewsComAu. June 21, 2020. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  277. ^ "How to apply for tickets to President Trump's Phoenix 'Students for Trump' event". KNXV. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  278. ^ "President Trump to stop in Yuma, Phoenix during Arizona June 23 visit". Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  279. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Karni, Annie (June 17, 2020). "Does Trump Want to Fight for a Second Term? His Self-Sabotage Worries Aides" – via
  280. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Martin, Jonathan (June 23, 2020). "With Tweets, Videos and Rhetoric, Trump Pushes Anew to Divide Americans by Race" – via
  281. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Martin, Jonathan; Burns, Alexander (July 2, 2020). "Why June Was Such a Terrible Month for Trump" – via
  282. ^ Siders, David (July 4, 2020). "Biden builds lead as Trump goes from trailing to flailing". Politico. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
  283. ^ Karni, Annie (July 3, 2020). "Trump Uses Mount Rushmore Speech to Deliver Divisive Culture War Message" – via
  284. ^ "Trump's push to amplify racism unnerves Republicans who have long enabled him". The Washington Post.
  285. ^ Dolan, Jack (July 4, 2020). "Kanye West tweets that he's running for president". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
  286. ^ CNN, Daniel Dale. "Fact check: Trump campaign, Pence take Biden's policing comments out of context". CNN.
  287. ^ "Sean Hannity keeps altering a Joe Biden quote about the police to attack him". Media Matters for America.
  288. ^ Karni, Annie. "Trump Rally Postponed, Campaign Says, Citing Weather". Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  289. ^ Samuels, Brett (July 15, 2020). "Trump shakes up campaign leadership, demotes Parscale". TheHill. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  290. ^ Collins, Kaitlan. "Trump shakes up campaign leadership as he struggles in latest polls". Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  291. ^ Feuer, Will (July 19, 2020). "President Trump won't agree to accept 2020 election results as Biden leads in polls – 'I have to see'". CNBC. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  292. ^ a b Collinson, Stephen (July 31, 2020). "Obama warns that Trump's actions threaten US democracy". CNN. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
  293. ^ Liptak, Kevin (August 1, 2020). "'Nobody likes me,' Trump complains, as even his allies fade". CNN. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
  294. ^ Oprysko, Caitlin (August 3, 2020). "Trump claims right to issue executive order on vote-by-mail". Politico. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  295. ^ Klein, Betsy (August 4, 2020). "In apparent reversal, Trump encourages Floridians to vote by mail". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  296. ^ Gabriel, Trip (July 17, 2020). "Will Trump's Troubles Turn Ohio Back Into a Tossup State?" – via
  297. ^ Kessler, Glenn (July 14, 2020). "Trump ad falsely suggests Biden supports defunding police". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  298. ^ a b Corasaniti, Nick (July 21, 2020). "Trump Campaign Ads Depict His Own Lawless Dystopia". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  299. ^ Bump, Philip (July 10, 2020). "Analysis | The Trump campaign warns that a Biden presidency could be as dangerous and violent as Trump's". The Washington Post.
  300. ^ "RNC, Trump campaign told to stop using President Reagan to raise money". The Washington Post.
  301. ^ O'Reilly, Andrew; Steinhauser, Paul (July 23, 2020). "Trump announces Jacksonville part of GOP convention will be canceled over coronavirus concerns". Fox News. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  302. ^ Liptak, Kevin; Klein, Betsy (July 30, 2020). "Trump floats delaying election despite lack of authority to do so". CNN. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  303. ^ Wu, Nicholas; Hayes, Christal (July 30, 2020). "McConnell, other top Republicans say Election Day isn't moving after Trump floated delay". USA Today. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  304. ^ Egan, Timothy (July 31, 2020). "Opinion | Trump, Please Quit Before You're Fired". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  305. ^ Warren, Michael; Gangel, Jamie (July 31, 2020). "McConnell signal to Republican Senate candidates: Distance from Trump if necessary". CNN. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  306. ^ Kamisar, Ben; Pettypiece, Shannon (July 30, 2020). "Trump campaign hits pause on TV ad spending for 'review' of messaging strategy". NBC News. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  307. ^ Isenstadt, Alex (July 31, 2020). "Trump's top strategist reboots campaign with focus on early-voting states". Politico. Retrieved August 3, 2020. Trump previewed the forthcoming offensive in a Friday afternoon tweet, writing: 'We are doing a new ad campaign on Sleepy Joe Biden that will be out on Monday. He has been brought even further LEFT than Crazy Bernie Sanders ever thought possible.'
  308. ^ Bykowicz, Julie; Colvin, Jill (June 29, 2017). "Trump trashes media, cheers wins at $10 million fundraiser". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  309. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (July 20, 2017). "Filing FEC-1174081". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  310. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (September 15, 2017). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1182043". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  311. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (October 15, 2017). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1186850". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  312. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (February 7, 2018). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1207393". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  313. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (April 15, 2018). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1222729". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  314. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (July 15, 2018). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1248228". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  315. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (October 15, 2018). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1272561". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  316. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (January 31, 2019). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1312481". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  317. ^ "Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. / Presidential – Principal campaign committee / Financial summary – Two-year period 2017–2018". Federal Election Commission. December 31, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  318. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (April 15, 2019). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1326131". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  319. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (July 15, 2019). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1341058". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  320. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (October 15, 2019). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1358508". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  321. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (February 1, 2020). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1379950". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  322. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (February 20, 2020). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1384899". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  323. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (March 20, 2020). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1391616". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  324. ^ Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. (April 20, 2020). "FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1403007". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  325. ^ Cadei, Emily (May 18, 2017). "Trump 2020 Campaign Claims a Fundraising Record Amid Russia Probes". Newsweek. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  326. ^ Bedard, Paul (May 18, 2017). "Trump 2020 raises record $314,000 in just one day". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  327. ^ "Trump's re-election campaign raised more than $30 million in first-quarter of 2019". Reuters. April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  328. ^ Ballhaus, Rebecca (April 17, 2017). "Donald Trump's Companies Benefit From Campaign Funds". Wall Street Journal. New York City. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  329. ^ Ashley, Balcerzak; Levinthal, Dave (October 15, 2017). "Donald Trump campaign ramps up 2020 re-election fundraising". The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  330. ^ a b Jeremy, Diamond (October 17, 2017). "Donating to Trump? Campaign is spending $1 of every $10 on legal fees". CNN. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  331. ^ Fischer, Sara (March 19, 2019). "Another Trump Facebook election – Axios". Axios. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  332. ^ Longman, Martin (May 14, 2019). "As Trump Tower Struggles, the President Rents Office Space to Himself". Washington Monthly. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  333. ^ a b Alexander, Dan (March 20, 2019). "As Trump Tower Struggles, the President Rents Office Space to Himself". Forbes. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  334. ^ "All the President's Profiting". Open Secrets. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  335. ^ Tumulty, Karen (July 17, 2020). "The Trump campaign is the grift that keeps on grifting". The Washington Post.
  336. ^ Mazza, Ed (May 7, 2020). "James Carville Warns Trump: Your 'Grifter' Campaign Aides Are Lying To You". HuffPost. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  337. ^ Chapman, Matthew (May 23, 2020). "Rick Wilson: Trump's campaign manager Parscale is 'milking him like cow' as re-election bid dies". Salon. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  338. ^ Date, S. V. (April 17, 2020). "Trump Campaign Secretly Paying $180,000 A Year To His Sons' Significant Others". HuffPost. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  339. ^ a b c Hillyard, Vaughn (May 18, 2017). "Pence Creates PAC Ahead of 2018, 2020 Elections". NBC News. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  340. ^ a b "Filing FEC-1162693". Federal Election Commission. May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  341. ^ "Page by Page Report Display (Page 290 of 1081)". Federal Elections Commission. May 15, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  342. ^ "Page by Page Report Display (Page 575 of 1081)". Federal Elections Commission. May 15, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  343. ^ "Page by Page Report Display (Page 921 of 4397)". Federal Elections Commission. May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  344. ^ "Spending by others to support or oppose". Federal Election Commission. n.d. Retrieved October 18, 2017. Support $2,389,836.49
  345. ^ "TRUMP, DONALD J – Candidate overview –".
  346. ^ "How Facebook ads helped elect Trump". Retrieved October 9, 2017.
  347. ^ Bykowicz, Julie (May 18, 2017). "Trump advisers start 'America First Policies' nonprofit". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  348. ^ a b c d Sexton, Adam (September 3, 2017). "Former Trump campaign staffers to launch new organization in NH". WMUR-TV. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  349. ^ Davis, Walker (March 30, 2020). "Tax Form Emphasizes Mysterious Dark Money Group's Ties to Trump". Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW). Retrieved April 1, 2020.
  350. ^ Tribune, The Texas; Samuels, Alex (February 6, 2019). "Trump falsely said El Paso was a hub of violent crime before the border fence. Now he's holding a rally there". The Texas Tribune.
  351. ^ "The Latest: Trump tells supporters 'Russia hoax is dead'". The Washington Times. The Washington Times. AP. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  352. ^ Doug Schneider; Haley BeMiller; Mica Soellner (April 27, 2019). "Donald Trump's Green Bay rally: Scenes from outside the Resch Center". Press Gazette Media. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  353. ^ Landler, Mark (May 8, 2019). "At Florida Rally, Trump Denounces Democrats' 'Nonsense' as He Looks to 2020". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
  354. ^ Tabb, Joe (May 13, 2019). "Trump Rally to be held in Lycoming County". Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  355. ^ Trump, Donald J. (May 31, 2019). "I will be announcing my Second Term Presidential Run with First Lady Melania, Vice President Mike Pence, and Second Lady Karen Pence on June 18th in Orlando, Florida, at the 20,000 seat Amway Center. Join us for this Historic Rally!". @realDonaldTrump. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  356. ^ Trump, Donald J. (July 17, 2019). "See you tonight, North Carolina!". @realdonaldtrump. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  357. ^ Bailey, Phillip M. "Gov. Matt Bevin is attending President Donald Trump's political rally in Cincinnati". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  358. ^ "Trump tells backers reelecting him is critical for their pocketbooks". Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  359. ^ Morrill, Jim (August 27, 2019). "President Trump will rally for Dan Bishop in Fayetteville on election eve". The News&Observer. Archived from the original on August 28, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  360. ^ "President Trump to hold campaign rally in New Mexico later this month". KVIA ABC-7. September 7, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  361. ^ "Trump announces Minneapolis rally at Target Center in October". Twin Cities. September 26, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  362. ^ "Trump's Dallas Rally Tonight: Amazing Line Started Forming 50 Hours Ago". LifeZette. October 17, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  363. ^ "President Trump Rally in Sunrise, Florida |".
  364. ^ Miller, Cassie. "In Hershey, Trump, Pence ask Pa. for '4 more years' as Dems move forward on impeachment". The Philadelphia Tribune.
  365. ^ Durnbaugh, Elena. "Donald Trump to hold 'Merry Christmas' rally in Battle Creek". Battle Creek Enquirer.
  366. ^ Anderson, Natasha. "President Trump holds first campaign rally of 2020 in Toledo". Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  367. ^ Kozlov, Dana, "Enthusiastic Crowd Gathers For President Trump's Rally In Milwaukee", CBS Chicago/CBS News/CBS 2, January 14, 2020.
  368. ^ Tully, Tracey (January 28, 2020). "Trump's N.J. Rally: Frigid Wait Is Worth It for President's Fans". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  369. ^ Dwilson, Stephanie Dube (January 31, 2020). "How Many Attended Trump's Des Moines, Iowa Rally? Crowd Size & Overflow Photos". Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  370. ^ Karni, Annie; Haberman, Maggie (February 10, 2020). "Trump Travels to New Hampshire to Rally Republicans and Distract Democrats". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  371. ^ Staff, azfamily com News. "President Donald Trump speaks to thousands at his Phoenix rally". AZFamily. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  372. ^ Zubeck, Pam. "Adoring crowds swamp Colorado Springs arena to see President Trump". Colorado Springs Independent. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  373. ^ "Trump rallies thousands in Las Vegas, says Democrats will have 'lots of problems' with caucus results". Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  374. ^ Dillane, Matt (February 28, 2020). "Sights & sounds from Trump rally at North Charleston Coliseum". WCIV. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  375. ^ "Trump rallies supporters in Charlotte, North Carolina". Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  376. ^ "Trump's Tulsa Rally Attendance: 6,200, Fire Dept. Says". Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  377. ^ "In Arizona, Trump has a redo of his Oklahoma rally". Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  378. ^ Edsall, Thomas B. (January 29, 2020). "Opinion | Trump's Digital Advantage Is Freaking Out Democratic Strategists". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
  379. ^ transcript. "Noam Chomsky on Trump's Disastrous Coronavirus Response, Bernie Sanders & What Gives Him Hope". Democracy Now. Retrieved June 18, 2020.

External links