Zainuddin Makhdoom II
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|Sheikh Ahmed Zainudeen bin Sheikh Muhammed Gazzali|
Jombal, Mahe, Kerala, India.
|Known for||Islamic jurisprudent, author of Fathul Mueen and Tufathul Mujahedeen|
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Sheikh Ahmed Zainudeen bin Sheikh Muhammed Gazzali (Arabic:شيخ احمد زين الدين بن شيخ محمد غزالي , Malayalam: ശൈഖ് അഹ്മദ് സൈനുദ്ദീന് ബിന് ശൈഖ് മുഹമ്മദ് ഗസ്സാലി അല് മഅ്ബരി), grandson of Seikh Zainudin Makhdoom Kabeer, was the writer, orator, historian, jurisprudent and spiritual leader and widely known as Zainudeen Makhdoom 2nd or Zaniudeen Makhdoom Al Sageer (زين الدين الصغير). He inherited the legacy of his grandfather and was installed as the chief Quazi (judge) in the locality of Ponnani, Kerala, India, as well as appointed as the chief Mudarris (head teacher) in the historic Ponnani Darse (a masjid-based Arabic college).
He was born to the Makdoom family in the early months of Hijra 938 (c. 1531 CE) at Jombal, near Mahe, and received religious instruction under the supervision of his grandfather. He completed his primary education under his father Muhammed Gazzali and his uncle Abdul Azeez Bin Sheikh Makhdoom Al Avval ( عبد العزيز بن شيخ مخدوم الآول) and left for Makah for further study. He performed the Haj and settled there for ten years imbibing Islamic knowledge from exponents of Islamic law and other branches of knowledge. He received the guidance of famous scholars such as Al Hafiz Shihabuddeen bin Al Hajr Al Haithemi (الحافظ شهاب الدين بن الحجر الهيتمي), Grand Mufti of Haramain (chief jurisprudent of Makah and Madina) and commentator in Hadeeth and Fiqh, Izzuddeen bin Abdul Azeez al Zamzami (عز الدين بن عبد العزيز الزمزمي), Shiekh Abdul Rahman bin Ziyad (شيخ عبد الرحمن بن زياد) and Sayyid Abdul Rahman Al Safwi (سيد عبد الرحمن الصفوي). He gained the Tassawwuf (Sufi spiritual knowledge) from Kutub Zaban Zain Ul Arifeen Muhammed Bin Sheikh Ul Arif Abu Hasan Al Bakri (قطب الزمان زين العارفين محمد بن شيخ العارف ابو حسن البكري) and was honored with eleven Khirkath (خرقة), symbol of grade in Tareeqath. Within a short period he was hailed as the Sheikh of Qadriya Tareeqath.
In the field of service
After the decade-long stay in Makah, he returned to Kerala and took charge as chief Mufti in the grand Masjid of Ponnani, a position he occupied for thirty-six years. A historian recorded that his mentor Ibn Hajar Hithami had come to Ponnani and stayed there for a short period.
As the freedom fighter
He did not limit himself to work as a cleric, but made many significant intervention in the political arena, keeping warm relations with the major political figures in that period. He lived during the regime of Akbar, Mugal Empire and had a good relationship with Sultan Ali Adil Shah I, Sultan of Beejapur, as well as Zamorin of Calicut. He was a strident advocate of freedom struggles against the imperialist power of Portugal, and motivated the youth to take part in the special army of Zamorin to defend against them. In his masterpiece Tufathul Mujahideen Fi Akhbar ul Burthugalin, he narrated the brutality of the Portuguese on the Malabar soil with special reference to their anti-Muslim stance. He used to instil in Muslim youth the necessity of holy war and the inevitability of military action against the Portuguese. In the aforementioned text, he motivated them by exuding the endless promises of the Almighty for those who waged war against them, and boosted their morale by leading their mind to the sweet memories of the golden age of Islam.
Books by Makhdoom II
He was known for his unique command in writing in variety of subjects which includes jurisprudence, history, spirituality as well as other subjects which were distinct from other writers. The following table gives an overview of his works.
|No||Names in English||Original Name||Meaning of Titles||Core Subject|
|1||Tufathul Mujahedeen Fi Bali Akhbar Ul Burthugaleen||تحفة المجاهدين في بعض اخبارالبرتغالين||Presentation for warriors on some news related to the Portuguese||History of Muslims in Kerala with special reference to the brutalities of the Portuguese invasion|
|2||Fathul Mueen Sherh Kurrathul Ain||فتح المعين شرح قرة العين||Fathul Mueen the annotation on Kurrathul Ain||Exemplary text on Jurisprudence based on the Shafi school of thought; annotation on his own text Kurratul Ain|
|3||Kurrathul Ain Bi Muhimmathu Ddeen||قرة العين بمهمات الدين||Special attention on the major religious issues||Precise text on jurisprudence based on the Shafi school of thought|
|4||Irshadul Ibad Ila Sabeel Ul Rashad||ارشاد العباد الى سبيل الرشاد||Guidance for the slave to rectitude||Spiritual text explaining the way to the Almighty|
|5||Ihkham Ahkam Nikah||احكام احكام النكاح||Consolidation on the laws related to marriage||Precise explanation of the laws relating to marriage|
|6||Sharhu Swadr Fi Ahval ul Mautha||شرح الصدور في احوال الموتى||Widening of the chest in the context of the dead||Spiritual text explaining the context of th afterworld; it was an annotation of the work done by Sooyoothi (السيوطي)|
|7||Ajvbathul Ajeebah An Asilathul Gareebah||الاجوبة العجيبة عن الاسئلة الغريبة||Wonderful answers for rare questions||Collection of decrees issued on various issues|
|8||Fathava Al Hindiyath||الفتاوى الهندية||Indian decree||Decree issued on the special context of southern Indian state of Kerala|
|9||Al Javahir Fi Uqoobath Ahl il Kabair||الجواهر في عقوبة اهل الكبائر||Gems on the consequence of the culprits||Spiritual text explaining the consequences for criminals|
|10||Al Manhajul Valih||المنهج الواضح||The obvious pattern||Text explaining laws relating to marriage|
He died of natural causes in 1583, and was laid to rest in Kunji Palli. His tomb is located in his native village of Chombal, under a tree.