Vijayapura Shivagiri monument
|Nickname(s): City of victory|
|• Type||City Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Vijayapura Mahanagara Palike (VMP)|
|• Mayor||Parashuram Rajput(BJP)|
|• Total||98.73 km2 (38.12 sq mi)|
|Elevation||592.23 m (1,943.01 ft)|
|• Density||265/km2 (690/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KA|
Bijapur, officially known as Vijayapura, is the district headquarters of Bijapur District of Karnataka state of India. It is also the headquarters for Bijapur Taluka. Bijapur city is well known for its historical monuments of architectural importance built during the rule of the Adil Shahi dynasty. Bijapur is located 530 km northwest of the State Capital Bengaluru and about 550 km from Mumbai, and 384 km west of the city of Hyderabad.
Bijapur, one of the popular heritage city located in the Karnataka state of India is also one of the top ten populated cities in Karnataka. The Bijapur city has been declared as one of the corporations in the state of Karnataka last year.Bijapur urban population as per 2011 census is 326,000, perhaps the 9th biggest city in Karnataka. Vijayapura Mahanagara Palike (VMP) is the newest Municipal Corporation formed under the KMC act along with Shimoga and Tumkur Municipal Corporations. The other existing city corporations in Karnataka state in descending order of population are Bangalore, Hubli-Dharwad, Mysore, Gulbarga, Belgaum, Mangalore, Davangere and Bellary. Administratively, Bijapur district comes under Belgaum division along with Bagalkote, Belgaum, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri and Uttara Kannada (Karwar) districts. The civic administration of the city is managed by the Bijapur City Corporation and office of Deputy Commissioner in Bijapur. The office of Deputy Commissioner has the responsibility of rural areas in Bijapur, while the corporation administrates the city of Bijapur. Effective administration of the heritage city of Bijapur is the main intention behind all the activities of Bijapur City Corporation.
Bijapur, the land of five rivers and the domain of different cultures, is an ancient city. The city established in the 10th and 11th centuries by the Chalukyas of Kalyani was known as Vijayapura (City of victory). Bijapur was the biggest district place of the state with 11 taluks, but after forming Bagalokote new district in 1997 Now it consists of five taluks viz. Basavan Bagevadi, Bijapur, Indi, Muddebihal and Sindagi.
The city was established in the 10th-11th centuries by the Kalyani Chalukyas and was known as Vijayapura (City of victory). The city was passed to Yadavas after Chalukya's demise. The city came under the influence of the Khalji Sultanate in Delhi by the late 13th century. In 1347, the area was conquered by the Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga. By this time, the city was being referred as Bijapur.
- 1 History
- 2 Description
- 3 About the city
- 4 Sufis of Bijapur
- 5 Excursions
- 6 Climate and Temperature
- 7 Rainfall
- 8 Soil
- 9 Rivers
- 10 Demographics (Population)
- 11 Agriculture
- 12 Transport
- 13 Education
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 External links
In 1518, the Bahmani Sultanate split into five splinter states known as the Deccan sultanates, one of which was Bijapur, ruled by the kings of the Adil Shahi dynasty (1490–1686). The city of Vijayapura owes much of its greatness to Yusuf Adil Shah, the founder of the independent state of Bijapur.
In 1724 the Nizam of Hyderabad established his independence in the Deccan, and included Bijapur within his dominions. In 1760, the Nizam suffered a defeat by the Marathas, and ceded the region of Bijapur to the Maratha Peshwa.
After the 1818 defeat of the Peshwa by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, Bijapur passed into the hands of the British East India Company, and was assigned to the Maratha princely state Satara.
Bijapur district is historically, traditionally and legendarily, one of the richest districts in the state. The evidence found here reveals that it was an inhabited place since the Stone Age. Many places of this district have legendary history. The history of this district is divided into four periods, from the Chalukya acquisition of Badami till the Muslim invasion.
- Early Western Chalukya period lasting from about A.D. 535 to about A.D.757.
- Rastrakuta period from A.D. 757 to A.D.973
- Kalachuri and Hoysala period from A.D. 973 to about A.D.1200
- Devagiri Yadava period from A.D.1185 to the Muslim conquest of Devagiri in A.D. 1312.
Bijapur came under Muslim influence, first under Allaudin Khalji, the Sultan of Delhi, towards the end of the 13th century, and then under the Bahamani kings of Bidar in 1347. In 1347, when the Bahamani dynasty was established, it included southern and eastern parts of Bijapur district. The supremacy of the Bahaman's may be said to have ceased by 1489. At that time five Shahi Dynasties were born and one of them was "Bijapur". The Mughal emperor Aurangazeb conquered Bijapur in 1686 and it was under Mughal rule up to 1723. In 1724 the Nizam of Hyderabad established his independence in the Deccan and included Bijapur within his dominions. However, his acquisition on this portion was of brief duration, in 1760 it went into the hands of Marathas. In 1817, war broke out between the British and the Marathas. By 1818, the whole of Bijapur was occupied by the British and was included in the territory assigned to the Raja of Satara. In 1848 the territory of Satara was obtained through the failure of heir and the British rule started. Till 1884, the Bijapur district had headquarters at Kaladagi. Bijapur was made headquarters in 1885.
After Independence, the movement for re-organisation of States gained further momentum and on 1 November 1956 a separate "Mysore State" was formed. By the wish of the people it was renamed as "Karnataka". Thus, the district Bijapur along with other Kannada speaking areas became a part of "Karnataka State" on 1 November 1956.
Central government had approved the request to rename the city in October 2014 from Bijapur to "Vijayapura" on 1 November 2014.
The city consists of three distinct portions: the citadel, the fort and the remains of the city. The citadel, built by the Adilshahi Sultans, a mile in circuit, is of great strength, well built of the most massive materials, and encompassed by a ditch 100 yards (91 m) wide, formerly supplied with water. The fort, which was completed by the Adilshahi Sultans in 1566, is surrounded by a wall 6 m. in circumference. This wall is from 30 to 50 ft (15 m) high, and is strengthened with ninety-six massive bastions of various designs. In addition there are ten others at the various gateways. The width is about 25 ft (7.6 m); from bastion to bastion runs a battlement curtained wall about 10 ft (3.0 m) high. The whole is surrounded by a deep moat 30 to 40 ft (12 m) broad. Inside these walls the Bijapur kings bade defiance to all comers. Outside the walls are the remains of a vast city, now for the most part in ruins, but the innumerable tombs, mosques, which have resisted the havoc of time, afford abundant evidence of the ancient splendor of the place. Badami, Aihole, and Pattadakal, near Bijapur, are noted for their historical temples in the Chalukya architectural style.
Bijapur is nearly 530 km from the state capital Bangalore. It lies between North latitude 15.20 and 17.28 and East longitude 74.59 and 76.28. It is situated well in the interior of the Deccan Peninsula and is about 130 miles away from the West Coast.
The district is bounded by Solapur district on the North and Sangali on the North-West, Belgaum district on the West, Bagalkot on the South, Gulbarga on the East and by Raichur on the South-East.
About the city
- The place is an important tourist place in the country, the former capital of the Adilshahi dynasty, situated about 579 km to the north-west of Bangalore. The Gadag-Solapur railway line traverses via this place. The Kalyani Chalukya kings made it a sub-capital according to an inscription of 1073. It is believed that Jain Poet Nagachandra, 12th century, had his residence here. The place had old names like Vijayapura, Vidyapura and Mohamudpura. For nearly 200 years from 1489 to 1686, this was the seat of the Adilshahi Dynasty.
- Among the other historical attractions at Bijapur, some notable ones are the Anand Mahal, Jod Gumbaz, Jumma Masjid, Saat Manzil, and Jal Manzil. also among old houses at Bijapur, the most famous is Elavia House ( Nauzer Elavia) which is more than 100 years old.
- Bijapur City was also held by Aurangzeb, the Nizam, Savanur Nawab, Satara Chatrapati and finally the British. Foreign travelers like Duarte Barbosa, Varthema, Poser, Mandeslo and Travernier visited this place.
- The Ibrahim Rouza and the Gol Gumbaz are the most impressive monuments at Bijapur. A brief survey of spots of note in the city is given below.
- Ain-ul-mulk’s tomb and mosque Lies on the eastern outskirts of the city and is the solid structure in square, surrounded by a fair proportioned dome. The tomb belongs to Ain-ul-mulk. Close by this the much adorned mosque and the building is plastered.
- Ali Adilshah I’s tomb lies in the south-west part of the City. Ali Adilshah’s Tomb is a simple modest building containing an outer row of five arches surrounding a central chamber and is the earliest royal mausoleum in Bijapur.
- Ali Adil Sha II’s tomb is located to the north-west of the citadel, and is housed in a big square roofless structure consisting of incomplete arches in dark basalt. This incomplete structure is 215 feet (66 m) square and on the raised platform stand the incomplete arches. In the centre on the elevated platform are the tombs.
- Ali Shahi Pir’s mosque and tomb is a square massive structure, its mihrab is remarkable in some ways. The tomb of the saint is outside the north-east gate of the mosque.
- Khwaja Amin Dargah is considered as the most sacred in the city and is situated about 1.5 km to the west of Bijapur. The tomb of Khwaja Amin-ud-din is on the high ground and conspicuous landmark for considerable distance round about.
- Anand Mahal is to the west of Gagan Mahal and in the premises of the citadel stands this two-storeyed mansion. This was constructed by Ibrahim Adil Sha II in 1589, exclusively for music and dance. The roof was ornamented with stucco work. The Ananda Mahal presently is being used by the State for Government offices.
- Andu Masjid stands a little away from the citadel to the west of the Jumanal road. It is a two-storeyed structure, upper floor being a prayer chamber while the ground is a hall. There is no pulpit in the mosque and probably it was restricted to the prayer of women. A Persian inscription here quotes that the mosque was constructed in 1608 by Itbar Khan, one of the nobles in the Court of Adil Shai II.
- Aras Mahal Is to the south-east of Adalat Mahal and was once a joy resort of Ali II. It is now the residence of the District Surgeon.
- Ark-Killa the citadel is at the centre of the city. It is also most important part of Bijapur. Yusuf Adilshah chose it as the site for his fort. The present citadel is nearly circular. Its defenses are a strong wall with several bastions of considerable strength on the south and east.
- Asar Mahal on the crest of the eastern glacis of the citadel is the Asar Mahal. In about 1646 it was constructed by Muhammad Shah and was earlier called as Adalat Mahal. The walls and ceilings of the rooms bear paintings of landscapes and various designs. The room of the south side of the gilded hall is a gorgeously painted apartment. These paintings had been whitewashed by the orders of Aurangzeb and later restored. There is a big square tank outside in front of the building.
- Aurangzeb Idgah Is a large square enclosure built by Aurangzeb in 1682 after the occupation of the city as a gathering place for Muslims on important days.
- Bukhari Masjid is believed to have been constructed by Chandbibi for a moulvi of the Bukhari family. On the door of the Masjid there is a Persian Inscription.
- Chand Bavadi is a well constructed by Ali Adil Shah I in honor of his wife Chand Bibi in the year 1579. It is at the west corner of the town. The entrance is spanned by a single arch, approached by a descending flight of steps.
- Chota Asar is a small building, remarkable for the amount of rich ornamentation in stucco which covers the wall, ceiling and a portion of the façade.
- Chini Mahal or Faroukh Mahal is an edifice that consists of a big lofty durbar hall in the centre and series of rooms in the wings. Yusuf Adil Shah constructed it. For its sheer size and loftiness none of the hall in any other palace of Bijapur can be compared with it.
Sufis of Bijapur
Arrival of Sufis in Bijapur region was started during the reign of Qutbuddin Aibak. During this period Deccan was under the control of native Hindu rulers and Palegars. Shaikh Haji Roomi was the first to arrive in Bijapur with his companions. Although his other comrades like Shaikh Salahuddin, Shaikh Saiful Mulk and Syed Haji Makki were settled in Pune, Haidra and Tikota respectively.
According to Tazkiraye Auliyae Dakkan i.e., Biographies of the saints of the Deccan, compiled by Abdul Jabbar Mulkapuri in 1912–1913,
|“||Sufi Sarmast was one of the earliest sufi of this region. He came to the Deccan from Arabia in the 13th Century at a time when the Deccan was a land of unbelievers with no sign of Islam or correct faith anywhere. His companions, pupils (fakir), disciples (murid), and soldiers (ghazi), numbered over seven hundred. He settled in Sagar in Solapur district. There, a zealous and anti-Muslim raja named Kumaram (Kumara Rama) wished to expel Sufi Sarmast, and his companions having also prepared to a struggle, a bitter fight ensued. Heroes on both sides were slain. Finally the raja was killed by the hand of his daughter. Countless Hindus were killed, and at this time Lakhi Khan Afghan and Nimat Khan came from Delhi to assist him. Hindus were defeated and the Muslims were victorious. The rest of the Hindus, having accepted tributary status, made peace. Since by nature he was fundamentally not combative, Sufi Sarmast spread the religion of Mohammed and befriended the hearts of Hindus. Having seen his fine virtue s and uncommon justice, many Hindus of that time accepted Islam, finally he died in the year A.H.680 i.e., 1281 A.D.||”|
After this period arrival of Sufis in Bijapur and suburbs was started. Ainuddin Gahjul Ilm Dehelvi narrates that Ibrahim Sangane was one of the early Sufis of Bijapur parish. Sufis of Bijapur can be divided into three categories according to period of their arrival viz., Sufis before Bahmani and / or Adil Shahi Dynasty, Sufis during Adil Shahi Dynasty and Sufis after the fall of Adil Shahi Dynasty. And further it can be classified as Sufis as warriors, Sufis as social reformers, Sufis as scholars, poets and writers.
Ibrahim Zubairi writes in his book Rouzatul Auliyae Beejapore (compiled during 1895) which describes that more than 30 tombs or Dargahs are there in Bijapur with more than 300 Khankahs i.e., Islamic Missionary Schools with notable number of disciples of different lineage like Hasani Sadat, Husaini Sadat, Razavi Sadat, Kazmi Sadat, Shaikh Siddiquis, Farooquis, Usmanis, Alvis, Abbasees and other and spiritual chains like Quadari, Chishti, Suharwardi, Naqshbandi, Shuttari, Haidari etc.
Aihole – 110 km, Saint Basaveshwara Pilgrim – 67 km, Basavana Bagevadi – 43 km, Alamatti - 56 km, Badami – 60 km,Solapur – 110 km, Gulbarga – 145 km,Gadag – 199 km, Bidar – 256 km, Pune – 350 km,Hyderabad – 384 km, Bangalore – 530 km,Mumbai – 550 km, Mysore - 650 km.
(Source: Karnataka State Gazetteer 1983)
Climate and Temperature
|Climate data for Bijapur|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.2
|Average low °C (°F)||15.5
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||6
Bijapur has a semi-arid climate. It is located at  It has an average elevation of 606 metres (1988 ft)..
The climate of Bijapur district is generally dry and healthy. In summer, especially in April and May it is too hot; at that time the temperature lays between 40 degree Celsius to 42 degree Celsius. In winter season, from November to January the temperature is between 15 degree Celsius to 20 degree Celsius. Usually the district has dry weather, so the humidity varies from 10% to 30%.
The district has 34 rain gauge stations. The average annual rainfall for the whole district is 552.8 mm, with 37.2 rainy days. The monsoon generally reaches the district by June and lasts till October. Though the total rainfall is not high, the district benefits both from the south-west and the north-east monsoons. The annual rainfall varies from place to place within the district.
The district has two types of soil. First one is, "deep black soil" (or yeari bhoomi), which is good for the crops like jawar, wheat, pulses, sunflower, etc. The major portion of the district consists of this kind of soil which has a great moisture-holding capacity. Second one is „red soil‟ (or masari /maddi bhoomi), which is generally poor, good for irrigation and horticulture.
Krishna river, which is the most important river of the district. It flows about 125 miles in the district. A dam is built across the river at Almatti, Bhima river flows in northern part of district for about 20 miles. It overflows in the rainy season and spreads over a wider area, which is thereby rendered extremely fertile land. In central part of district Doni river flows.
Bijapur City has more than 3.2 lakh population as per census 2011. The population of the entire district is more than 21 lakh. Around 20% of the people habitation is found in the urban regions(Bijapur, Indi etc.) the rest of the 80% are in rural areas. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Bijapur has an average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national average of 74%; with male literacy of 89% and female literacy of 78%. 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kannada is the major language spoken here.
The area is very cosmopolitan with influences from several regions. People from different regions of the country including Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan have settled here since the last few decades.
In Bijapur district agriculture forms the important source of livelihood for the most of the people. The population of the district according to 2001 census is 18, 06,918 of which 7, 18,213 are workers and 10, 88,705 are non-workers.Of the former category, 5,03,755 persons (2, 17,056 cultivators + 2, 86,669 agricultural labourers) are engaged in agriculture, forming 70.1 percent of the total working population.
Due to the untimely and inadequate nature of rainfall, Bijapur district has frequently suffered from famines and droughts. Though the district is being drained by five rivers, the area under irrigation is very small compared to 104 geographical area and the net area sown with agricultural crops. The total area sown is 8,42,586 hectares, out of which only 1, 98,614 (23.5%) hectares is irrigated.
Roadways Roadways: geographically & strategically well connected through major cities by four lane NH- 13(Solapur-Mangalore)(now NH50), NH-218(Hubli-Humnabad) and other state highways The main stand in Bijapur is near the southwestern side of the citadel, near the city center. Bus services to Badami, Belgaum, Almatti, Gulbarga, Bidar, Hubli and Solapur are frequent. Bijapur is geographically & strategically well connected through major cities by four lane NH- 13(Solapur-Mangalore)(now NH50), NH-218(Hubli-Humnabad) and other state highways. Bijapur is a big road transport hub and its state run bus transport division has 6 depots/units and comes under North East Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NEKRTC) headquartered at Gulbarga. The division plys many premium multi axle coaches, sleeper coach, sitting push back coach with AC and Non AC with makers like Volvo, Mercedes Benz, Isuzu Tata Motors, Ashok Leyland, Mitsubishi etc. services to Bengaluru, Mumbai, Pune, Hyderabad, Mangalore, Mysore, Hubli, Belgaum and other major cities.
VRL Logistics, a major logistics company in India headquartered at Hubli, also runs premium & affordable bus services to various parts of the country. Namely, around 15 buses to Bengaluru, 5 buses to Mumbai on a daily basis etc.
Railways Bijapur is well connected by rail with Bangalore and other major cities of India (Bombay, Hyderabad,Ahmedabad, Hubli and Solapur). It has its own railhead that is located just 2 km from the main town.
Bijapur railway station is connected by a broad gauge railway (Gadag-Hotgi railway line) to Hotgi junction near Solapur railway station and Kurduvadi railway station on Central Railway towards the north and to Bagalkot and Gadag junction on South Western Railway towards the south. Bijapur is connected with direct trains to Solapur, Bagalkot, Gadag, Dharwad, Bellary, Yeshwantpur (Bengaluru), Hubli, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad.Bijapur comes under Hubli division of South Western Railway (SWR)
GoK's intention is to develop Bijapur Gulbarga belt as a cement & steel hub,which has created a need for a direct railway line between Bijapur and Shahabad. This would also be able to carry coal from the Jharkhand and Singareni colleries for NTPC's 4000 MW Power Project in Kudagi (Basavana Bagewadi Taluk). The Bijapur-Shahabad line would run 156.60 km and be under the South Western Railway. Partial private sector financing is required; however, state government will contribute two-thirds of the project cost of the railway line, which is estimated at Rs. 1,200 crore over the first five years, in a role as an investor in return for a share in the profits.
Similar proposal has been made for sugar belt on the Bijapur Athani Belgaum new line, which will also provide shorter connectivity from Goa to Solapur, Gulbarga, Bidar, Nagpur, Kolkata. The line would run 112.3 km and be under South Western Railway, if project is taken into consideration it will be on 50:50 cost sharing basis on both state and railways
Air Transport The nearest airport is at Belgaum (205 km). Indian and Jet airways flight operators connect Bijapur to the rest of India. A new airport which can accommodate ATR's & Airbus 320 (expansion afterwords) is currently being built by Karnataka government through PPP mode. Land has already been acquired & construction has already started.
Bijapur Airport (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ ವಿಮಾನ ನಿಲ್ದಾಣ) is an airport that will serve the city of Bijapur in Karnataka, India. Under a public-private partnership agreement, the airport will be built on 727-acre (2.94 km2) plot of land at Madabhavi village near Bijapur. The Karnataka government has contracted MARG Limited, a diversified construction business, to develop the airport.
The airport will feature a terminal building of 2500 square metres, with a handling capacity of 100 passengers at peak hour. Its runway will have an area of 51,000 square metres, which would be sufficient room to support a variety of aircraft. Other features included in the airport will be hangars, aprons, taxiways, parking lots, ground support equipment, a fuel form, a fire station, and air traffic control tower 15 metres high.
Bijapur is emerging as a hub for professional education. Previously (i.e. before the 1980s) there were very few professional educational institutions. Along with the professional colleges there are many colleges which provide under-graduate and post-graduate degrees in the faculty of applied science, pure science, social-sciences and humanities. College of Agriculture, Bijapur,  Hittinalli Farm affiliated university of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad is one of the leading educational and research institutes in the field of agriculture, which is offering undergraduate and postgraduate courses in various disciplines of agriculture.
Engineering colleges are affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University viz, B.L.D.E.A's V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering and Technology and SECAB College of Engineering and Technology
Al Ameen Medical college is affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. BLDEA's B.M.Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre is a deemed university recognized by UGC. Other professional colleges run by BLDE Association are BLDEA's college of pharmacy and college of Nursing sciences affiliated to RGUHS.
Many of colleges except professional are affiliated to Rani Chennamma University Belagavi viz, B.L.D.E.A'S A.S.PATIL COLLEGE OF COMMERCE(Autonomous)MBA Programme, Bijapur. Rani Chennamma University has a Post-Graduation Centre at Bijapur also.
First women's university in the state of Karnataka is located at Bijapur. Various post-graduate courses like MBA, MCA are conducted here. Additionally Bijapur is the first boasts of the Sainik school in the whole state, second in kodagu . This is a residential school preparing cadets for the Defence forces. And there many private computer training institutes providing good computer education like NIIT, Aptech, ISCT etc.
The Bijapur district is known for its mosques, structural monuments, art and architectural heritages, archaeological sites and cave temples. With the objective to spread education in this area, Karnatak University opened its Post-Graduate Centre in 1993.
Karnataka State Women's University
Karnataka State Women's University, established in 2003 in the city of Bijapur is the only Women's University in Karnataka dedicated exclusively for women's education. It is recognized under 2(f) and 12(B) of the UGC Act. Seventy women's colleges spread in twelve districts of North-Karnataka are affiliated to this University. The University offers various UG programmes leading to bachelor's degree in Arts, Business Administration, Computer Applications, Commerce, Education, Fashion Technology, Home Science, Physical Education, Science and Social Work. It also offers 20 P G Courses, P G Diploma and Certificate Courses in the Faculties of Arts, Commerce and Management, Social Sciences, Science and Technology and Education.
IGNOU Bijapur Regional Center
Bijapur has IGNOU regional center, There are 7 districts under its jurisdiction(Districts Bagalkote, Bijapur, Bidar, Gulbarga, Koppal Raichur and Yadgir). The newly created Bijapur Regional Centre would cater to seven northern districts.
- List of rulers of Bijapur
- Bhāskara II
- North Karnataka
- Tourism in North Karnataka
- Arakeri, Bijapur
- Sabala Organization
- List of people from Bijapur
- "Renaming of cities" (Press release). Press Information Bureau. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
- Shenoy, Jaideep (28 September 2013). "Karnataka could see more city corporations based on 2011 census, says minister". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
- New City, Names to Karnatka. "New name for cities". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Richard Maxwell Eaton, Sufis of Bijapur (1300–1700), Page:22 Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey 1978,
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Bijapur
- Airport Projects The Official Website Of MARG Ltd.
- Minor Airports The Official Website Of Infrastructure Development Department, Government of Karnataka
- RGUHS-homepage Archived 31 January 2011 at WebCite
- "Samanya Mahiti"a periodical released by the Bijapur Zilla Parishad.
Source: Karnataka State Gazetteer 1983. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_2_PR_Cities_1Lakh_and_Above.pdf
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