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Grand Mufti

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The Grand Mufti (also called Chief Mufti, State Mufti and Supreme Mufti) is the head of regional muftis, Islamic jurisconsults, of a state. The office originated in the early modern era in the Ottoman empire and has been later adopted in a number of modern countries.[1][2]

Muftis are Islamic jurists qualified to issue a nonbinding opinion (fatwa) on a point of Islamic law (sharia). In the 15th century, muftis of the Ottoman empire, who had acted as independent scholars in earlier times, began to be integrated into a hierarchical bureaucracy of religious institutions and scholars. By the end of the 16th century, the government-appointed mufti of Istanbul came to be recognized under the title Shaykh al-Islam (Turkish: şeyhülislam) as the Grand Mufti in charge of this hierarchy. The Ottoman Grand Mufti performed a number of functions, including advising the sultan on religious matters, legitimizing government policies, and appointing judges. After the dissolution the Ottoman Empire the office of the Grand Mufti has been adopted in a number of countries across the Muslim world, often serving the role of providing religious support for government policies.[2] The Grand Mufti is generally an individual appointed by the state, although the office has collective or elective character in some modern countries.[1][2]

History

Muftis are Muslim religious scholars who issue legal opinions (fatwas) interpreting Sharia (Islamic law).[3]:16–20 The Ottoman Empire began the practice of giving official recognition and status to a single mufti, above all others, as the Grand Mufti.[3]:5 The Grand Mufti of Istanbul had, since the late 16th century, come to be regarded as the head of the religious establishment.[4] He was thus not only pre-eminent but bureaucratically responsible for the body of religious-legal scholars and gave legal rulings on important state policies such as the dethronement of rulers.[4] This practice was subsequently borrowed and adapted by Egypt from the mid-19th century.[3]:5 From there, the concept spread to other Muslim states, so that today there are approximately 16 countries with sizable Muslim populations which have a Grand Mufti.[3]:85 The relationship between the Grand Mufti of any given state and the state's rulers can vary considerably, both by region and by historical era.

Election

Brunei

The State Mufti of Brunei is nominated by the Sultan.

India

The Grand Mufti of India is elected by the Electoral college and appointed by the Islamic Community of India.

Jerusalem

Throughout the era of British colonialism, the British retained the institution of Grand Mufti in some Muslim areas under their control and accorded the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem the highest political stature in Palestine. During World War I (1914–1918), there were two competing Grand Muftis of Jerusalem, one endorsed by the British and one by the Ottoman Empire. When Palestine was under British rule, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was a position appointed by the British Mandate authorities. In the Palestinian National Authority, the administrative organization established to govern parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Grand Mufti is appointed by the president.

Malaysia

Malaysia has a unique system of collective mufti. Nine of the fourteen Malaysian states have their own constitutional monarchy; nine are ruled by their own constitutional monarch while the country is led by a monarch elected from the nine. These nine monarchs have authority over religious matters within their own states: therefore, each of these nine states have their own mufti who usually controls the Islamic Council or Islamic Department of the state. At the national level, a National Council of Fatwa (Majlis Fatwa Kebangsaan) has been formed under the Department of Islamic Advancement of Malaysia (Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia or JAKIM). JAKIM appoints five Muftis for the five states which do not have monarchs. The muftis of the nine monarchical states, together with the five officials appointed by JAKIM in the National Council of Fatwā, collectively issue fatāwā at the national level.

Mughal Empire

In the Mughal Empire, the Grand Mufti of India was a state official.

Ottoman Empire

In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Mufti was a state official, and the Grand Mufti of Constantinople was the highest of these.

Saudi Arabia

The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, with office created in 1953, is appointed by the King.

Tunisia

According to Article 78 of the 2014 Constitution, the Grand Mufti of Tunisia is appointed and can be dismissed by the President of the Republic.[5]

List of Grand Muftis

State Incumbent Status Term
Albania Bujar Spahiu Edit this on Wikidata (1976 – )[6] Appointed as Chairman of the Muslim Community of Albania (KMSH) by the Muslim Community of Albania March 2019
Australia Ibrahim Abu Mohamed ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Australia by the Australian National Imams Council September 2016
Bangladesh Mufti Noor Ahmad[7][verification needed] Appointed as Chief Mufti of Bangladesh by the Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam
Bosnia and Herzegovina Husein Kavazović (3 July 1964 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina November 2012
Brunei Abdul Aziz Juned (22 December 1941 – ) Appointed as State Mufti of Brunei by the Sultan of Brunei, Hassanal Bolkiah 1 September 1994
Bulgaria Mustafa Hadzhi Edit this on Wikidata (31 March 1962 – ) Appointed as Chief Mufti of Bulgaria by the Supreme Muslim Council 1997 – 2005 (first term)
2005 –
Egypt Shawki Allam (12 August 1961 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Egypt by the Council of Senior Scholars of Al-Azhar and approved by the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi February 2013
Ghana Osman Nuhu Sharubutu (23 April 1923 – ) National Chief Imam of Ghana (De facto)
Guinea El Hadj Mamadou Saliou Camara ( – ) Grand Imam of Guinea (De facto)
India Sheikh Abubakr Ahmad Edit this on Wikidata (22 March 1931 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of India by the Islamic Community of India 2019 –
Iraq Mahdi Al-Sumaidaie Edit this on Wikidata (20. century – ) Grand Mufti of Iraq (De facto)
Jordan Abdul Karim Khasawneh (1944 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Jordan by the Cabinet of Jordan and Abdul Hafez Rabtah as Chief Islamic Justice of the Kingdom of Jordan 11 November 2019
Kazakhstan Nauryzbai Kazhy Taganuly Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Appointed as Supreme Mufti of Kazakhstan by the Spiritual Administration of the Muslims of Kazakhstan as per nomination of former Supreme Mufti, Serikbai Kazhy Oraz 7 February 2020
Kosovo Naim Ternava Edit this on Wikidata (7 January 1961 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Kosovo by the Islamic Community of Kosova
Kyrgyzstan Maksatbek Toktomushev Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Kyrgyzstan 2014
Lebanon Sheikh Abdul Latif Derian (3 April 1953 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Lebanon by the Higher Islamic Council 10 August 2014
Libya Sadiq Al-Ghariani (8 December 1942 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Libya by the National Transitional Council May 2011
Lithuania Ramadan Yaqoob Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Grand Mufti of Lithuania (De facto)
Macedonia Sulejman Rexhepi Edit this on Wikidata (1947 – ) Reis-ul-ulema of the Islamic Religious Community of Macedonia
Malaysia Zulkifli Mohamad Al-Bakri (16 January 1969 – ) Mufti of the Federal Territories[citation needed] 20 June 2014
Mohd Tahrir Samsudin Mufti of Johor (Website: mufti.johor.gov.my) 13 November 2008
Syeikh Fadzil Awang[8][9] Mufti of Kedah (Website: mufti.kedah.gov.my) 20 July 2017
Mohamad Shukri Mohamad[10] Mufti of Kelantan (Website: muftikelantan.gov.my)
Abdul Halim Tawil[11] Acting Mufti of Malacca (Website: muftimelaka.gov.my)
Mohd Yusof Ahmad[12][13] Mufti of Negeri Sembilan (Website: muftins.gov.my) 1 April 2009
Abdul Rahman Osman[14][15][16] Mufti of Pahang (Website: mufti.pahang.gov.my)
Wan Salim Wan Mohd Noor[17] Mufti of Penang (Website: mufti.penang.gov.my) 7 June 2014
Harussani Zakaria Edit this on Wikidata ( – )[18] Mufti of Perak (Website: mufti.perak.gov.my) December 1985
Asri Zainul Abidin (1 January 1971 – )[19] Mufti of Perlis (Website: mufti.perlis.gov.my) 2 February 2015
Bungsu Aziz Jaafar[20] Mufti of Sabah (Website: mufti.sabah.gov.my) 10 August 2012
Kipli Yassin[21] Mufti of Sarawak (Website: muftinegeri.sarawak.gov.my)
Mohd Tamyes Abd Wahid Edit this on Wikidata (1 January 1928 – )[22][23] Mufti of Selangor (Website: muftiselangor.gov.my) 16 March 1998
Zulkifly Muda[24] Mufti of Terengganu (Website: mufti.terengganu.gov.my) 1 April 2013
Mauritania Ahmed Ould Murabit[25] Grand Mufti of Mauritania
Montenegro Rifat Fejzić Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Reis-ul-ulema of the Islamic Community of Montenegro
New Zealand Sheikh Mohammad Amir Faizur Rahman Edit this on Wikidata ( – )[26] Appointed as Grand Mufti of New Zealand
Nigeria (1938 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Nigeria by the Supreme Council for Fatwa and Islamic Affairs in Nigeria
Oman Ahmed bin Hamad al-Khalili (27 July 1942 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman by the Sultan of Oman, Qaboos bin Said 1975
Palestine Muhammad Ahmad Hussein (20. century – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the President of the Palestinian National Authority, Mahmoud Abbas July 2006
Poland Tomasz Miśkiewicz (9 July 1977 – ) Appointed as Mufti of the Republic of Poland by the Muslim Religious Union in the Republic of Poland 2004
Romania Murat Iusuf (18 August 1977 – ) (Murād Yūsuf) Grand Mufti of Romania 2005
Russia Rawil Gaynetdin (25 August 1959 – ) Grand Mufti of Russia 1 July 1996
Salah Mezhiev ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Chechnya by Head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov 12 June 2014
Ahmad Afandi Abdulaev (15 September 1959 – ) Appointed as Mufti of Dagestan 1998
(22 March 1985 – ) Appointed as Mufti of Tatarstan 17 April 2013
Aynur Birgalin Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Bashkortostan
Khazrataly Dzasezhev Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Kabardino-Balkaria
Isa Khamkhoev Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Ingushetia
Askarbi Kardanov Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Appointed as Mufti of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai
Saudi Arabia Sheikh Abdulaziz al-Sheikh (10 February 1943 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia by the King of Saudi Arabia, Fahd of Saudi Arabia June 1999
Serbia Sead Nasufović (22 June 1979 – ) Mufti of Serbia July 2016
Singapore Nazirudin Mohd Nasir ( – )[27][28][29] Appointed as Mufti of the Republic of Singapore by the Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura, the statutory board of Ministry of Culture, Community and Youth 1 March 2020 –
South Africa Yasin Muhammad Yaqeenullah[30] Appointed as Grand Mufti by the Muslim Supreme Council of South Africa
Syria Ahmad Badreddin Hassoun (25 April 1949 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of the Republic by the President of President of Syria, Bashar al-Assad July 2005
Tunisia Othman Battikh (17 April 1941 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Tunisia by the President of Tunisia, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2008 and Beji Caid Essebsi in 2016 2008 – 5 January 2016 (resigned for haj pilgrimage in 2016)
12 January 2016 – (reappointed by the president after one week)
Turkey Ali Erbaş Edit this on Wikidata (1961 – ) Appointed as President of Directorate of Religious Affairs by the President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, acting as Grand Mufti of the country. 17 September 2017
United Arab Emirates Ali Ahmed Mashael Edit this on Wikidata ( – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Dubai by Islamic Affairs and Charitable Activities Department
Uzbekistan Usman Alimov (1 January 1950 – ) Grand Mufti of Uzbekistan 8 August 2006
Zimbabwe Ismail ibn Musa Menk (b. 1975)[31] Grand Mufti of Zimbabwe

List of former Grand Muftis

State Incumbent Status Term
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mustafa Cerić (5 February 1952 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina April 1993 – November 2012
Brunei Ismail Omar Abdul Aziz (1911 – 1993) Appointed as State Mufti of Brunei 1962–1994
India ʽAbd al-Qadir Badayuni (21 August 1540 – 5 November 1615) Appointed as Grand Mufti of India by the Mughal emperor, Akbar, appointed him to the muftiat in 1574 where he spent much of his career. 16th century – 17th century
Shah Fazle Rasool Badayuni Edit this on Wikidata (1 July 1798 – 8 August 1872) Appointed as Grand Mufti of India by the final Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar. 19th century
Kifayatullah Dehlawi (November 1882 - 31 December 1952)

مفتی اعظم محمد کفایت اللہ دہلوی (Urdu, his native language),
مفتی کفایت اللہ الدہلوی(Arabic)
[32][33]

20th century
Amjad Ali Aazmi (November 1882 – 6 September 1948) Elected as Grand Mufti of India by Electoral college and Appointed by the Islamic Community of India. 20th century
Mustafa Raza Khan Qadri (18 July 1892 – 11 November 1981) Elected as Grand Mufti of India by Electoral college and Appointed by the Islamic Community of India. 20th century
Akhtar Raza Khan (2 February 1941 – 20 July 2018) Elected as Grand Mufti of India by Electoral college and Appointed by the Islamic Community of India. 20th century – 20 July 2018[34][35]
Palestine Mohammed Tahir al-Husayni (1842 – 1908) (Hanafi) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1869–1908
Kamil al-Husayni (23 February 1867 – 31 March 1921) (Hanafi) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1908–1921
As'ad Shukeiri (1860 – 1940) (Hanafi) Appointed as Qadi by the Ottoman Empire during the World War I. 1914–1918
Amin al-Husseini (1 January 1895 – 4 July 1974) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1921–1937
Hussam ad-Din Jarallah (1884 – 6 March 1954) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1948–1952
Saad al-Alami (1911 – 1993) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf 1952–1993
Sulaiman Ja'abari (1912 – 1994) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... 1993–1994
Ekrima Sa'id Sabri (1939 – ) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem by the .... October 1994 – July 2006
Saudi Arabia Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh (24 July 1893 – 3 December 1969) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia by the .... 1953–1969
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz (22 November 1912 – 13 May 1999) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia by the .... 1992–1999
Syria Ahmed Kuftaro (1915 – 1 September 2004) Appointed as Grand Mufti of Syria 26 October 1964 – 1 September 2004

See also

References

  1. ^ a b John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Grand Mufti". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ a b c James Broucek (2013). "Mufti/Grand mufti". In Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone (ed.). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press.
  3. ^ a b c d Vogel, Frank E. (2000). Islamic Law and the Legal System of Saudí: Studies of Saudi Arabia. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004110625.
  4. ^ a b Faroqhi, Suraiya N. (2006). The Cambridge History of Turkey. The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603–1839 (1st ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 9780521620956. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  5. ^ "Title four, chapter one, article 78" (PDF). THE CONSTITUTION OF THE TUNISIAN REPUBLIC (Unofficial english translation). UNDP and International IDEA. 26 January 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  6. ^ "Bujar Spahiu, Elected New Chairman of KMSH". Albanian Daily News. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  7. ^ "হাটহাজারী মাদরাসার শিক্ষা পরিচালক মুফতী নূর আহমদ অসুস্থ, দেশবাসীর কাছে দোয়া কামনা আল্লামা বাবুনগরীর". Ekushe Journal News (in Bengali). 12 July 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Syeikh Fadzil Awang appointed new Kedah mufti | The Star Online". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  9. ^ Zulkefli, Adie Suri (21 July 2017). "Syeikh Fadzil Awang appointed new Kedah Mufti". NST Online. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  10. ^ Zaidi, Hazira Ahmad (14 February 2020). "Kelantan guna pakai fatwa kebangsaan". HM Online (in Malay). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Ahli MAIM – Majlis Agama Islam Melaka (MAIM)". maim.gov.my. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  12. ^ Nor, Mohd Helmi Irwadi Mohd (17 March 2019). "Negri mufti wants PUBG online shooting game banned". NST Online. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  13. ^ "Negri mufti wants PUBG online shooting game banned". MSN. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  14. ^ Bernama (10 January 2020). "Agong: I will strive to unite Malaysians". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
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  18. ^ Mohsen, Amar Shah. "Khat controversy shows nation hyper-sensitive to racial, religious issues". The Sun. Malaysia. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  19. ^ Bakar, Adam Abu (27 January 2018). "Asri hits back at critics, maintains Shia Muslims a threat". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  20. ^ Abdullah, Mohd Izham Unnip (12 July 2018). "Appointment of Sabah and Sarawak chief judge as Chief Justice is honour for East Malaysia". NST Online. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  21. ^ "Seeking divine intervention to fight crime". Borneo Post. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  22. ^ HARIAN, WARTAWAN SINAR (17 June 2019). "Hindari fitnah demi perpaduan, pesan Mufti Selangor". Sinarharian (in Malay). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  23. ^ Noh, Oleh Norzamira Che (1 August 2017). "Bin/Binti bapa biologi boleh cetus kekeliruan". BH Online (in Malay). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  24. ^ "'Merry Christmas' is fine, but avoid being Santa, says mufti". MSN. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  25. ^ Hoda Al-Saleh (1 October 2018). مفتي موريتانيا يتحدث للعربية.نت عن "خطر وحظر الإخوان [The Mufti of Mauritania speaks to Al Arabiya about "the danger and banning of the Brotherhood"]. AlArabiya.net (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020. With these words, the Grand Mufti of Mauritania, Ahmed Ould al-Murabit
  26. ^ Mufti of New Zealand praises measures taken by the Kingdom to suspend Umrah and visiting visas for countries infected with Coronavirus
  27. ^ "MEDIA STATEMENT ON KEY CHANGES TO SENIOR RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP IN MUIS". Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (Press release). On 1 Mar 2020, Ustaz Dr Mohamed Fatris Bakaram will step down and Ustaz Dr Nazirudin Mohd Nasir will be appointed as Mufti of the Republic of Singapore. The appointment of the Mufti is made by the President of Singapore in consultation with the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore.
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  29. ^ hermes (10 January 2020). "Singapore Muslims to have new Mufti from March 1". The Straits Times. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
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  33. ^ https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/10603/245048/7/07%20chapter%203.pdf
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  35. ^ "Thousands throng funeral of noted Barelvi cleric; traffic blocked for eight hours". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 February 2019.