|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||114.23 g mol−1|
|Density||692 mg mL−1|
|Melting point||−107.44 to −107.32 °C; −161.39 to −161.18 °F; 165.71 to 165.83 K|
|Boiling point||99.1 to 99.5 °C; 210.3 to 211.0 °F; 372.2 to 372.6 K|
|Vapor pressure||5.5 kPa (at 21 °C)|
|kH||3.0 nmol Pa−1 kg−1|
|Refractive index (nD)||1.391|
heat capacity C
|242.49 J K−1 mol−1|
|328.03 J K−1 mol−1|
|Std enthalpy of
|−260.6–−258.0 kJ mol−1|
|Std enthalpy of
|−5462.6–−5460.0 kJ mol−1|
|GHS signal word||DANGER|
|GHS hazard statements||H225, H304, H315, H336, H410|
|GHS precautionary statements||P210, P261, P273, P301+310, P331|
|EU classification||F Xn N|
|R-phrases||R11, R38, R50/53, R65, R67|
|S-phrases||(S2), S16, S29, S33|
|Flash point||−12 °C; 10 °F; 261 K|
|Autoignition temperature||396 °C; 745 °F; 669 K|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as isooctane, iso-octane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2. It is one of several isomers of octane (C8H18). This particular isomer is the standard 100 point on the octane rating scale (the zero point is n-heptane). It is an important component of gasoline, frequently used in relatively large proportions to increase the knock resistance of the fuel.
Strictly speaking, if we follow the standard meaning for ‘iso’, the name isooctane should be reserved for the isomer 2-methylheptane. However, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane is by far the most important isomer of octane and so, historically, it has ended up with this name.
Isooctane is produced on a massive scale in the petroleum industry by distillation of petroleum. It can also be produced from isobutylene by dimerization (a variant of alkylation) using an Amberlyst catalyst to produce a mixture of iso-octenes. Hydrogenation of this mixture produces 2,2,4-trimethylpentane.
Engine knocking is an unwanted process that can occur during combustion in internal combustion engines. Graham Edgar in 1926 added different amounts of n-heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane to gasoline, and discovered that the knocking stopped when 2,2,4-trimethylpentane was added. This was the origin of the octane rating scale. Test motors, using 2,2,4-trimethylpentane gave a certain performance which was standardized as 100 octane. The same test motors, run in the same fashion, using heptane, gave a performance which was standardized as 0 octane. All other compounds and blends of compounds then were graded against these two standards and assigned octane numbers.
In common with all hydrocarbons, inhalation or ingestion of large quantities of iso-octane is harmful. In rare cases a stronger reaction can occur. It is also flammable (as one would expect for a fuel).
- "2,2,4-trimethylpentane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Werner Dabelstein, Arno Reglitzky, Andrea Schütze and Klaus Reders "Automotive Fuels" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_719.pub2
- Clayden, Jonathan (2005). Organic chemistry (Reprinted (with corrections). ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-19-850346-0.
- Dimerization of isobutylene, Amberlyst.com
- Fuels and lubricants handbook, Volume 1, George E. Totten, Steven R. Westbrook, Rajesh J. Shah, page 62
- 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, Integrated Risk Information System, United States Environmental Protection Agency