2014 FIFA World Cup preparations

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Countdown before World Cup

The costs of the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament in Brazil are estimated to be the highest in the history of the FIFA World Cup.[1]

Forecasts on the eve of the tournament place the cost to the Brazilian government at $14 billion.[2] This expenditure has largely been on stadium works and infrastructure projects. Brazil has added on numerous construction projects to facilitate hosting the 2014 FIFA World Cup [3] Football's governing body, FIFA, will also spend an estimated $2 billion on staging the final tournament.[4]

Host nation investment[edit]

Stadiums[edit]

Dilma Rousseff (2nd from the right) and Pelé (center) following the works in Belo Horizonte

Although organisers originally estimated costs of US$1.1 billion,[5] a reported US$3.6 billion has ultimately been spent on stadium works.[6][7] Five of the chosen host cities have brand new venues built specifically for the World Cup, while the Estádio Nacional Mané Garrincha in the capital Brasilia was demolished and rebuilt, with the remaining six being extensively renovated.[8] The Estádio do Maracanã in Rio de Janeiro, which already holds the record attendance for a FIFA World Cup Finals match (199,854), is the largest of the stadiums and will stage the final. The CBF originally intended to host the opening match at São Paulo's Estádio do Morumbi but it was dropped in 2010 and replaced by the Arena Corinthians after failing to provide financial guarantees for the required improvements.[9]

The first wholly new stadium, the Castelão, in Fortaleza, became operational in January 2013.[10] Six of the venues were used during the 2013 Confederations Cup.[11] However, six further stadiums missed FIFA's original 31 December 2013 deadline for completed works.[12] The completion of the new Arena Corinthians was hindered by a fatal crane collapse in November 2013 that destroyed part of the stadium and killed two construction workers.[13] Slow progress at the Arena da Baixada site in Curitiba led to FIFA threatening to drop the stadium as a host venue in January 2014 unless significant progress was made during the following month;[14] after being satisfied of progress, FIFA confirmed that Curitiba would remain a host city.[15]

During the first three months of 2014, the first games were staged at the venues in Manaus[16] (Arena da Amazônia), Natal[17] and Porto Alegre.[18] However, following an inspection of all the venues in May 2014, FIFA Secretary Valcke expressed concerns about the readiness of the Natal, Porto Alegre and São Paulo venues, with additional test events still being required.[19] Brazil's Deputy Sports Minister, Luis Fernandes, responded by stating that there was "no panic".[20]

Infrastructure projects[edit]

Luz Station in Downtown São Paulo

In January 2010 Brazil's federal government estimated that staging the tournament would require a state investment of $11 billion of funding.[21] It also announced tax breaks for the construction and refurbishment of the stadiums for the 2014 World Cup and that host cities would be exempt from VAT,[22] all expenditure by FIFA in Brazil is also exempt from taxation.[23]

The Brazilian federal government has earmarked R$3 billion (€1.8 billion, £1.1 billion) for investment in works relating to the 2014 World Cup, and intends to release a package of works, entitled the World Cup PAC (Portuguese acronym for Growth Acceleration Programme).[24] Brazil announced in March of 2007 that there would be an additional PAC investment of 526 billion dollars allotted to infrastructure spanning from 2011 to 2014[25] The airports in Brazil have been identified as "the big problem" by the tournament's organizing committee.[26] Experts say that the airports need a massive renovation and expansion in order to facilitate the influx of people arriving for the 2014 FIFA World Cup [27] An estimated 600,000 people will travel by plane to the tournament in addition to the three million passengers using flight to travel between matches.[28]

Legislation was introduced to enable the state's airport operator Infraero to speed up airport works.[29] Brazil's government is having issues with upholding legislation with regard to infrastructure[30]However, research by the Brazilian government in 2011 forecast that 10 of the 13 terminals to be upgraded were unlikely to be completed in time for the tournament.[31] Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff stated that the government would make "a strong intervention" to ensure that the airports are ready, including opening them up to private investment;[31] the management of three airports was auctioned off to the private sector in 2013 (earning $10.8 billion).[32]

Additional major infrastructure projects have been taking place across the country on road systems and light rail and bus rapid transit lines that will connect the airports to the city centres and stadiums. Over 4,300 km of highways were forecast to require work.[33]

To host the increased amount of tourists in the country, the Brazilian Development Bank(BNDES) has provided a budget of R$2 billion to modernise and increase the country's hotel network.[34] In Rio de Janeiro, these developments are also in anticipation for the staging of the 2016 Summer Olympics.[35]

Many planned works such new monorail systems in Manaus and São Paulo and a subway system in Belo Horizonte have, however, been cancelled, while others are no longer expected to be finished before the tournament. Other projects are proceeding but only in a downsized scale.[36][37][38][39] In May 2014 it was reported that only 36 of the planned 93 major projects have been completed.[40] FIFA Secretary General Jérôme Valcke defended the state of progress, stating "it was clear from the beginning not all the projects would be ready... these projects were part of a government plan that goes far beyond the World Cup".[41] FIFA has pledged to spend at least $20 million on "legacy projects" in Brazil following the tournament.[42]

The failure to deliver all the originally planned projects has been cited as a cause for criticism from some Brazilians against their government's investment in the tournament and their handling of the projects. An opinion poll by Datafolha two months before the start of the tournament found that only 48% of the respondents in Brazil supported the event, a decline from the 79% approval rating it was given in 2008.[43] 55% of respondents said that they believed the event would bring more harm than good to Brazilians.[44] FIFA President Sepp Blatter admitted "Brazilians are a bit discontented because they were promised a lot".[44]

Former Brazilian footballer Romário, now a political figure, criticised his country's handling of these preparations but said that "FIFA's requirements were excessive".[45] Another former Brazilian player, Ronaldo, said he felt "embarrassed" about the state of the country's infrastructure and how "a series of investments were promised that won't be delivered - only 30% percent will be delivered".[46]

A group of German economists think it is economic luxury to host a sports event of this size in a newly industrialized country like Brazil or Russia. They suggest at least two measures to make such events sustainable: first, build less. And second, the organizing associations should participate finance the sports venues. The large stadiums and streets are not used any more after the event. The effect is especially disastrous if the relation of investments compared to the assets is as low as in Brazil, and the event drains most of the total money spent. As a consequence, they fear that Olympic games and football world championships will only be hosted in countries with authoritarian regimes.[47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54]

Security measures[edit]

The Brazilian government has pledged $900 million will be invested into security forces and that the tournament will be "one of the most protected sports events in history".[55] It plans to have one police officer for every 50 people attending matches, and one for every 80 people at public viewing events around the country.[55]

Investment in security measures such as facial recognition systems and unmanned security robots has already been made.[56] An integrated security plan has been developed that seeks to gain information from sources about potential terrorists, troublemakers and hooligans.[57] A total of 150,000 public security professionals and military will ensure World Cup security, alongside with 20,000 private security personnel.[58]

Security concerns for the tournament have been increased since large-scale protests occurred during Brazil's staging of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup with disturbances also occurring outside the stadiums.[59][60] Protesters cited the amount of public money being invested by the Brazilian government in the hosting of the World Cup at the expense of social services for its population as a key grievance.[61][62][63]

FIFA investment[edit]

FIFA forecasts it will spend $2 billion on staging the 2014 World Cup Finals.[4]

Statistics[edit]

Costs of latest WCs[disputed ][64][65][66][67]
Host General cost
 BRA (2014) US$14 billion (1st)
 GER (2006) $6 billion (2nd)
 KOR/ JPN (2002) $5 billion (3rd)
 ITA (1990) $5 billion (4th)[68]
 SAF (2010) $4 billion (5th)
 FRA (1998) $340 million (6th)
 USA (1994) $30 million (7th)


See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  52. ^ After Using Over $500 Million In Taxpayer Money To Build Sports Stadiums, Cincinnati Forced To Sell Off Local Hospital
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  68. ^ http://wikispesa.costodellostato.it/Mondiali_Italia_%2790._Sprechi,_opere_incompiute,_mutui_accesi_al_2014