3rd millennium BC

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The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. It represents a period of time in which imperialism, or the desire to conquer, grew to prominence, in the city-states of the Middle East, but also throughout Eurasia. The civilization of Ancient Egypt rose to a peak with the Old Kingdom. World population is estimated to have doubled in the course of the millennium, to some 30 million people.

Overview[edit]

Bronze Age
Neolithic

Near East (c. 3300–1200 BC)

Anatolia, Caucasus, Elam, Egypt, Levant, Mesopotamia, Sistan
Bronze Age collapse

South Asia (c. 3000–1200 BC)

Ochre Coloured Pottery
Cemetery H

Europe (c. 3200–600 BC)

Aegean, Caucasus, Catacomb culture, Srubna culture, Beaker culture, Unetice culture, Tumulus culture, Urnfield culture, Hallstatt culture, Apennine culture
Atlantic Bronze Age, Bronze Age Britain, Nordic Bronze Age

China (c. 2000–700 BC)

Erlitou, Erligang

arsenical bronze

Iron age

The Bronze Age occurred roughly between 3000 BC and 2500 BC. The previous millennium had seen the emergence of advanced, urbanized civilizations, new bronze metallurgy extending the productivity of agricultural work, and highly developed ways of communication in the form of writing. In the 3rd millennium BC, the growth of these riches, both intellectually and physically, became a source of contention on a political stage, and rulers sought the accumulation of more wealth and more power. Along with this came the first appearances of mega architecture, imperialism, organized absolutism and internal revolution.

The civilizations of Sumer and Akkad in Mesopotamia became a collection of volatile city-states in which warfare was common. Uninterrupted conflicts drained all available resources, energies and populations. In this millennium, larger empires succeeded the last, and conquerors grew in stature until the great Sargon of Akkad pushed his empire to the whole of Mesopotamia and beyond. It would not be surpassed in size until Assyrian times 1,500 years later.

In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the Egyptian pyramids were constructed and would remain the tallest and largest human constructions for thousands of years. Also in Egypt, pharaohs began to posture themselves as living gods made of an essence different from that of other human beings. Even in Europe, which was still largely neolithic during the same period of time, the builders of megaliths were constructing giant monuments of their own. In the Near East and the Occident during the 3rd millennium BC, limits were being pushed by architects and rulers.

Towards the close of the millennium, Egypt became the stage of the first popular revolution recorded in history. After lengthy wars, the Sumerians recognized the benefits of unification into a stable form of national government and became a relatively peaceful, well-organized, complex technocratic state called the 3rd dynasty of Ur. This dynasty was later to become involved with a wave of nomadic invaders known as the Amorites, who were to play a major role in the region during the following centuries.

Events[edit]

A model of the prehistoric town of Los Millares, with its walls.

Environmental changes[edit]

Holocene Epoch
Pleistocene
Holocene/Anthropocene
Preboreal (10.3 ka – 9 ka)
Boreal (9 ka – 7.5 ka)
Atlantic (7.5 ka5 ka)
Subboreal (5 ka2.5 ka)
Subatlantic (2.5 ka – present)

Significant people[edit]

Cultures[edit]

Minoan Snake Goddess.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

The Medicine Wheel in Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA

Cultural landmarks[edit]

Stonehenge.

Centuries[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eckholm, Erik (10 November 2000). "In China, Ancient History Kindles Modern Doubts". The New York Times. 
  2. ^ "Early Helladic I". The Bronze Age on the Greek Mainland: Early Bronze Age. Athens: Foundation of the Hellenic World. 1999–2000. 
  3. ^ Scarre, Chris (1993). Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-56458-305-5. "Both the dromedary (the one-humped camel of Arabia) and the Bactrian camel (the two-humped camel of Central Asia) had been domesticated since before 2000 BC." 
  4. ^ Bulliet, Richard W. (1990) [1975]. The Camel and the Wheel. Morningside Book Series. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-231-07235-9. "As has already been mentioned, this type of utilization [camels pulling wagons] goes back to the earliest known period of two-humped camel domestication in the third millennium BC." 
  5. ^ Rudgley, Richard (2000) [1999]. Lost Civilisations of the Stone Age. New York: Touchstone (Simon and Schuster). p. 138. ISBN 978-0-684-85580-6.