Abhisit Vejjajiva

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This is a Thai name. Abhisit is the given name; Vejjajiva is the family name.
Abhisit Vejjajiva
MPCh MWM
อภิสิทธิ์ เวชชาชีวะ
Abhisit royal.jpg
Leader of the Opposition
In office
6 August 2011 – 8 December 2013
Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra
Preceded by Chalerm Yubamrung
Succeeded by Parliament dissolved
In office
6 March 2005 – 17 December 2008
Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra
Chitchai Wannasathit (Acting)
Samak Sundaravej
Somchai Wongsawat
Chaovarat Chanweerakul (Acting)
Preceded by Banyad Bantadthan
Succeeded by Chalerm Yubamrung
27th Prime Minister of Thailand
In office
17 December 2008 – 5 August 2011
Monarch Bhumibol Adulyadej
Preceded by Chaovarat Chanweerakul (Acting)
Succeeded by Yingluck Shinawatra
Leader of the Democrat Party
Incumbent
Assumed office
6 March 2005
Preceded by Banyat Bantadtan
Member of the Thai House of Representatives
In office
1 July 1992 – 8 December 2013
Constituency Bangkok Metropolitan Region – 6th District
Personal details
Born Mark Abhisit Vejjajiva
(1964-08-03) 3 August 1964 (age 50)
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom[1][2]
Political party Democrat Party
Spouse(s) Pimpen Sakuntabhai
Children Prang
Punnasit[3]
Alma mater Eton College
St John's College, Oxford
Ramkhamhaeng University
Profession Economist[4]
Religion Theravada Buddhism
Signature

Abhisit Vejjajiva (Thai: อภิสิทธิ์ เวชชาชีวะ; RTGS: Aphisit Wetchachiwa (Thai pronunciation); IPA:  [ʔà.pʰí.sìt wêːt.tɕʰāː.tɕʰīː.wáʔ] About this sound pronunction ; born 3 August 1964) is a Thai politician who was the 27th Prime Minister of Thailand from 2008 to 2011 and is the current leader of the Democrat Party. As leader of the second largest party in the House of Representatives, he was also Leader of the Opposition – a position he held from December 2008 until his party's en masse resignation from the House on 8 December 2013. That same month, he was formally charged with murder resulting from a crackdown on demonstrators in 2010 that killed 90 people.[5]

Born in England, Abhisit attended Eton College and earned bachelors and masters degrees from the University of Oxford.[6] He was elected to the Parliament of Thailand at age 27, and promoted to Democrat Party leader in 2005, after his predecessor resigned following the party's defeat in the 2005 general election.[7]

Abhisit was appointed Prime Minister of Thailand on 17 December 2008, after the Constitutional Court of Thailand removed Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat from office.[8][9] At age 44, he was the country's youngest prime minister in more than 60 years.[10]

Abhisit became Premier at a time of global economic turmoil and rising domestic political tensions.[11] As prime minister, he promoted a "People's Agenda," which focused primarily on policies affecting the living conditions of Thailand's rural and working class citizens.[12] He administered two economic stimulus packages: a $40 billion, three-year infrastructure improvement plan, and a more than $3 billion program of cash subsidies and handouts.[13] By 2010, the stock market and the value of the baht had rebounded to their highest levels since the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Human Rights Watch called Abhisit "the most prolific censor in recent Thai history" and Freedom House downgraded Thailand's rating of media freedom to "not free."[14] [15] Abhisit also advocated for stronger anti-corruption measures, although several members of his Cabinet resigned due to corruption scandals and parts of his economic stimulus packages were criticized for instances of alleged corruption.

Abhisit's government faced major protests in April 2009 and April–May 2010. The military's crackdowns on protesters left many dead.[16][17] Abhisit launched a reconciliation plan to investigate the crackdown, but the work of the investigation commission was hampered by military and government agencies.[18] The Thai Army clashed with Cambodian troops numerous times from 2009 to 2010 in the bloodiest fighting in over 2 decades.[19] The South Thailand insurgency escalated during Abhisit's government, and reports of torture and human rights violations increased.

Having resigned the party leadership after the defeat the Democrats suffered in the parliamentary elections of 2011, Abhisit was re-elected as leader at a party assembly.

Early life and family[edit]

Abhisit Vejjajiva, wearing the prime minister attire, a full traditional attire of chief minister in ancient times which is now still in ceremonial use, including the golden brocaded Senamat gown (ครุยเสนามาตย์), and wife, Dr Pimpen, wearing an applied Thai dress

Mark Abhisit Vejjajiva[20] was born in Wallsend, Newcastle upon Tyne, England. He studied in England from the age of 11, where he attended Eton College and was known as "Veggie" amongst his peers.[21][22] Abhisit earned a bachelor's degree in philosophy, politics and economics (PPE), first class honors, and a master's degree in economics from St John's College, Oxford. While studying in England, he went to Thailand several times, including a gap year trip in 1983 with classmate and future London Mayor Boris Johnson to the resort city of Chiang Mai and the island of Phuket.[23]

After moving to Thailand, he received a bachelor's degree in law from Thailand's Ramkhamhaeng University, and taught at Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy[24] and Thammasat University Faculty of Economics.[25] He is fluent in both his mother tongue and the English language, and has dual Thai and British citizenship.[26] His dual citizenship became a topic for the Thai parliamentary debates in early 2011. He is ethnically Han Chinese.[27][28]

Abhisit is married to Pimpen Sakuntabhai, his classmate at the Chulalongkorn University Demonstration elementary school, who was a former dentist and is now a lecturer at the Department of Mathematics at Chulalongkorn University. They have two children: Prang Vejjajiva (daughter) and Pannasit Vejjajiva (son). Pannasit has suffered from autism since birth.[29] After his majority, the Central Juvenile and Family Court adjudged him quasi-competent and placed him under the guardianship of Abhisit, his father, as from 3 September 2012.[29]

Abhisit also has two sisters: child psychiatrist Alisa Wacharasindhu and author Ngarmpun Vejjajiva.[30] A cousin, Suranand Vejjajiva–whose father Nissai Vejjajiva is the brother of Abhisit's father Athasit– had also served as a cabinet minister under Thai Rak Thai and currently serves as the Prime Minister's Secretary General under Yingluck Shinawatra.[31][32]

Background[edit]

Abhisit's ancestors surnamed Yuan (), who moved from Vietnam to Thailand. The family name Vejjajiva was granted by King Rama VI to Abhisit's great-grandfather Dr. Long (หลง), together with Long's father Nai Jinsang (นายจิ๊นแสง), grandfather Nai Peng (นายเป๋ง) and great-grandfather Nai Go (นายก่อ) while Dr. Long was serving as an Army Medical Department sub-lieutenant (รองอำมาตย์ตรี[33]) The Vejjajiva family came to prominence when Dr. Long, then styled Phra Bamrad Naradura, rose to public health minister, and founded the Bamrad Naradura hospital in Nonthaburi. The family name means "medical profession."[34]

Abhisit's father, Athasit (อรรถสิทธิ์) Vejjajiva, is a former president of Mahidol University and a member of the Royal Institute of Thailand.[35] After the National Peace Keeping Council seized power in a military coup in 1991, the military junta appointed Abhisit's father Deputy Minister of Public Health.[36][37] When Abhisit became Prime Minister, Athasit was appointed director of Charoen Pokphand Foods, Thailand's largest agribusiness firm and part of the Charoen Pokphand Group.[38]

Early political career[edit]

Entry into politics[edit]

Abhisit began his political career in the 1992 general elections that followed the coup, becoming a Bangkok MP for the Democrat Party. He was re-elected to the same seat in the 1995 and 1996 general elections. In the elections of 2001 and 2005, he returned to parliament as a Party List MP for the Democrat Party. He has served as Democrat Party spokesman, Government spokesman, Deputy-Secretary to the Prime Minister for Political Affairs, Chairman of the House Education Affairs Committee, and Minister to the Prime Minister's Office.

Democrat Party leader[edit]

Abhisit was first nominated for the position of Democrat Party leader in 2003, following the resignation of then-party leader and former-Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai. However, he lost the bid in a close election with seasoned politician Banyat Bantadtan.[39] Two years later, Banyat led the Democrat Party to an overwhelming defeat in the 2005 general elections. Banyat resigned following the elections and Abhisit was named the new party leader.

2006 elections[edit]

In February 2006, then-Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra dissolved the House of Representatives and called for new elections in April. In response, Abhisit announced that the Democrats and other opposition parties would boycott the elections. They claimed the elections lacked legitimacy, and were an attempt by Thaksin to divert public attention from his tax free sales of the Shin Corporation to Temasek Holdings.[40]

Thaksin's Thai Rak Thai Party won an overwhelming majority in the virtually uncontested April 2006 election. However, the elections also left 38 seats vacant in the House of Representatives, because some Thai Rak Thai candidates were unable to garner the constitutionally required minimum of 20% of the vote to hold office. In the ensuing political crisis, Thaksin announced he would step down as Prime Minister, and the Constitutional Court ultimately invalidated the election results.[41]

The Thai Rak Thai party charged the Democrats with bribing other small political parties into boycotting the April 2006 elections. An 11-member fact-finding panel headed by Deputy Attorney-General Chaikasem Nitisiri voted unanimously in June 2006 to recommend dissolving the Democrat Party, as well as Thai Rak Thai and three other parties, based on evidence that the Democrats bribed other opposition parties into boycotting the elections.[42][43] In February 2007, candidates from the Progressive Democratic Party testified before the Constitution Tribunal that they were duped into registering for candidacy in the April elections.[44] Three witnesses testified that Democrat leaders Thaworn Senniam, Wirat Kalayasiri, and Jua Ratchasi encouraged protesters to disrupt the registration of candidates during the by-elections after the April 2006 election. Prosecutors contended that the party tried to disqualify the election results and force continuous rounds of by-elections.[45] The defense claimed that the witnesses were hired by the Thai Rak Thai party to discredit the Democrats. Ultimately, the Constitutional Court of Thailand acquitted Abhisit and the Democrats of bribery, and instead banned Thaksin's Thai Rak Thai party for the same charges.[46][47]

2006 military coup[edit]

On 19 September 2006, only weeks before the scheduled elections, the military seized power in the 2006 Thailand coup. Abhisit voiced his disapproval of the coup just hours before all political activities were banned:

Abhisit and the Democrats supported the military junta's 2007 draft constitution on the grounds that rejecting it would give more power to the junta.[49] Abhisit said the Democrat Party considered the new constitution similar to the 1997 Constitution, but with improvements as well as faults. "If we wanted to please the Council for National Security we would reject the draft so it could pick a charter of its own choosing. If we reject the draft, it will be like handing out power to the Council. We have come up with this stand because we care about national interest and want democracy to be restored soon," he said.[49] Abhisit said he would seek to amend the Constitution if he was named prime minister.[50]

2007 elections[edit]

The Democrat Party remained in the opposition after the December 2007 parliamentary election. In a parliamentary vote to select a new prime minister on 28 January 2008, Samak Sundaravej of the People's Power Party defeated Abhisit by a vote of 310 to 163.[51] On 9 September 2008, Mr. Samak was removed from the post by the Constitutional Court for receiving payment as the host of a TV cooking program.

In the crisis that followed, some Democrat Party members became leaders of the People's Alliance for Democracy, which organized a six-month-long demonstration and seized Government House, Don Muang Airport, and Suvarnabhumi Airport. Abhisit voiced displeasure at the sieges, but did not stop his deputies from their leadership of the PAD.[52] The sieges ended after the Constitutional Court banned the People's Power Party. Army commander and co-leader of the 2006 coup, General Anupong Paochinda, allegedly coerced several PPP MPs from the Friends of Newin Group to defect to the Democrat Party, allowing Abhisit to be elected Prime Minister.[53][54]

Upon becoming Premiere, Abhisit promised to enforce the rule of law and prosecute the 21 Peoples Alliance for Democracy leaders who were responsible for seizing Don Muang and Suvarnabhumi Airports. As of February 2010, arrest warrants still had not been issued for the airport seizures.[55] On 24 February 2010, government prosecutors deferred a decision for the eighth time to decide whether to indict the nine leaders of the PAD over the 7-month long seizure of Government House. However, as the PAD leaders did not come testify voluntarily, the judge could not make the decision and the process was thereby delayed.

Rise to Premiership[edit]

Abhisit as Leader of the Opposition (2008)

When Thaksin called for new elections in April 2006, Abhisit said he was "prepared to become a prime minister who adheres to the principles of good governance and ethics, not authoritarianism." On 29 April Abhisit announced his candidacy for Prime Minister at the Democrat Party annual convention. He promised a "People's Agenda," with education as the main focus. He used the campaign slogan "Putting People First." He also vowed not to privatize basic utilities such as water and electricity, and to nationalize state enterprises that Thaksin had privatized.[56] Regarding core elements of the so-called "Thaksinomics", Abhisit promised "the benefits from certain populist policies, such as the 30-Baht healthcare scheme, the Village Fund and the SML (Small Medium Large) scheme, will not be revoked but instead improved." He later urged that Thaksin's popular 30-Baht health care scheme should be replaced with a system where access to medical services was totally free.[57] Abhisit stated that all future Democrat MPs would have to declare their assets and any involvement in private companies. (By law, only members of the cabinet needed to declare their assets.)[58]

Abhisit raised more than Bt200 million at the Democrat Party's 60th Anniversary dinner. He outlined several energy policies, including increasing dividend payments from state-owned oil company PTT and using the funds to repay Oil Fund debts, and having state-owned electric utility EGAT absorb part of the rising fuel prices.[59] Abhisit later outlined plans to reduce retail petrol prices by eliminating the 2.50 baht/litre tax used to maintain the government's Oil Fund.[60]

On 13 July 2006, Abhisit promised to deal with escalating violence in the South by making the problems in the Southern provinces a public agenda.

Abhisit also promised many populist policies including providing free education, textbooks, milk, and supplemental foods for nursery school students and increasing the minimum wage.[61]

Following the Constitutional Court of Thailand's removal of prime minister Samak Sundaravej in 2008 for vested interests by taking a salary from a cooking show while in the seat of PM, Abhisit lost the National Assembly vote for Prime Minister by 163 votes to 298 for Somchai Wongsawat, ex-PM Thaksin Shinawatra's brother in law.[62] On 2 December 2008, the Constitutional Court banned the three government parties for election fraud, including the PPP, thus dissolving the governing coalition and paving the way for a Democrat-led government. The Court also removed Somchai from office and banned him from politics for five years for his involvement in the scandal as one of PPP's executive board members. He was succeeded by a deputy.

After Somchai was removed and the PPP dissolved, the MPs of the parties which had been in coalition with the PPP forged a new coalition with the Democrat Party, which had been in opposition until then. Most of the defectors were MPs from the Friends of Newin faction of the PPP, as well as the Bhumjaithai Party, the Puea Pandin Party, the Chartthaipattana Party, and the Rum Chart Pattana Party.[63] The defection of the powerful Friends of Newin Group came about due to the alleged coercion by Army Commander General Anupong Paochinda, a move that Senator Khamnoon Sitthisamarn called an "Anupong-style coup."[53][54][64] The Democrat-led coalition was able to endorse Abhisit as Prime Minister.[65][66][67] Abhisit became Prime Minister after winning a vote in parliament on 15 December 2008.[68]

Prime Minister of Thailand[edit]

Abhisit with his political mentor Chuan Leekpai

Abhisit was formally endorsed by King Bhumibol Adulyadej as Prime Minister on 17 December 2008. Key appointments in Abhisit's government included PAD leader Kasit Piromya as Foreign Minister, construction tycoon Chaovarat Chanweerakul as Interior Minister, and investment banker and former Abhisit classmate Korn Chatikavanij as Finance Minister.[69] Massage parlor tycoon Pornthiva Nakasai was appointed Deputy Commerce Minister.

Abhisit's government saw unemployment increase by 63 percent.[70] Thailand's government budget went into deficit for the first time since 2003. By 2010, the government's debt had bloomed and reached −4.8% of GDP, the largest budget deficit since the government of Chuan Leekpai.[71] To help the people, Abhisit subsidized the price of diesel, LPG cooking gas, and household electricity. Public bus and train rides were provided for free.[72]

Large-scale fighting erupted several times between Thai and Cambodian troops near Preah Vihear, leaving dozens dead. The Thai military admitted to using cluster munitions in the conflicts. The Southern Thailand insurgency worsened, and Abhisit's government was condemned by several international human rights groups for the routine and systematic torture of suspected insurgents.[73] Thailand's military budget reached its highest level in over a decade.[74]

Abhisit's information and communications technology (ICT) policy included increased censorship of Internet sites the government considered deemed offensive to the monarchy, cancellation of 3G 2.1 gigahertz spectrum license auctions, and larger budgets for government-owned TOT.[75][76]

From 10 October to 19 November 2010, the worst floods in 50 years hit North and Northeast, Central, and then Southern Thailand.[77] More than 230 people were killed and more than 7 million people in 25,00 villages were affected by the flooding.[78]

Wealth[edit]

Upon his appointment as Prime Minister in 2008, Abhisit officially declared personal assets worth 51.8 million baht (nearly $2 million). This increased to 54.4 million upon leaving office. Given that Abhisit has never worked in the private sector, the vast majority of his wealth was either inherited or given to him.[79]

Criticisms[edit]

In his political career, Abhisit has been a subject of hypocrisy. Prior to Abhisit’s planned speech at St John's College on 14 March 2009, Lee Jones, a researcher on International Relations of the Oxford University, sent a letter to the dean of St John's College, attacking Abhisit and his administration as "democratic hypocrites".[80] Part of the letter read “Although it is understandable given his education at St John's, I do not believe it is appropriate to ask someone like him to address the Oxford community on the subject of 'democracy'. As you may be aware, the Abhisit administration has only come to power in Thailand following a period of naked manipulation of Thai politics by cynical political elites, including the leadership of Abhisit's own 'Democrat' Party.”[81] Jones later clarified on his website that he had not intended to oppose the Thai PM and the event.[82]

Abhisit also refused to resign as Prime Minister after a clash between government troops and anti-government protestors on 10 April 2010 had claimed the lives of at least 23 people and injured hundreds more, although, in 2008, he called on the then prime minister to resign after two yellow-shirt protesters had died.[83]

Royal decorations[edit]

Abhisit has received the following royal decorations in the Honours System of Thailand:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Powell, Sian (15 December 2008). "British-born Abhisit Vejjajiva is Thailand's new Prime Minister". The Times (UK). (subscription required (help)). 
  2. ^ Percival, Jenny (15 December 2008). "Thai opposition leader becomes PM". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2008. 
  3. ^ The Nation, Abhisit, Chuan's young protege gets his turn at last. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
  4. ^ "Thailand parliament chooses economist as prime minister". Los Angeles Times. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2008. 
  5. ^ "Former Thai PM Abhisit Vejjajiva charged with murder". BBC News. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Profile: Thailand's new Eton educated prime minister". Telegraph. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  7. ^ "Thailand leader to form one-party government". The New York Times. 8 February 2005. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  8. ^ "Thailand's prime minister ousted after weeks of protests". The Daily Telegraph. 2 December 2008. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "Abhisit Vejjajiva endorsed as Thailand's new prime minister by King". Xinhua News Agency. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. 
  10. ^ "Talking politics with Thailand's PM". CNN. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. 
  11. ^ "Class War in Thailand". Korea Times. 17 April 2009. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. 
  12. ^ Global Asia, People's Agenda: The Way Forward for Thailand, Volume 2, Number 2, Fall 2007
  13. ^ Forbes, Thai Prime Minister Extolls Economic Turnaround, 24 September 2010
  14. ^ Human Rights Watch, Thailand: Authorities Silence ‘Red Shirt’ Community Radios, 27 April 2011
  15. ^ "Level of Thai press freedom downgraded: Kingdom dropped 14 places in world rankings". Bangkok Post. 5 April 2011. 
  16. ^ "Abhisit: Corruption root of problems". Bangkok Post. 17 June 2010. 
  17. ^ "Thai Leader Offers Reconciliation Plan". The New York Times. 10 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. 
  18. ^ "One year on, truth about crackdown remains elusive". Bangkok Post. 21 April 2011. 
  19. ^ "Thai, Cambodian troops clash on disputed border, 6 dead". Yahoo! News. Reuters. 22 April 2011. 
  20. ^ "Search birth records". findmypast.co.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2011. "VEJJAJIVA Mark A Newcastle upon Tyne Northumberland 1964" 
  21. ^ "Thailand hopes ballots will overcome bullets". The Vancouver Sun. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  22. ^ "ศิริโชค โพสเฟซบุ๊ก แจงประเด็นเอกสารเท็จ มาร์คหนีทหาร". MThai. 
  23. ^ "Abhisit's U.K. Roots May Prompt Distrust From Thai Rural Voters". Bloomberg. 15 December 2008. 
  24. ^ "Profile: Abhisit Vejjajiva". BBC News. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010. [dead link]
  25. ^ http://www.abhisit.org/360detail.php?cate_id=16#82
  26. ^ "Thai PM admits British nationality". The Guardian (London). Associated Press. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  27. ^ "Profile: Abhisit Vejjajiva". BBC News. 17 March 2010. Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ a b "ประกาศศาลเยาวชนและครอบครัวกลาง เรื่อง ศาลมีคำสั่งว่า นายปัณณสิทธิ์ เวชชาชีวะ เป็นคนเสมือนไร้ความสามารถ และให้อยู่ในความพิทักษ์ของนายอภิสิทธิ์ เวชชาชีวะ ลงวันที่ 3 กันยายน 2555" [Announcement of the Central Juvenile and Family Court, Re: The Court has delivered an order adjudging Pannasait Vejjajiva quasi-incompetent and placing him under the guardianship of Abhisit Vejjajiva, dated 3 September 2012] (PDF). Government Gazette (General Announcement and Work Edition, volume 129, part 124 D, page 6). 8 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012. 
  30. ^ The S.E.A. Write Awards a Thai Airways Sponsored Programme
  31. ^ Practical report–Vejjajiva family, 22 May 2012
  32. ^ "Sunday Brunch: Modern mouthpiece". The Nation Multimedia. 1 May 2005. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  33. ^ Palace name ว at the Wayback Machine (archived 26 April 2005)
  34. ^ Surasak Tumcharoen (29 November 2009). "A very distinguished province". Investigative Report. Bangkok Post. Retrieved 18 February 2011. "This URL has been excluded from the Wayback Machine." 
  35. ^ Journal of the Royal Institute of Thailand, Vol. 29 No. 3, April–June 2004
  36. ^ Linda Waverley Brigden, Joy De Beyer. Tobacco Control Policy: Strategies, Successes, and Setbacks. World Bank Publications. pp. 165, 172, 174. ISBN 0-8213-5402-7. 
  37. ^ Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand; Assembly XLVII
  38. ^ Stock Exchange of Thailand, CPF : Charoen Pokphand Foods Public Company Limited
  39. ^ "Banyat emerges as new Democrat leader". Asian Tribune. 21 April 2003. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. 
  40. ^ "In for 'roughest ride'". Straits Times. 15 December 2008. [dead link]
  41. ^ "Thailand after Thaksin". Time Asia. 10 April 2006. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009. 
  42. ^ "Bangkok's Independent Newspaper". The Nation. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. 
  43. ^ "OAG proposes dissolution of Democrat, Thai Rak Thai, 3 other parties". The Nation. 27 June 2006. 
  44. ^ The Nation. 15 February 2007 http://nationmultimedia.com/2007/02/02/politics/politics_30025769.php |url= missing title (help). Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. 
  45. ^ "Witnesses link Democrats to registration delay". The Nation. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2007. 
  46. ^ "Historical rulings unfold". The Nation. 30 May 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2007. 
  47. ^ The Left/Right Debate Thai Tribunal: Democrat Party Cleared Of Electoral Violations (Nasdaq), 30 May 2007
  48. ^ "Abhisit criticises, then politics banned". Bangkok Post. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2006. 
  49. ^ a b "Draft gets Democrats' vote". The Nation. 9 July 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2007. 
  50. ^ Hannah Beech (23 August 2007). "Open Road". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2007. 
  51. ^ "Thailand's king officially endorses new prime minister". Taipei Times. Associated Press. 30 January 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
  52. ^ "New face, old anger". The Economist. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. 
  53. ^ a b The Nation, “สนธิ” เปิดใจครั้งแรก เบื้องลึกปมลอบยิง โยงทหารฮั้วการเมืองเก่า, 1 May 2009
  54. ^ a b "Thai army to 'help voters love' the government". The Telegraph. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. 
  55. ^ "Thousands of Thaksin supporters rally against Thai government". The Malaysian Insider. 15 April 2009. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. 
  56. ^ "Abhisit vows fresh start, honest govt". The Nation. 30 April 2006. 
  57. ^ "BBC Profile". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 November 2013. 
  58. ^ "Abhisit announces candidacy for PM". The Nation. 29 April 2006. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2006. 
  59. ^ "Can Abhisit lead Thailand?". The Nation. 30 May 2006. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2006. 
  60. ^ "Economy to be the top priority for Abhisit govt". The Nation. 29 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. 
  61. ^ "Abhisit pressures PM to TV debate". The Nation. 7 August 2006. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. 
  62. ^ "Somchai elected new prime minister". The Nation. Retrieved 23 September 2008. 
  63. ^ "Democrats claim majority to form government". The Nation. 7 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  64. ^ The Nation, Question loom over new Prime Minister's legitimacy, 17 December 2008
  65. ^ "Newin embraces Abhisit, but rejecting Thaksin "was tough"". The Nation. 10 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  66. ^ "Abhisit poised to be PM as democrats seek house vote". The Nation. 8 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  67. ^ "Thai opposition 'set for power'". BBC News. 10 December 2008. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. 
  68. ^ "New Thai prime minister elected". BBC news. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2008. 
  69. ^ "Finance minister from Thai elite faces raft of economic woes". Asia One. 21 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. 
  70. ^ MCOT, Thailand's January unemployment soars to 880,000, 17 March 2009
  71. ^ Trading Economics, Thailand Government Budget, 27 February 2013
  72. ^ "Govt to extend subsidies until July". The Nation. 23 February 2011. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. 
  73. ^ Andrew Marshall (1 December 2010). "Is the Thai Military Torturing Detainees?". Time. Archived from the original on 8 March 2011. 
  74. ^ Trading Economics, Thailand Military Expenditure as a Percent of GDP, 27 February 2013
  75. ^ "Last one in, again". Bangkok Post. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  76. ^ "Thai govt agrees $650 mln 3G budget for state firm". Reuters. 28 September 2010. Archived from the original on 1 October 2010. 
  77. ^ "Thai floods 'worst in 50 years'". ABC. 20 October 2010. 
  78. ^ "Death toll in Thailand flooding rises to 206". CNN. 14 November 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. 
  79. ^ "Two-thirds of Thailand cabinet are millionaires". The Guardian. Associated Press. 28 September 2011. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  80. ^ "Foreign academic names PM, his govt as "Hypocrites"". The Nation. 13 March 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. 
  81. ^ "Letter of Lee Jones". The Nation. 17 March 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. 
  82. ^ "Oxford researcher clarifies his e-mail on Thai PM". The Nation. 13 March 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. 
  83. ^ "Angels with bloody hands". The Economist. 15 April 2010. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Chaovarat Chanweerakul
Acting
Prime Minister of Thailand
2008–2011
Succeeded by
Yingluck Shinawatra