Amulet

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Ancient Egyptian Taweret amulet, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, c. 1539–1292 BC.

An amulet (Latin amuletum) can be any object but its most important characteristic is its alleged power to protect its owner from danger or harm.[1] Amulets are different from talismans as a talisman is believed to bring luck or some other benefit, though it can offer protection as well.[2] Amulets are often confused with pendants—charms that hang from necklaces—any given pendant may indeed be an amulet, but so may any other charm which purports to protect its owner from danger.

Potential amulets include gems, especially engraved gems, statues, coins, drawings, pendants, rings, plants and animals; even words in the form of a magical spell or incantation to repel evil or bad luck.

The word "amulet" comes from the Latin amuletum; the earliest extant use of the term is in Pliny's Natural History, meaning "an object that protects a person from trouble".[1][3]

Amulets in folklore[edit]

An Omamori, a Japanese amulet

Amulets vary considerably according to their time and place of origin. In many societies, religious objects serve as amulets, e.g. deriving from the ancient Celts, the clover, if it has four leaves, symbolizes good luck (not the Irish shamrock, which symbolizes the Christian Trinity).[4]

In Bolivia, the god Ekeko furnishes a standard amulet, to whom one should offer at least one banknote or a cigarette to obtain fortune and welfare.[5]

In certain areas of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, it is traditionally believed that the jackal's horn can grant wishes and reappear to its owner at its own accord when lost. Some Sinhalese believe that the horn can grant the holder invulnerability in any lawsuit.[6]

In the Philippines, the local amulet is called agimat or anting-anting. According to folklore, the most powerful anting-anting is the hiyas ng saging (directly translated as pearl or gem of the banana). The hiyas must come from a mature banana and only comes out during midnight. Before the person can fully possess this agimat, he must fight a supernatural creature called kapre. Only then will he be its true owner. During holy week, devotees travel to Mount Banahaw to recharge their amulets.[7]

Amulets and ancient Rome[edit]

The amulet is particularly prevalent in ancient Roman society, being the inheritor of the ancient Greek tradition, and inextricably linked to Roman Religion and magic (see Magic in the Greco-Roman World). Amulets are usually outside of the normal sphere of religious experience though associations between certain gemstones and gods has been suggested, for example, Jupiter is represented on milky chalcedony, Sol on heliotrope, Mars on red jasper, Ceres on green jasper and Bacchus on amethyst.[8] Amulets are worn to imbue the wearer with the associated powers of the gods rather than for any reasons of piety. The intrinsic power of the amulet is also evident from others bearing inscriptions, such as vterfexix (utere fexix) or "good luck to the user."[9] Amulet boxes could also be used, such as the example from part of the Thetford treasure, Norfolk, UK, where a gold box intended for suspension around the neck was found to contain sulphur for its apotropaic qualities.[10]

Amulets in the Abrahamic religions[edit]

A crucifix, considered in Christian tradition as a defense against demons, as the holy sign of Christ's victory over every evil.

In antiquity and the Middle Ages, most Jews, Christians and Muslims in the Orient believed in the protective and healing power of amulets or blessed objects. Talismans used by these peoples can be broken down into three main categories: talismans carried or worn on the body, talismans hung upon or above the bed of an infirm person, and medicinal talismans. This third category can be further divided into external and internal talismans. For example, an external amulet can be placed in a bath.

Jews, Christians, and Muslims have also at times used their holy books in a talisman-like manner in grave situations. For example, a bed-ridden and seriously ill person would have a holy book placed under part of the bed or cushion.[11]

Judaism[edit]

The two scrolls on display at the Israel Museum

Amulets are plentiful in the Jewish tradition, with examples of Solomon-era amulets existing in many museums. Due to proscription of idols, Jewish amulets emphasize text and names — the shape, material or color of an amulet makes no difference. Examples of textual amulets include the Silver Scroll, circa 630 BCE, and the still contemporary mezuzah. A counter-example, however, is the Hand of Miriam, an outline of a human hand.

Christianity[edit]

The Roman Catholic Church maintains that the legitimate use of sacramentals in its proper disposition is only encouraged by a firm faith and devotion in God, not through any magical or superstitious belief bestowed on the sacramental. In this regard, rosaries, scapular, medals and other devotional religious Catholic paraphernalia derive their power, not from the symbolism created by the object, rather by the faith of the believer in entrusting its power to God. While some Catholics may not fully appreciate this view, belief in pagan magic or polytheistic superstition through material in-animate objects are condemned by the Holy See.

Protestant denominations in general do not share in this belief, but other Christian Evangelicals sometimes advertise in television prayer clothes, or coins, and wallet reminders claiming to have intercessory powers on its bearer.

Lay Catholics are not permitted to perform exorcisms but they can use holy water, blessed salt and other sacramentals such as the Saint Benedict medal or the crucifix for warding off evil.[12]

Crucifix[edit]

Back of the Catholic Saint Benedict medal with the Vade Retro Satana abbreviation: "Step back, Satan."

The crucifix is one of the key sacramentals used by Catholics and has been used to ward off evil for centuries. The imperial cross of Conrad II (1024–1039) referred to the power of the cross against evil.[13] Many of the early theologians of the Catholic Church made reference to use of the sign of the cross by Christians to bless and to ward off demonic influences. The crucifix is still widely used as a talismanic sacramental by Christians.

Medals[edit]

A well-known amulet among Catholic Christians is the Saint Benedict medal which includes the Vade Retro Satana formula to ward off Satan. This medal has been in use at least since the 18th century and in 1742 it received the approval of Pope Benedict XIV. It later became part of the Roman Catholic ritual.[14]

Scapulars[edit]

Some Catholic sacramentals are believed to defend against evil, by virtue of their association with a specific saint or archangel. The scapular of St. Michael the Archangel is a Roman Catholic devotional scapular associated with Archangel Michael, the chief enemy of Satan. Pope Pius IX gave this scapular his blessing, but it was first formally approved under Pope Leo XIII.

The form of this scapular is somewhat distinct, in that the two segments of cloth that constitute it have the form of a small shield; one is made of blue and the other of black cloth, and one of the bands likewise is blue and the other black. Both portions of the scapular bear the well-known representation of the Archangel St. Michael slaying the dragon and the inscription "Quis ut Deus?" meaning "Who is like God?".[15]

Holy water[edit]

Catholic saints have written about the power of holy water as a force that repels evil. Saint Teresa of Avila, a Doctor of the Church who reported visions of Jesus and Mary, was a strong believer in the power of holy water and wrote that she used it with success to repel evil and temptations.[16]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gonzalez-Wippler 1991, p. 1.
  2. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo, ed. (2009). "amulets and talismans". Encyclopedia of Islam. Enclyclopedia of World Religions: Facts on File Library of Religion and Mytholology. Infobase Publishing. pp. 40–1. ISBN 9781438126968. 
  3. ^ Guelden, Marlane (2007). Thailand: Spirits Among Us. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9789812610751. [full citation needed]
  4. ^ Cleene, Marcel; Lejeune, Marie Claire (2003). Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. p. 178. ISBN 9789077135044. 
  5. ^ Fanthorpe, R. Lionel; Fanthorpe, Patricia (2008). Mysteries and Secrets of Voodoo, Santeria, and Obeah. Mysteries and Secrets Series 12. Dundurn Group. p. 183–4. ISBN 9781550027846. 
  6. ^ Tennent, Sir, James Emerson (1999) [1861]. Sketches of the Natural History of Ceylon with Narratives and Anecdotes Illustrative of the Habits and Instincts of the Mammalia, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Including a Monograph of the Elephant and a Description of the Modes of Capturing and Training it with Engravings from Original Drawings (reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 37. ISBN 9788120612464. 
  7. ^ "The Agimat and Anting-Anting: Amulet and Talisman of the Philippines". amuletandtalisman.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-01-17. [unreliable source?]
  8. ^ Henig, Martin (1984). Religion in Roman Britain. London: B.T. Batsford. ISBN 9780713412208. [full citation needed]
  9. ^ Collingwood, Robin G.; Wright, Richard P. (1991). Roman Inscriptions of Britain (RIB). Volume II, Fascicule 3. Stround: Alan Sutton. RIB 2421.56–8. 
  10. ^ Henig 1984, p. 187.
  11. ^ Canaan, Tewfik (2004). "The Decipherment of Arabic Talismans". In Savage-Smith, Emilie. Magic and Divination in Early Islam. The Formation of the Classical Islamic World 42. Ashgate. pp. 125–49. ISBN 9780860787150. 
  12. ^ Scott, Rosemarie (2006). "Meditation 26: The Weapons of Our Warfare". Clean of Heart. p. 63. ISBN 9780977223459. 
  13. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin; Lochman, Jan Milič; Mbiti, John; Pelikan, Jaroslav; Vischer, Lukas, eds. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Translator and English language editor: Bromiley, Geoffrey W. Boston: Eerdmans. p. 737. ISBN 9780802824134. 
  14. ^ Lea, Henry Charles (1896). "Chapter 12: Indulged Objects". A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church. Volume 3: Indulgences. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers & Co. p. 520. OCLC 162534206. 
  15. ^ Ball, Ann (2003). Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices. Our Sunday Visitor. p. 520. ISBN 9780879739102. 
  16. ^ Teresa of Ávila (2007). "Chapter 21: Holy Water". The Book of My Life. Translated by Starr, Mirabai. Boston: Shambhala Publications. pp. 238–41. ISBN 9780834823037. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]