Andrew II of Hungary

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Andrew II
Ondrej2 pecet.jpg
The seal of Andrew II
King of Hungary and Croatia
Reign 1205–1235
Coronation 29 May 1205
Predecessor Ladislaus III
Successor Béla IV
Prince of Halych
1st reign
2nd reign (styled king)
1188–1189 or 1190
1208 or 1209–1210
Predecessor Roman Mstislavich
Roman II Igorevich
Successor Vladimir II Yaroslavich
Vladimir III Igorevich
Spouse Gertrude of Merania
Yolanda de Courtenay
Beatrice D'Este
Issue Maria, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria
Béla IV of Hungary
Saint Elizabeth
Coloman of Halych
Andrew II of Halych
Yolanda, Queen of Aragon
Stephen
Dynasty Árpád dynasty
Father Béla III of Hungary
Mother Agnes of Antioch
Born c. 1177
Died 21 September 1235 (aged 57–58)
Burial Egres Abbey
Religion Roman Catholic

Andrew II of Jerusalem (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András, Croatian: Andrija II., Slovak: Ondrej II., Ukrainian: Андрій II; c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235, and reigned in the Principality of Halych from 1188 till 1189 or 1190, and between 1208 or 1209 and 1210, using the title king during the latter period. He was the younger son of Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. His rule was unpopular and the boyars expelled him. Béla III willed landed property and money to Andrew, obliging him to lead a crusade to the Holy Land. However, after his father's death in 1196, Andrew rose up in rebellion against his elder brother, Emeric of Hungary, forcing him to cede Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage to him. In addition, Andrew occupied Hum.

Although during Emeric's reign Andrew rebelled against him twice, on his deathbed Emeric appointed Andrew guardian of his son, Ladislaus. After the premature death of his nephew, Andrew mounted the throne in 1205. According to historian László Kontler, "It was amindst the socio-political turmoil during his reign that the relations, arrangements, institutional framework and social categories that arose under Stephen I, started to disintegrate in the higher echelons of society" in Hungary.[1] Andrew introduced a new policy of grants, the so-called "new institutions", giving away money and royal estates to his partisans to the utter of royal revenues. Throughout his reign he waged wars to expand his suzerainty over the Principalities of Halych and Lodomeria, but the boyars and the neighboring Rus' princes prevented him from achieving his goal. Nevertheless, he was the first Hungarian monarch to adopt the title "King of Halych and Lodomeria". He led a crusade to the Holy Land in 1217-1218, but he achieved nothing.

A movement of the servientes regis, or "royal servants", forced him to issue the Golden Bull of 1222, confirming their privileges, which gave rise to the development of the nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary. His Diploma Andreanum of 1224 spelled out the liberties of the community of the Transylvanian Saxons. The employment of Jews and Muslims in the administration of the royal revenues brought him into conflict with the Holy See and the Hungarian prelates. Andrew pledged to respect the privileges of the clergymen and to dismiss his non-Christian officials in 1233, but he never fulfilled this latter promise.

Andrew married three times. His first wife, Gertrude of Merania, whose blatant favoritism towards his German kinsmen and courtiers stirred up discontent among the native lords, was murdered in 1213. The veneration of their saintly daughters, Elizabeth of Hungary, was confirmed by the Holy See in Andrew's lifetime. After Andrew's death, his sons, Béla and Coloman, accused his third wife, Beatrice D'Este of adultery and never considered her son, Stephen, as Andrew's legitimate son.

Early life[edit]

Childhood and youth (c. 1177–1198)[edit]

Andrew was the second son of King Béla III and his first wife, Agnes of Antioch.[2] The year of his birth is not known, but he seems to have been born in about 1177, according to modern historians, including Gyula Kristó and Tibor Almási.[2][3][4] Being a younger son, Andrew could only succeede his father in case of the premature death of his elder brother, Emeric, who was crowned king already in 1182, during their father's lifetime.[4][5]

The first record of Andrew's life is connected to the invasion of the Principality of Halych by his father in 1188.[6] Béla III decided to launch a campaign against this Rus' principality after its prince, Vladimir II Yaroslavich, who had been dethroned by his subjects, fled to Hungary and sought his assistance.[6][7] Béla invaded Halych and forced its new prince, Roman Mstislavich, to flee, but instead of restoring Vladimir Yaroslavich, he granted the principality to Andrew.[5][8] Béla also had Vladimir Yaroslavich captured and held him in captivity in Hungary.[9]

Roman Mstislavich was the first Rus' prince to try to expel Andrew and his Hungarian retinue from Halych.[9] Although he was supported by Rurik Rostislavich, Prince of Belgorod Kievsky, their united troops were routed by the Hungarians.[9] Next a group of local boyars offered the throne to Rostislav Ivanovich, who was a distant cousin of the imprisoned Vladimir Yaroslavich.[9] Béla III sent reinforcements to Halych, enabling his son's troops to repel the pretender's attack in 1189.[10] However, Andrew's reign remained unpopular in Halych, because the Hungarian soldiers insulted local women and did not respect Orthodox churches.[9][11] After Vladimir Yaroslavich escaped from captivity and persuaded Duke Casimir II of Poland to join him in invading Halych, the boyars assisted them in expelling Andrew and his retinue from the principality in August 1189 or 1190.[12][13][14]

Andrew returned to Hungary, but he only received estates and money from his father, who refrained from granting a whole province to his younger son.[5] On his deathbed, Béla III, who had pledged to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, ordered Andrew to fulfil his vow.[15] Béla III, who died on 23 April 1196, was succeeded by Emeric.[16] Andrew used his funds to recruit followers among the barons and made an alliance with Leopold VI, Duke of Austria against his brother.[4] Their united troops routed the royal army at Mački in Slavonia in December 1197, forcing King Emeric to grant Croatia and Dalmatia to Andrew as an appanage.[17][18]

Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia (1198–1204)[edit]

 The "Árpád stripes": four silver and four red stripes
The "Árpád stripes" (four Argent (silver) and four Gules (red) stripes) on Andrew's personal coat-of-arms

In practice, Andrew administered his duchies independently.[18][19] He minted coins, made land grants and confirmed privileges in Croatia and Dalmatia.[19][17] He closely cooperated with the Frankopans, the Babonići, and other local lords.[18] The Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre settled in the province during his reign.[20] Taking advantage of Miroslav of Hum's death, Andrew invaded Hum and occupied at least the regions between the rivers Cetina and Neretva.[21] Thereafter he styled himself "By the grace of God, Duke of Zadar and of all Dalmatia, Croatia and Hum" in his charters.[22]

Pope Innocent III urged Andrew to depart for the crusade on 29 January 1198, but he began conspiring against his brother.[17] The Pope menaced him with excommunication, but he continued plotting with many prelates and lords, including John, Abbot of Pannonhalma and Boleslaus, Bishop of Vác.[23] King Emeric seized letters written by the conspirators from Bishop Boleslaus on 10 March 1199.[24] The royal troops routed Andrew's army near the Lake Balaton in summer, forcing him to flee to Austria.[4][24] A papal legate arrived in Hungary who brought about a reconciliation between the two brothers in summer 1200.[24] Andrew soon returned to his duchy.[24] Around this year, he married Gertrude of Merania whose father, Berthold, Duke of Merania, owned extensive domains in the Holy Roman Empire along the borders of Andrew's duchy.[18][24][25]

The birth of Emeric's son, Ladislaus, around 1200, shattered Andrew's hopes to succeede his brother.[4][25] Pope Innocent also confirmed the child's position as heir to the crown, and declared that Andrew's future sons were only entitled to inherit their father's duchy.[25][24] Andrew staged a new rebellion against his brother, but King Emeric captured him near Varaždin in October 1203.[26]

[All] the magnates of the kingdom and almost the whole of the Hungarian army deserted [King Emeric] and unlawfully sided with Duke Andrew. Very few men indeed remained with the king, and even they were terrified at the extent of the insurrection, and did not dare to urge the king to hope for success, but rather advised him to flee. Then it happened that one day both sides had drawn close to each other and were beginning to prepare themselves in earnest for battle. ... [After] much wise thought, with inspiration from heaven [King Emeric] found a successful way by which he might recover his right to the kingdom and still remain guiltless of bloodshed. So he said to his men, "Stay here a while, and do not follow me." Then he laid down his weapons, and taking only a leafy bough in his hand he walked slowly into the enemy ranks. As he passed through the midst of the armed multitude, he cried out in a loud and strong voice, "Now I shall see who will dare to raise a hand to shed the blood of the royal lineage!" Seeing him, all fell back, and not daring even to mutter, they left a wide passage for him on either side. And then when [King Emeric] reached his brother, he took him, and leading him outside the body of troops, he sent him to a certain castle for custody.

Thomas the Archdeacon: History of the Bishops of Salona and Split[27]

Andrew was held in captivity in the forts of Kene and Esztergom.[26] A group of his partisans, including Alexander of the Hont-Pázmány clan, released him in early 1204.[16][26] Emeric, who fell ill, had his four-year-old son crowned king on 26 August.[28] In short, the two brothers were reconciled and Emeric entrusted to Andrew "the guardianship of his son and the administration of the entire kingdom until the ward should reach the age of majority",[29] according to the nearly contemporaneous Thomas the Archdeacon.[4]

His nephew's guardian (1204–1205)[edit]

King Emeric died on 30 November 1204.[28] Although Andrew began governing as the guardian of his nephew, Ladislaus III, he counted his regnal years from his brother's death, showing that he regarded himself as the lawful monarch.[28] Pope Innocent III requested him to remain loyal to his nephew, but he even took hold of the money that his brother had deposited in the Pilis Abbey on behalf of the child Ladislaus.[30] The child king's mother, Constance of Aragon, fled from Hungary, taking her son to Austria.[10] Andrew made preparations to go to war against Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, but the child king died in Vienna on 7 May 1205.[31]

Reign[edit]

The "new institutions" and campaigns in Halych (1205–1217)[edit]

A crowned man holding a flag in his left hand
Andrew II depicted in Illuminated Chronicle

John, Archbishop of Kalocsa crowned Andrew king in Székesfehérvár on 29 May 1205.[10][32] Andrew introduced a new policy of royal grants of landed property, which he called "new institutions", or novæ institutiones, in one of his charters.[33][34] Stating that "the best measure of a royal grant is its being immeasurable", he began distribute large parcels of the royal domain—royal castles and all estates attached to them—as inheritable grant to his partisans.[34][35] His "new institutions" substantially altered the relations between the sovereign and the lords: in the previous two centuries, a lord's position had primarily depended on the income he received for his services to the monarch, hereafter they had their own revenues yielded by their inheritable estates.[1] The giving away of the castle lands also diminished the funds upon which the authority of the ispáns, or heads, of the counties—who were appointed by the monarchs—had up to that time based.[36]

Andrew showed an intense interest in the internal affairs of his one-time principality, Halych, throughout his reign.[28] He launched his first campaign to Halych in 1205 or 1206.[28][10][37] Upon the boyars' request, he intervened on behalf of Daniel Romanovich, the child-prince of Halych and Lodomeria against Vsevolod Svyatoslavich, Prince of Chernigov, and his allies, forcing them to withdraw.[38][10] Andrew also adopted the title of "King of Galicia and Lodomeria", demonstrating his claim to suzerainty in the region.[39][40] After his return to Hungary, Vsevolod Svyatoslavich's distant cousin, Vladimir Igorevich, seized both Halych and Lodomeria, expelling the child Daniel Romanovich and his mother.[41] They first fled to Leszek I of Poland who sent them to Andrew.[10][42] However, Vladimir Igorevich "sent many gifts" to both Andrew and Leszek, dissuating "them from attacking him"[43] on behalf of the child prince, according to the Galician–Volhynian Chronicle.[10][42] In the course of 1207, Andrew confirmed the liberties of two Dalmatian towns—Split and Omiš—and spelled out the privileges of the Archbishopric of Split in a new charter.[44]

In 1206 or 1208 Vladimir Igorevich's rebellious brother, Roman Igorevich, arrived in Hungary, seeking Andrew's assistance.[42] Roman Igorevich returned at the head of Hungarian reinforcements and forced his brother to leave Halych.[42] Taking advantage of a lasting conflict between Roman Igorevich and his boyars, Andrew sent an army under the command of Benedict, son of Korlát to Halych, which captured the prince and occupied the whole principality in 1208 or 1209.[45][46] Instead of appointing a new prince, Andrew nominated Benedict to administer the principality on his behalf.[47] In order to get rid of Benedict, who, as the Galician–Volhynian Chronicle writes, "tortured boyars and was addicted to lechery",[48] the boyars offered the throne to Mstislav Mstislavich, Prince of Zvenigorod, but he could not defeat Andrew's governor.[46]

A queen reading a book and a bearded king holding a sceptre
Gertrude of Merania and Andrew depicted in the 13th-century Landgrafenpsalter from the Landgraviate of Thuringia

Accused of being involved in the murder of Philip, King of the Germans, Queen Gertrude's two brothers—Ekbert, Bishop of Bamberg and Henry II, Margrave of Istria—arrived in Hungary in 1208.[46][49][50] Andrew granted large domains to Bishop Ekbert in the Szepesség region (now Spiš in Slovakia).[49] The queen's youngest brother, Berthold, who had already in 1206 been nominated Archbishop of Kalocsa in spite of his youth and lack of education, was appointed Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia in 1209.[51][52] Andrew's generosity toward his wife's German relatives and courtiers caused discontent among the local lords.[53][54] According to historian Gyula Kristó, a sarcastic remark made by the anonymous author of The Deeds of the Hungarians—"now too the Romans gaze on the goods of Hungary"[55]—refers to these Germans coming from the Holy Roman Empire.[56] One of Andrew's Dalmatian vassals, Domald of Sidraga, liberated Zadar, which had been lost to the Venetians, in 1209, but the latter reoccupied the town a year later.[57][58]

Roman Igorevich, who escaped from captivity, was reconciled with his brother, Vladimir Igorevich, in early 1209 or 1210.[59][60] Their united forces vanquished Benedict's army, driving out the Hungarians from Halych.[59][60] Vladimir Igorevich, who seized Halych, sent one of his sons, Vsevolod Vadimirovich "bearing gifts to the king in Hungary"[61] in order to placate him, according to the Galician–Volhynian Chronicle.[60] In 1210, a group of discontented Hungarian lords offered the crown to Andrew's cousins—the sons of his exiled uncle, Géza—, who lived in "Greek land", but their envoys were captured in Split.[59][62] Andrew sent "an army of Saxons, Vlachs, Székelys and Pechenegs" under the command of Joachim, Count of Hermannstadt (now Sibiu in Romania) to assist Boril of Bulgaria against three rebellious Cuman chieftains in the early 1210s.[63][64] Around the same time, the reoccupation of Belgrade and Barancs (now Braničevo in Serbia), which had been lost to Bulgaria under Emeric, or at least its acknowledgement by Boril, occurred around the same time.[65][66] Andrew's army defeated the Cumans in the region of Vidin.[67] To defend the easternmost regions of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Cumans and to promote their conversion, Andrew granted the Barcaság (now Țara Bârsei in Romania) to the Teutonic Knights, who soon set about inviting "guest settlers" to their domains and erecting castles in the lands beyond the Carpathian Mountains.[68][69]

Alarmed by the despotic acts of Prince Vladimir Igorevich, a group of boyars approached Andrew to send the child Daniel Romanovich back to Halych in 1210 or 1211.[60][70] Andrew dispatched an army to the principality.[70] In cooperation with the troops sent by Leszek I of Poland and at least five lesser Rus' princes, Andrew's army occupied Halych and restored Daniel Romanovich on the throne.[70][71] Andrew personally led his troops to Halych in 1212 upon the request of the child prince's mother whom the boyars had expelled.[70] He seized Volodislav Kormilchich, the most influential boyar, and dragged him to Hungary.[70] However, after Andrew's withdrawal from Halych, the boyars offered the throne to Mstislav Mstislavich who forced Daniel Romanovich and his mother to flee to Hungary.[70]

Andrew departed for a new campaign against Halych in summer 1214.[70] In his absence, a group of Hungarian lords who were aggrieved at Queen Gertrude's blatant favoritism towards her German entourage captured and murdered her and many of her courtiers in Pilis Hills on 28 September.[33][70][72] Andrew soon returned from the campaign, but only executed the murderer, Peter, son of Töre, his accomplices, including the Palatine Bánk, survived without severe punishment.[33][72] A group of lords, whom Andrew mentioned as "perverts" in one of his letters, even planned to dethrone him in favor of his eldest son, Béla in 1214.[73] Andrew preserved his throne, but he was forced to gave his consent to the coronation of the eight-year-old Béla.[73][74] In the same year, after they agreed a marriage between their children, Coloman and Salomea, Andrew and Leszek of Poland jointly invaded Halych, and granted the principality to Andrew's second son, Coloman.[66][62] Next year Andrew besieged and captured the fort of Przemyśl, which had been allotted to Leszek of Poland after their campaign of 1214.[66] Leszek I made an alliance with Mstislav Mstislavich and their united forces drove out Coloman and his Hungarian retinue from Halych.[66]

Andrew granted large estates to his second wife, Yolanda de Courtenay, a niece of Henry, Latin Emperor of Constantinople, after their marriage in 1215.[66] His "new institutions" had by that time significantly diminished royal revenues.[34] From around 1214 a new great officer of state, the master of the treasury, was responsible for the administration of the royal chamber.[66][75] Denis, son of Ampud, who held this office from 1216, strived to increase royal revenues through introducing new taxes and farming out of royal income from minting, salt trade and custom duties.[76][66] The exchange of coins in circulation in each year also yielded extra revenues for the royal chamber.[52] However, these reforms provoked general discontent throughout Hungary.[52]

Andrew concluded a new treaty of alliance with Leszek of Poland in summer 1216.[77] Leszek I and Andrew's son, Coloman, invaded Halych and defeated Mstislav Mstislavich.[77] After both Mstislav Mstislavich and Daniel Romanovich fled from Halych, Coloman mounted the throne.[77] In the same year, Andrew met Stephen Nemanjić, Grand Prince of Serbia in Ravno (in Ćuprija in Serbia) and persuaded him to start negotiations with the Latin Emperor Henry.[78][79] According to both versions of the Life of Sava, Andrew was planning to invade Serbia after the coronation of Stephen Nemanjić's in 1217, but a miracle by the Serbian monarch's saintly brother, Sava—who gave ice to the king in the hot summer—dissuaded Andrew.[78][80]

Andrew's crusade (1217–1218)[edit]

A horseman with a flag depicting a two-barred cross
Andrew at the head of his crusader army (from the Illuminated Chronicle)

The newly elected Pope Honorius III called on Andrew to depart for the Holy Land to fulfill his crusader oath in July 1216.[81] On this occasion, Andrew, who had at least three times (in 1201, 1209 and 1213) postponed to began his crusade, decided to depart for the Holy Land.[82][83] Steven Runciman, Tibor Almási and other modern historians say that Andrew hoped that his decision would promote his election as Latin Emperor of Constantinople after the death of his wife's uncle, Emperor Henry in June 1216.[39][83][84] According to a letter of 1217 of Pope Honorius, envoys from the Latin Empire had in fact informed Andrew of their plan of electing either him or his father-in-law, Peter of Courtenay, but no other contemporaneous source mentioned this proposal.[85] The barons of the Latin Empire elected Peter of Courtenay emperor in summer 1216.[83][86][87]

Andrew sold and mortgaged royal estates to finance his crusade.[82] He also renounced his claim to Zadar in favor of the Republic of Venice to secure shipping for his crusader army.[57][82] He nominated Archbishop John of Esztergom to administer Hungary in his absence, and appointed the Templar Pontius de Cruce, Prior of Vrana as a regent in Croatia and Dalmatia.[82] Andrew departed from Zagreb in the company of Leopold VI of Austria and Otto I, Duke of Merania in July 1217.[88][89] His army was so large—at least 10,000 mounted soldiers and uncountable infantrymen—that the bulk of it stayed behind when Andrew and his men embarked in Split two months later.[88][90][91] The ships transported them to Acre where they landed in October.[89]

Andrew presided over the war council which the leaders of the crusaders—including John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem, Leopold of Austria, and the Grand Masters of the Hospitallers, the Templars and the Teutonic Knights—held in the town.[92] In early November, the crusaders launched a campaign towards the Jordan River, forcing Al-Adil II, Sultan of Egypt, to withdraw without fight, and pillaging Beisan.[93][94] After their return to Acre, Andrew did not participate in further military actions, but collected relics.[95][96] He acquired a water-jug allegedly used at the marriage at Cana, the heads of Saint Stephen and Margaret the Virgin, the right hands of the Apostles Thomas and Bartholomew and part of Aaron's rod.[96] If Thomas the Archdeacon's report of certain "evil and audacious men" who "treacherously passed him a poisoned drink"[97] is reliable, Andrew's inactivity was the result of illnes.[95]

At the very beginning of 1218, he decided to return home, although Raoul of Merencourt, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, threatened him with excommunication.[98][99] He first visited Tripoli and participated at the marriage of Bohemond IV of Antioch and Melisende of Lusignan on 10 January.[95] From Tripoli, he travelled to Cilicia where he and Leo I of Armenia decided the betrothal of Andrew's youngest son, Andrew, and Leo's daughter, Isabella.[95][100] Andrew proceeded through the Seldjuk Sultanate of Rum before arriving in Nicaea (now İznik in Turkey).[95] Here his cousins—the sons of his uncle, Géza—attacked him.[100] He arranged a marriage of his oldest son, Béla, with Maria Laskarina, a daughter of Emperor Theodore I Laskaris.[100] After his arrival in Bulgaria, Andrew was detained until he "gave full surety that his daughter would be united in marriage"[101] to Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria, according to Thomas the Archdeacon.[102][103]

Andrew returned to Hungary in late 1218.[89] According to historian Thomas C. Van Cleve, Andrew's "crusade had achieved nothing and brought him no honor."[104] 13th-century authors—including Oliver of Padernborn and James of Vitry—blamed him for the total failure of crusade.[104]

The Golden Bull (1218–1222)[edit]

Andrew complained Pope Honorius that he had found his kingdom "in a miserable and destroyed state, deprived of all of its revenues" upon his return from the crusade.[11] In his absence, a group of barons had expelled the Regent, Archbishop John of Esztergom, from Hungary.[89] Andrew, who had run into massive debt because of his military adventure in the Holy Land, introduced an extraordinary tax and frequently debased coinage in the subsequent years.[11] Mstislav Mstislavich invaded Halych and captured Andrew's son, Coloman, in 1218 or 1219.[105][106] Andrew made a compromise with Mstislav Mstislavich, who released Coloman.[105] He also agreed to marry his daughter to Andrew's youngest son and promised that in time he would cede Halych to Andrew the younger.[105]

Urged by a group of lords, Andrew appointed his eldest son, Béla, to administer Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia with the title of duke in 1220.[100][107] From the early 1220s, the relatively favorable position of the Jews and Muslims in Hungary, who were even employed in the administration of royal revenues, caused a growing discord between Andrew and the Holy See.[108][109] Pope Honorius called on both Andrew and Queen Yolanda to prohibit the employment of Christians by Muslims already in 1221.[109] Andrew persuaded his eldest son, Béla, to separate from his wife in early 1222, stirring up a new conflict with the Pope.[110]

Andrew confirmed the privileges of clergymen, including their tax exempt status and their right to be exclusively judged by church courts, but also prohibited the consecration of udvornici, "castle folk" and other serfs in early 1222.[111][112] Before June, "an inmense crowd" approached Andrew, demanding "grave and unjust things" from him, according to a letter of Pope Honorius.[73] Actually, this was a revolt by the servientes regis, or "royal servants", forcing Andrew to dismiss his great offiers and to issue a royal charter, the Golden Bull of 1222, which summarized the liberties of the "royal servants", including their exemption of taxes and their immunity from the jurisdiction of the ispáns.[73][113] The last clause of the charter even authorized "the bishops as well as the other barons and nobles of the realm, singulary and in common" to resist the monarch if the latter did not keep the provisions of the charter.[73][72] The Golden Bull made a clear distinction between the status of the "royal servants" and Andrew's other subjects, giving rise to the development of the nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary.[73]

Conflicts with his son and the Church (1222–1234)[edit]

Andrew discharged Palatine Theodore Csanád, whom he had appointed under duress, in the second half of 1222.[114] He restored Julius I Kán, whom he had been forced to dismiss in the previous months, to the office.[114] Pope Honorius urged, in 1223, Andrew to depart for a new crusade.[115] If the report of the Continuatio Claustroneuburgensis is reliable, Andrew actually took the cross in token of his decision of launching a new campaign to the Holy Land, but no other source referred to this event.[115] Andrew was planning to arrange a new marriage for his eldest son, Béla, but Pope Honorius mediated a reconciliation between Béla and his wife in autumn 1223.[114][110] Béla soon fled to Austria, only to return after the bishops persuaded Andrew to forgive him in 1224.[114]

Andrew confirmed the privileges of the "Saxons" inhabiting the wider region of Hermannstadt in southern Transylvania in a royal charter, known as Diploma Andreanum, in 1224.[116][117] Next year he launched a campaign against the Teutonic Knights, who had attempted to get rid of his suzerainty, driving them out of the Barcaság and the neighboring regions.[116][118] To put an end to the armed conflicts along the borders of Hungary and Austria, Andrew's envoys and Leopold VI of Austria signed a peace treaty on 6 June, compelling the latter to pay an indemnification.[119] Andrew appointed his oldest son, Béla, Duke of Transylvania in 1226; Duke Béla soon set about expanding his suzerainty over the Cumans inhabiting the neighboring regions to the east of the Carpathian Mountains.[120][121] Andrew granted the provinces Béla had until that time administered to his second son, Coloman.[119]

In 1226 Andrew launched a campaign against Mstislav Mstislavich, who had granted Przemyśl instead of Halych to Andrew's youngest son.[119] He besieged and captured Przemyśl, Terebovl, and other fortresses.[119] He was forced to withdraw from Halych after his troops were routed at Kremenets and Zvenigorod.[119] Nevertheless, Mstislav Mstislavich ceded Halych to Andrew's son in early 1227.[119]

A crowned man holding a sealed document
Andrew's statute on Heroes' Square in Budapest

Andrew authorized Duke Béla to revise his previous land grants in 1228.[122] The Duke's efforts were also supported by Pope Honorius.[122] Around the same time the Duke also confiscated the domains of two noblemen, Simon Kacsics and Bánk Bár-Kalán, who had taken part in the conspiracy which ended with Queen Gertrude's murder.[122] Andrew confirmed the liberties of the Cuman chieftains who had subjected themselves to his son upon the latter's initiative in 1229.[123]

Andrew continued to employ non-Christians, prompting Robert, Archbishop of Esztergom to make a complaint against him to the Holy See.[124] Pope Gregory IX authorized the Archbishop to apply acts of religious censure if it were necessary to persuade the monarch to change his policy.[125] The prelates forced Andrew to issue a new Golden Bull in 1231.[125] This document repeated most provisions of the previous document, including the ban of the employment of Muslims by the monarch, and also empowered the Archbishop to excommunicate the King if he failed to respect the provisions of the Golden Bull.[73][126] In the second half of the year, Andrew invaded Halych and restored his youngest son, Andrew, on the throne.[125]

Because of promoting the employment of Jews and Muslims, Archbishop Robert excommunicated Palatine Denis and a former head of a local chamber, and also put Hungary under interdict on 25 February 1232.[127][128] The Archbishop declared that the Muslims had persuaded the monarch to withdraw donations from the Church.[127] Andrew restored landed properties to the Archbishop who suspened the interdict within two months.[127][128] Upon the King's demand, Pope Gregory dispatched Cardinal Giacomo Pecoraria as his legate to Hungary and promised that nobody would be excommunicated without his special authorization.[128] Upon the request of his youngest son, Andrew dispatched an army to protect his son's interests in Halych against Daniel Romanovich, but the Hungarian army was routed.[129] Andrew departed for a new campaign to Halych, but also continued his negotiations with the papal legate.[129] On 20 August 1233, Andrew swore an oath in the forests of Bereg, promising that he would not employ Jews and Muslims in the administration of royal revenues and would pay 10,000 marks as compensation for usurped Church revenues.[73][130] Andrew repeated his oath in Esztergom in September.[129]

To put an end to armed conflicts along the western borderlands, Andrew met Frederick II, Duke of Austria in Wiener Neustadt and in Hungary, persuading him to sign a peace treaty in late 1233.[129] The widowed Andrew married the 23-year-old Beatrice D'Este on 14 May 1234, although his sons and daughter-in-laws opposed his third marriage.[131] Cardinal Pecoraria had already left Hungary, but authorized Archbishop Robert and John, Bishop of Bosnia to apply ecclesiastic censure if the monarch did not act in accordance with his oath of Bereg.[132] For Andrew did not dismiss his non-Christian officials, Bishop John put Hungary under a new interdict in the first half of 1234.[133] Andrew and Archbishop Robert jointly protested against the Bishop's act.[134]

Last years (1234–1235)[edit]

Prince Danylo laid siege to Halych and Andrew's youngest son died during the siege in the autumn of 1234.[133] In retaliation for a raid into Hungary by Duke Frederick II, Andrew stormed into Austria in summer 1235, forcing the Duke to pay an indemnification.[133] Pope Gregor declared that Andrew and his sons could only be excommunicated with a previous authorization by the Holy See on 31 August.[133] Andrew died on 21 September.[135] He was buried in the Egres Abbey.[136]

Family[edit]

Andrew's first wife, Gertrude of Merania, seems to have been born around 1185, according to historian Gyula Kristó.[139] Their first child, Mary, who was born in 1203 or 1204, became the wife of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria.[140] Andrew's eldest son, Béla, who would succeede his father, was born in 1206.[140] His younger sister, Elisabeth, who was born in 1207, married Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia.[140] She died in 1231 and was canonized in her father's lifetime.[141] Andrew's second son, Coloman, was born in 1208, his third son, Andrew, in about 1210; they both ruled the Principality of Halych for a short period.[140]

Two years after the murder of his first wife, Andrew married, Yolanda de Courtenay, who had been born in about 1198.[142] Their only child, Yolanda was born around 1219 and married James I of Aragon.[143] Andrew's third wife, Beatrice D'Este, was about twenty-three at the time of their marriage in 1234.[144] She gave birth to a son, Stephen, after Andrew's death.[145] However, Andrew's two older sons, Béla and Coloman, who accused her of adultery, considered her child as a bastard.[146] Her grandson, Stephen the Posthumous's son, Andrew was the last monarch of the House of Árpád.[146]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kontler 1999, p. 75.
  2. ^ a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 229, Appendix 4.
  3. ^ Kristó 1994, p. 43.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Almási 2012, p. 86.
  5. ^ a b c Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 224.
  6. ^ a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 229.
  7. ^ Dimnik 2003, p. 191.
  8. ^ Dimnik 2003, pp. 191, 193.
  9. ^ a b c d e Dimnik 2003, p. 193.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 127.
  11. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 54.
  12. ^ Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 122.
  13. ^ Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 249.
  14. ^ Dimnik 2003, pp. 193-194.
  15. ^ Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 234.
  16. ^ a b Bartl et al. 2002, p. 30.
  17. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 124.
  18. ^ a b c d Curta 2006, p. 347.
  19. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 22.
  20. ^ Curta 2006, p. 370.
  21. ^ Fine 1994, p. 52.
  22. ^ Bárány 2012, p. 132.
  23. ^ Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, pp. 124-125.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 125.
  25. ^ a b c Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 230.
  26. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 126.
  27. ^ Archdeacon Thomas of Split: History of the Bishops of Salona and Split (ch. 23.), pp. 141-143.
  28. ^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p. 89.
  29. ^ Archdeacon Thomas of Split: History of the Bishops of Salona and Split (ch. 23.), p. 143.
  30. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 227, 231.
  31. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 227-228.
  32. ^ Bartl et al. 2002, p. 31.
  33. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 91.
  34. ^ a b c Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 427.
  35. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 91-92.
  36. ^ Engel 2001, p. 93.
  37. ^ Dimnik 2003, pp. 251-253.
  38. ^ Dimnik 2003, pp. 253-254.
  39. ^ a b Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 441.
  40. ^ Curta 2006, p. 317.
  41. ^ Dimnik 2003, pp. 254-255, 258.
  42. ^ a b c d Dimnik 2003, p. 263.
  43. ^ The Hypatian Codex II: The Galician-Volynian Chronicle (year 1207), p. 19.
  44. ^ Bárány 2012, p. 136.
  45. ^ Dimnik 2003, pp. 263-264.
  46. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 128.
  47. ^ Dimnik 2003, p. 264.
  48. ^ The Hypatian Codex II: The Galician-Volynian Chronicle (year 1210), p. 20.
  49. ^ a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 233.
  50. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 90-91.
  51. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 232-233.
  52. ^ a b c Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 428.
  53. ^ Almási 2012, p. 88.
  54. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 232-234.
  55. ^ Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 9), p. 27.
  56. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 234.
  57. ^ a b Magaš 2007, p. 58.
  58. ^ Fine 1994, p. 149.
  59. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 129.
  60. ^ a b c d Dimnik 2003, p. 266.
  61. ^ The Hypatian Codex II: The Galician-Volynian Chronicle (year 1211), p. 20.
  62. ^ a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 236.
  63. ^ Curta 2006, p. 385.
  64. ^ Spinei 2009, p. 145.
  65. ^ Fine 1994, p. 102.
  66. ^ a b c d e f g Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 131.
  67. ^ Spinei 2009, pp. 145-146.
  68. ^ Engel 2001, p. 90.
  69. ^ Curta 2006, p. 404.
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 130.
  71. ^ Dimnik 2003, p. 272.
  72. ^ a b c Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 429.
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h Engel 2001, p. 94.
  74. ^ Almási 2012, p. 89.
  75. ^ Engel 2001, p. 92.
  76. ^ Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, pp. 427-428.
  77. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 132.
  78. ^ a b Bárány 2012, p. 143.
  79. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 105-106.
  80. ^ Fine 1994, p. 108.
  81. ^ Bárány 2013, p. 462.
  82. ^ a b c d Van Cleve 1969, p. 387.
  83. ^ a b c Runciman 1989b, p. 146.
  84. ^ Almási 2012, p. 87.
  85. ^ Bárány 2013, p. 463-465.
  86. ^ Almási 2012, pp. 87-88.
  87. ^ Bárány 2013, p. 463.
  88. ^ a b Van Cleve 1969, pp. 387-388.
  89. ^ a b c d Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 133.
  90. ^ Runciman 1989b, pp. 147-148.
  91. ^ Richard 1999, p. 297.
  92. ^ Sterns 1985, p. 358.
  93. ^ Van Cleve 1969, p. 390.
  94. ^ Runciman 1989b, p. 148.
  95. ^ a b c d e Van Cleve 1969, p. 393.
  96. ^ a b Runciman 1989b, pp. 148-149.
  97. ^ Archdeacon Thomas of Split: History of the Bishops of Salona and Split (ch. 25.), p. 165.
  98. ^ Richard 1999, p. 298.
  99. ^ Van Cleve 1969, pp. 388, 393.
  100. ^ a b c d Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 238.
  101. ^ Archdeacon Thomas of Split: History of the Bishops of Salona and Split (ch. 25.), p. 165.
  102. ^ Bárány 2012, p. 148.
  103. ^ Fine 1994, p. 129.
  104. ^ a b Van Cleve 1969, p. 394.
  105. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 134.
  106. ^ Dimnik 2003, pp. 289-290.
  107. ^ Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, p. 425.
  108. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 96-97.
  109. ^ a b Berend 2006, p. 152.
  110. ^ a b Bárány 2012, p. 150.
  111. ^ Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 135.
  112. ^ Bartl et al. 2002, pp. 30-31.
  113. ^ Berend, Urbańczyk & Wiszewski 2013, pp. 428-429.
  114. ^ a b c d Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 137.
  115. ^ a b Bárány 2012, p. 151.
  116. ^ a b Curta 2006, p. 403.
  117. ^ Engel 2001, p. 114.
  118. ^ Spinei 2009, p. 147.
  119. ^ a b c d e f Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 138.
  120. ^ Curta 2006, pp. 405-405.
  121. ^ Engel 2001, p. 95.
  122. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 139.
  123. ^ Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 140.
  124. ^ Berend 2006, p. 155.
  125. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 141.
  126. ^ Berend 2006, pp. 154-155.
  127. ^ a b c Berend 2006, p. 157.
  128. ^ a b c Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 142.
  129. ^ a b c d Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 143.
  130. ^ Berend 2006, pp. 158-159.
  131. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 243.
  132. ^ Berend 2006, p. 159.
  133. ^ a b c d Érszegi & Solymosi 1981, p. 144.
  134. ^ Berend 2006, p. 160.
  135. ^ Engel 2001, p. 98.
  136. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 244.
  137. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 229, Appendices 2-4.
  138. ^ Runciman 1989a, p. 345, Appendix III.
  139. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 231.
  140. ^ a b c d Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 232, Appendix 4.
  141. ^ Engel 2001, p. 97.
  142. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 236-237.
  143. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendix 4.
  144. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 243, Appendix 4.
  145. ^ Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 243, 282, Appendix 4.
  146. ^ a b Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 282.

Sources[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

  • Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited, Translated and Annotated by Martyn Rady and László Veszprémy) (2010). In: Rady, Martyn; Veszprémy, László; Bak, János M. (2010); Anonymus and Master Roger; CEU Press; ISBN 978-963-9776-95-1.
  • Archdeacon Thomas of Split: History of the Bishops of Salona and Split (Latin text by Olga Perić, edited, translated and annotated by Damir Karbić, Mirjana Matijević Sokol and James Ross Sweeney) (2006). CEU Press. ISBN 963-7326-59-6.
  • The Hypatian Codex II: The Galician-Volynian Chronicle (An annotated translation by George A. Perfecky) (1973). Wilhelm Fink Verlag. LCCN 72-79463.

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Andrew II of Hungary
Born: c. 1177 Died: 21 September 1235
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Roman Mstislavich
Prince of Halych
1188–1189 or 1190
Succeeded by
Vladimir II Yaroslavich
Preceded by
Ladislaus III
King of Hungary and Croatia
1205–1235
Succeeded by
Béla IV
Preceded by
Roman II Igorevich
(as prince)
King of Halych
1208 or 1209–1210
Succeeded by
Vladimir III Igorevich
(as prince)