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Ilex paraguariensis - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-074.jpg
Yerba maté
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Aquifoliales

Stemonuraceae [2]

The Aquifoliales are an order of flowering plants, including the Aquifoliaceae (or holly) family, and also the Helwingiaceae (2-5 species of temperate Asian shrubs) and the Phyllonomaceae (4 species of Central American trees and shrubs). In 2001, the families Stemonuraceae and Cardiopteridaceae were added to this order. [3] This circumscription of Aquifoliales was recognized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group when they published the APG II system in 2003. In the Cronquist system, there is no Aquifoliales order: the Aquifoliaceae are placed within the order Celastrales and the others are in other families.


  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ a b c "Aquifoliales". Madagascar Catalogue. 
  3. ^ Kårehed, Jesper (2001). "Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae". American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259–2274. doi:10.2307/3558388. JSTOR 3558388. PMID 21669659.