Band of Gypsys

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For the Gwyneth Jones novel, see Band of Gypsys (novel).
Band of Gypsys
Capitol album cover
Live album by Jimi Hendrix
Released March 25, 1970 (1970-03-25) (US)
Recorded Fillmore East, New York City, January 1, 1970
Genre Rock,[1] funk[2]
Length 45:16
Label Capitol STAO-472
Producer Jimi Hendrix (listed as Heaven Research)
Jimi Hendrix American chronology
Smash Hits
(1969)
Band of Gypsys
(1970)
Historic Performances
(1970)

Band of Gypsys is a live album by Jimi Hendrix and the first without his original group, the Jimi Hendrix Experience. It was recorded on January 1, 1970, at the Fillmore East in New York City with Billy Cox on bass and Buddy Miles on drums, frequently referred to as the Band of Gypsys. The album mixes funk and rhythm and blues elements with hard rock and jamming, an approach which later became the basis of funk rock. It contains previously unreleased songs and was the last full-length Hendrix album released before his death.

After his appearance at Woodstock with an interim group that included Cox, Hendrix began developing new songs and recording demos. When Miles became involved, he and Cox agreed to record a live album with Hendrix to be used to settle a contract dispute with a former manager. The new material, influenced by Cox's and Miles' musical approaches, signal a new direction for Hendrix. Songs such as "Power of Soul" and "Message to Love" still maintain the dominant role of Hendrix's guitar, but show funk and R&B influences. Lyrically, they also explore new, more humanistic themes for Hendrix. The two numbers written and sung by Miles bear the stylings of soul music. The anti-riot/anti-war "Machine Gun", draws on Hendrix's earlier blues aspirations, but incorporates new approaches to guitar improvisation and tonal effects.

As the album's producer, Hendrix had a difficult time completing the task. Presented with the sometimes problematic recordings and resigned to turning it over to a different record company, Hendrix expressed his dissatisfaction with the final product. Shortly after its release, Band of Gypsys reached the top ten of the album charts in the US and UK as well as appearing in charts in several other countries. Although it was as popular as his albums with the Experience, it received mixed reviews. Some faulted the performances as tentative and underprepared; additionally, Miles' contributions on drums and vocals have been characterized as plodding and obtrusive. However, "Machine Gun" is generally regarded as the album's highlight and one of Hendrix's greatest achievements. The influence of Band of Gypsys is heard in the funk rock developments of the 1970s and has been cited as an inspiration by various later rock musicians. Reissues of the album on compact disc included three extra songs recorded during the Fillmore East shows and additional material has been released on later albums.

Background[edit]

In 1969, Jimi Hendrix was under pressure from his manager and record company to record a follow-up to his hugely successful 1968 album Electric Ladyland. He was also required to produce an album's worth of new material for Capitol Records in order to satisfy a contract dispute with former manager Ed Chalpin and PPX Productions.[3] Capitol had released two misleading Chalpin-produced Curtis Knight albums with Hendrix on guitar, which competed directly with his own Experience albums.[4] Additionally, Hendrix was becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the limitations of bassist Noel Redding and the Experience format.[5] During the recording of Electric Ladyland, he and producer Chas Chandler parted ways and Hendrix explored recording with new musicians and different musical styles. By the middle of the year, he had not completed any promising new material and Reprise Records resorted to issuing his April 1968 UK compilation album, Smash Hits, with some new tracks for the North American market.[6] A concert film for which he had performed at the Royal Albert Hall in London in February 1969 was wrapped up in legal disputes and its release was uncertain.[7] In May, while en route to a concert performance in Toronto, Hendrix was detained and charged with illegal possession of narcotics.[8] If convicted of the felony, he faced as many as 20 years in prison. On June 28, 1969, Hendrix announced he planned to work with new musicians, including a new bass player.[9] The next day, after a potentially life-threatening riot following a concert in Denver, Colorado, Redding left the group to return to London and the Jimi Hendrix Experience came to an end.[9]

Hendrix then began experimenting with an expanded lineup for a limited number of American engagements.[10] In addition to original Experience drummer Mitch Mitchell, he worked with bassist Billy Cox and second guitarist Larry Lee, as well as percussionists Juma Sultan and Gerardo "Jerry" Velez.[11] Cox and Lee were two musicians with whom he had played in R&B bands in Tennessee in 1962, shortly after his stint in the US Army.[12] The aggregation, often referred to as "Gypsy Sun and Rainbows", performed as the final act at the Woodstock Festival on August 18, 1969 (while introducing the group at Woodstock, Hendrix added "It's nothing but a band of gypsies").[13] After a couple more appearances, including a September 8 episode of the late night American television The Dick Cavett Show without Lee and Velez, the ensemble disbanded.[14] Lee returned to Tennessee, Sultan and Velez left to pursue other opportunities, and Mitchell joined Jack Bruce's touring group.[14]

In October 1969, Hendrix and Cox began jamming and recording demos with drummer Buddy Miles.[15] Miles had played with various R&B and soul musicians, as a member of the Electric Flag and fronting the Buddy Miles Express, both blues rock-R&B fusion groups.[16] Miles was also a frequent jam partner of Hendrix and played the drums the year before on the two-part song "Rainy Day, Dream Away"/"Still Raining, Still Dreaming" for Electric Ladyland.[17] Cox and Miles expressed an interest in performing and recording a new album with Hendrix.[18] Hendrix's manager, Michael Jeffery, saw the opportunity to record a live album during a New Year's performance at the Fillmore East[19] and the trio began preparing for the upcoming concerts and new album.[20] Between then and the end of December, the trio rehearsed at Juggy Sound Studios and recorded several demos at the Record Plant Studios in New York City, where Hendrix recorded much of Electric Ladyland.[21] After Hendrix's December 10, 1969, acquittal in his Canadian trial, the trio rehearsed their material at Baggy's Studios up until their first concert appearance on December 31.[22] In an interview, Hendrix explained, "We spent 12 to 18 hours a day practicing this whole last week, straight ahead, and then we went into a funky little club and jammed down there to test it out".[23] Early versions of some of the songs which eventually appeared on Band of Gypsys from two of the rehearsal sessions were released as The Baggy's Rehearsal Sessions by Dagger Records in 2002.[3]

Musical style, writing, composition[edit]

As a new group, the Band of Gypsys needed to develop a repertoire.[24] Several songs that had begun as ideas, jams, and demos with the Experience and Gypsy Sun and Rainbows (but unreleased) were carried over to the Band of Gypsys.[25] These included "Lover Man", "Hear My Train A Comin'", "Izabella", "Machine Gun", "Bleeding Heart", "Stepping Stone", and "Message to Love".[24] Three new songs featuring vocals by Buddy Miles were added: "Changes", "We Gotta Live Together" (both Miles compositions) and "Stop", an R&B song written by Jerry Ragovoy and Mort Shuman, which had been recorded by Howard Tate in 1968.[26] Hendrix contributed new material as well, including "Power of Soul", "Ezy Ryder", "Earth Blues", "Burning Desire", and the riff for the jam song "Who Knows".[27] The trio began rehearsing a set of songs for the four upcoming Fillmore shows.[23]

Many of these songs represent a change in Hendrix's music from his Experience repertoire.[28] Biographer and later Hendrix producer John McDermott elaborates

Hendrix's new songs made clear the emerging shifts in his musical direction. The titles alone—"Message to Love", "Power of Soul", "Earth Blues", "Burning Desire"—suggest a change in theme. Jimi's playful humor ... had been replaced with a strident sense of self-examination. In addition, Cox and Miles spurred Jimi's embrace of the R&B tradition they shared [and] merged rock and funk with unparalleled ease.[28]

Most of the arrangements were developed through extensive jamming,[29] with Cox's and Miles' playing influencing Hendrix's ideas.[30] According to biographer Keith Shadwick, Cox explained in later interviews, "the process was based on building up rhythm patterns and that each pattern dictated the shape and character of a portion of a song in which it appeared".[25] Record producer Alan Douglas witnessed the approach during a jam at the Record Plant and saw it as inefficient.[25] On the other hand, Shadwick feels that it was necessary: "it seemed the only way available, especially as neither Cox nor Miles, in particular, were exactly swift on the musical uptake".[25] Music journalist Charles Shaar Murray noted, "Cox's funky, uncluttered bass style would give Hendrix's new music a more solid, less frenetic underpinning [than Noel Redding's style]. In every way, Cox's function would be to provide the steadiness Hendrix so urgently required".[31] Soft Machine drummer Robert Wyatt described Miles' style as "pleasantly messy ... He wasn't as tight as a Stax drummer [such as Al Jackson, Jr. ] ... his rolls would clatter about a bit".[32] However, his often described "fatback grooves" lay down a solid rhythmic foundation[33] and the combination of Cox and Miles adds a "heavy, rolling fluidity which brings out a very different dimension in Hendrix's playing".[32]

The mix of improvisation and R&B/funk elements is evident in "Who Knows", which was the opening number for the second (after the brief "Auld Lang Syne") and third shows.[34] It is a loose jam rather than a structured song and during the performance for second show Hendrix teases the audience with "I hope you don't mind us jamming a little bit, we're just messing around ... seeing what we're gonna play next". Built on Hendrix's guitar figure, "Who Knows" is framed by Cox's economical funk-blues bass line and Miles' steady drum beat, which Murray describes as "a thick, lazy twitch".[32] Hendrix explores guitar phrases using different tones and effects between vocal sections.[26] According to Cox, Hendrix used a new combination of effects for the first time.[35] These included a Uni-Vibe phase shifter, an Octavia harmonizer (developed for him by Roger Mayer during the recording of his first album), a Fuzz Face distortion box, and a wah-wah pedal.[35] In the higher range, it has been described as producing a "whistling, shimmering, ring-modulated tone so rich with upper harmonics", while in the lower range "it almost sounds like 'Froggy Went a-Courtin'' ... all these [lower] oct[ave]-intervals give it such a dramatic effect".[36] His use of the wah-wah employs "rapid foot movement and wide sweeps [which] tend to make the melody fade in and out".[37] Also, by using a triplet rhythm with the pedal, a polyrhythm with the prevailing 4
4
beat is created.[37] The lyrics, some which borrow from other R&B songs, are also improvised and show considerable differences between the two renditions.[26] As it unfolds, there is an R&B-style vocal call and response section between Hendrix and Miles, then separate vocal sections for each, which Miles follows with scat singing.[38] During the middle section, most of the instrumentation drops out and returns with more Hendrix guitar tonal explorations before winding down at 8:23 (second show) and 9:32 (third show).[39] While McDermott feels that the jam is underdeveloped and biographer Harry Shapiro criticizes Miles' vocals,[40][41] Shadwick and writer David Henderson focus on the "easy groove" and "lilting flow".[26][38] Besides adding a fresh rhythmic element to his music,[32] it also gives Hendrix more room to experiment with different approaches and sounds on guitar.[26]

Similarly, the Buddy Miles song "We Gotta Live Together" is a jam number. It forms the second part of a medley with "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)" and had only been performed once before at the Baggy's rehearsal room.[42] The song features Miles attempting to engage the audience in a call and response "testifying" soul music-style vocal section, which was mostly edited out for the album release.[42] Hendrix and Cox back Miles' vocal sections with parallel funk-style lines, before a guitar solo using Hendrix's new combination of effects. Shapiro comments

At that point, it picks up into double-time and the sounds of electronic equipment not yet invented stream out of Jimi's Stratocaster at breakneck speed. Coming after the kind of stuff Jimi could play in his sleep, the contrast is even more startling. The passage is quite short, but it has an eerie abstract quality.[43]

"Changes" is another song written and sung by Miles and it benefits from more development and structure.[44] Although it includes a prominent guitar line by Hendrix, it is Miles' showcase piece.[45] The song was performed during each show with little variation, except for Miles' vocal improvisations.[34] With these sections edited out, "Changes" is a relatively concise, soul music radio-friendly number.[42] When Miles re-recorded it as "Them Changes", it became a Billboard top 40 Best Selling Soul Singles as well as appearing in the magazine's Hot 100 pop chart.[46]

The two Hendrix compositions, "Power of Soul" and "Message to Love" (titled "Power to Love" and "Message of Love" on the original Capitol Records' Band of Gypsys release), are also more structured and rehearsed songs.[26] They represent Hendrix's new blending of funk, R&B, and rock together with a new lyrical approach.[26][27] According to Shapiro, the lyrics reflect "a Jimi Hendrix who felt an increasing need to impart his compassionate vision of human potentiality [and a] move away from cynicism and bitterness".[47] Cox and Miles provide strong instrumental backing, where the rhythm is "locked-in" or "deep in the pocket", a common feature of funk and R&B.[48] (Nearly all of Hendrix's music, and contemporary rock in general, uses common or 4
4
time; "Manic Depression" (3
4
or 9
8
), "Dolly Dagger" (5
4
), "Stepping Stone" (8
8
), and the slow blues ""Red House" and "Belly Button Window" (both 12
8
) are among the exceptions.)[49][50] Jazz innovator Miles Davis felt that Cox and Miles were the best rhythm section for Hendrix and freed him from the constraints of the Experience.[51] Guitarist Jean-Paul Bourelly, who played with Davis, commented in an interview:

Band of Gypsys was the ultimate in terms of what he [Hendrix] was doing. I thought the rhythm section was perfect for him. Billy Cox and Buddy Miles—those were two cats who could hit. I mean, it was so solid that when Hendrix went into his psychedelic stuff it was like a perfect contrast. You could see how far he was traveling because the ground was so clear![52]

"Machine Gun" is another song that Hendrix had spent more time developing.[53][54] By the Fillmore East concerts, it became an extended guitar improvisational piece, which "would completely change the perception of Hendrix's capabilities as an improviser and musician", according to Shadwick.[26] Although based on a "minor drone-blues" in the line of "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)", Hendrix's performance has been compared to jazz saxophonist John Coltrane's approach to improvisation.[50][55] Miles Davis, with whom Coltrane had recorded several albums in the 1950s, including the influential Kind of Blue, noted the connection: "Jimi liked what I had done with Kind of Blue and some other stuff and wanted to add more jazz elements to what he was doing. He liked the way Coltrane played with all those sheets of sound, and played his guitar in a similar way".[56] From Hendrix's dedication of the song "to all the soldiers that are fighting in Chicago and Milwaukee and New York, oh yes, and all the soldiers fighting in Vietnam", "Machine Gun" is as much about the late 1960s American race riots as the war in Vietnam.[57] Guitarist Vernon Reid describes it as "like a movie about war without the visuals. It had everything—the lyrics, the humanism of it, the drama of it, the violence of it, the eerieness of it, [and] the unpredictability of it".[58] In many commentaries about Band of Gypsys, "Machine Gun" is singled out as the highlight of the album.[59][60][61] Both McDermott and Shadwick call it one of Hendrix's greatest achievements, which sets a standard that the rest of the album does not approach.[50][62]

Recording[edit]

The material for Band of Gypsys was recorded over two consecutive nights at the Fillmore East.[3] The group was scheduled for two shows on December 31, 1969, and another two on January 1, 1970 (because the shows went beyond midnight, the actual dates were December 31 – January 1 and January 1 – 2; for ease of reference, these are referred as the first show, second show, third show, and fourth show).[34] The recording was supervised by Wally Heider, an experienced sound engineer who ran a recording studio and had made several live recordings.[63] He had already recorded Hendrix live several times, including at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 and Woodstock in 1969. Portable recording equipment was set up at the venue and the trio performed for a soundcheck in the afternoon.[64]

Concert promoter Bill Graham billed the performances as "Jimi Hendrix: A Band of Gypsys", but Hendrix's new direction since the breakup of the Experience six months earlier had not been publicized.[65] With a new lineup and material, Cox observed, "We didn't know what to expect from the audience and the audience didn't know what to expect from us".[66] A total of 47 songs were performed and recorded; since most were played in more than one show, the number of different songs was 24.[34][67] The group did not prepare set lists or otherwise plan for their performances.[33] McDermott notes, "Hendrix called out tunes to Miles and Cox and would often make time and tempo changes on the fly, alerting his partners with a simple head nod or raising of his guitar neck".[33] Miles also saw improvisation as a key element of their approach.[68] According to Shadwick, the first show was essentially a warm-up set[34] and they performed eleven new songs (it was the only show not to include any familiar Experience numbers).[69] There were some microphone problems during the first two songs, which re-appeared for the first two songs of the second show as well.[69] Hendrix also experienced tuning problems with his guitar.[70] His heavy use of the Stratocaster's vibrato arm or "whammy bar" stressed the strings and led to pitch problems, which he was often forced to correct mid-song.[71] For the second show, in addition to new songs, Hendrix added "Stone Free", "Foxy Lady", "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)", and "Purple Haze" to ring in the new decade.[34]

On the second night, the group performed a mix of new and older material for the third and fourth shows.[34] The contrast between the first and second nights has been noted by Hendrix biographers. Based on interviews with Cox and Miles, concert reviews, and film footage, McDermott and Shadwick conclude that Hendrix was less animated during the third and fourth shows, when he stood mostly in place until the final encores, seemingly concentrating on recording.[26][72] In frequent interviews and in his autobiography, Bill Graham claimed that his criticism of Hendrix for playing to the audience (although he seems to confuse which shows) spurred him on.[26] However, according to McDermott, Hendrix was already determined to deliver suitable performances to finally settle the bitter legal dispute with Ed Chalpin.[69] All of the six songs that were chosen for Band of Gypsys were recorded during these two shows.[73] When it was all done, Hendrix cut loose for his last encores with "Wild Thing", "Hey Joe", and "Purple Haze".[74]

Production[edit]

On January 12, 1970, Hendrix and recording engineer Eddie Kramer began the task of deciding which songs to include on the new album (Cox and Miles did not participate in the process).[75] The review and subsequent audio mixing was undertaken at Juggy Sound Studios in New York,[75] where the trio started rehearsing in October. Excluding Experience and cover songs, there were multiple versions of thirteen new, previously unreleased songs from which to choose.[76] Among those that received Kramer's and Hendrix's attention were "Machine Gun", "Earth Blues", "Burning Desire", "Ezy Ryder", "Who Knows", and "Hear My Train A Comin'". Early on, Hendrix chose to include the Buddy Miles songs "Changes" and "We Gotta Live Together".[77] He also decided on "Power of Soul" and "Message to Love", studio versions of which had been considered for release as a single[78] (these studio recordings were later included on South Saturn Delta[79] and West Coast Seattle Boy: The Jimi Hendrix Anthology[80]). Songs with recording problems and those Hendrix wished to complete as studio recordings were withheld (studio versions of "Izabella" and "Stepping Stone" were released as a single in March; "Ezy Ryder" and "Earth Blues" were included on his first posthumous albums).[69][75]

By January 21, Hendrix and Kramer narrowed the list to "Message to Love" (fourth show), "Hear My Train A Comin'" (first show), "Power of Soul" (third and fourth shows), and all four recordings of "Machine Gun".[81] Hendrix and Kramer began preparing mixes of the multitrack recordings. During the process, Kramer recalled

Mixing the Band of Gypsys album was a challenge. It was like Jimi was really almost pressured into doing it. Hearing Buddy's [vamping or musical improvisation] seemed to bother him. We were sitting there and he was like. 'Oh man, I wish Buddy would shut the fuck up.' He would listen to him and say, 'Can we cut some of those parts out?' I ended up editing a lot of Buddy's quote unquote 'jamming', where he would go off and sing a lot.[82]

One of Miles' songs, "We Gotta Live Together" was pared down from fifteen to a little over five minutes and another, "Changes", also benefited from trimming,[83] because, as Murray puts it, "a little of [Miles' vamping] goes an extremely long way".[32] This editing also provided some lighter moments. One of Jeffery's assistants recalled, "Hendrix played me a tape and prefaced it by saying it represented the new direction in his music. He had made up this long loop of tape of the portions edited out of 'We Gotta Live Together'. I flipped out and he started cracking up".[40] After several more editing and mixing sessions at Juggy Sound, the material for the album was readied on February 17.[83] The following day, Hendrix and Kramer met with Bob Ludwig, who supervised the final mastering.[83] Hendrix chose to work with his own mastering engineer, because he had been dissatisfied with his record company's results for Electric Ladyland.[83] The task was completed on February 19, 1970,[83] and the final track listing included two songs from the third show and four from the fourth and last show.[84]

According to Shadwick, "The process of choosing and mixing the live album was not a pleasant one: Hendrix only fullfilled his legal obligation to PPX/Capitol under duress and with the greatest reluctance".[78] McDermott questions why some superior tracks that recorded were not used instead.[40] Kramer sees it as a compromise:

I don't know that Jimi felt that these concerts were his best performances, but there were parts of them that he was really happy with. Certainly, 'Machine Gun' and tracks like 'Message to Love' sounded pretty good. At the time he didn't want to include new songs that he wanted to finish in Electric Lady [Hendrix's new custom-built recording studio]. Jimi was kind of resigned to the fact that here we are, we have to mix this, we got to give it to Capitol, it wasn't a Warner's record [his official record company], let's do the best we can with it.[75]

Early on, Billy Cox believed that the primary goal was to resolve the matter with Chalpin.[35] Later, he commented, "Overall, the feeling was, 'What the heck, the album doesn't belong to us anyway. Let's just move on and forget it'".[85] Already past the 1969 deadline, Hendrix summed it up:

I wasn't too satisfied with the album. If it had been up to me, I never would have put it out. From a musician's point of view, it was not a good recording and I was out of tune on a few things ... not enough preparation went into it and it came out a bit 'grizzly'. The thing was, we owed the record company an album and they were pushing us, so here it is.[70][73]

Release[edit]

On February 25, 1970, Michael Jeffery delivered the master tapes for Band of Gypsys to Capitol Records executives in Los Angeles.[86] Capitol rush released the album one month later on March 25, 1970, and it entered Billboard magazine's Top 200 albums chart at number eighteen.[86] It reached number five during a stay of 61 weeks on the chart and, at the time of his death, was Hendrix's best selling album in the US since Are You Experienced.[86] Due to legal wrangling by Ed Chalpin and PPX, the album was not released in the UK for nearly two more months.[87] When Track Records issued it on June 12, 1970, it quickly entered the British charts, where it remained for 30 weeks and reached number six.[87]

Original Track Records Band of Gypsys album cover (front)

For the album cover, Capitol Records used a grainy photograph of Hendrix taken during the Fillmore East shows illuminated by the multi-colored liquid light show projected by the Joshua Light Show.[26] However, Track used album cover art which proved controversial, as they had done with Electrtic Ladyland.[73] It depicted unflattering puppets or dolls that resembled Hendrix, Brian Jones, Bob Dylan, and John Peel huddled next to a drab, corrugated backdrop.[73] The significance of posing the three with Hendrix was not evident as they had no known association with the Band of Gypsys nor the group's material. Hendrix was an admirer of Dylan and recorded some of his songs;[88] Jones, who died the year before, had participated in a recording session for Hendrix's "All Along the Watchtower" (a Dylan composition);[88] and Peel hosted BBC's Top Gear radio show when Hendrix performed there in 1967.[89] Jeffrey remarked, "If ever there is an award for the worst taste album cover it must go to this".[73] Responding to public pressure, Track later replaced it with a photograph of Hendrix performing at the August 1970 Isle of Wight Festival.[87]

By the time of the album's release, the trio had already broken up.[90] Their first show after the Fillmore East engagement was at the Madison Square Garden on January 28, 1970.[91] There they struggled through "Who Knows" and "Earth Blues" before leaving the stage.[92] Jeffery, who reportedly was never happy with the lineup, fired Buddy Miles on the spot.[93] Gerry Stickells, Hendrix's tour manager, points to "Jimi's own lack of commitment to the Band of Gypsys concept as its fatal flaw".[94] Two songs, "Stepping Stone" and "Izabella", that the trio had recorded, were issued as a single by Reprise Records two weeks after Capitol released Band of Gypsys.[86] Hendrix was dissatisfied with the mix and it was quickly withdrawn without ever appearing in the charts.[84] Three other songs that were recorded with Cox and Miles were later used for early posthumous Hendrix albums, including The Cry of Love and Rainbow Bridge.[95] Additional studio recordings by the trio in various stages of development were released on South Saturn Delta,[79] The Jimi Hendrix Experience box set,[96] Burning Desire,[97] West Coast Seattle Boy,[98] and People, Hell and Angels.[99]

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Retrospective reviews
Review scores
Source Rating
AllMusic 4.5/5 stars[100]
Blender 2/5 stars[101]
Robert Christgau B+[1]
Rolling Stone 4/5 stars[102]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide 4/5 stars[103]
Sputnikmusic 4.5/5[104]

Band of Gypsys has often been viewed as the least important album that Hendrix released when he was alive.[105] Critics have generally found it less powerful than his performance with the Experience, whom they felt Hendrix had a better rapport with live.[106] In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone, music journalist Gary von Tersch said that the album is hampered by poorly recorded vocals and Miles' unpleasant drumming, and instead viewed it as a showcase for Hendrix's virtuosic guitar playing: "With just bass and drum support he is able to transfuse and transfix on the strength of his guitar-work alone."[107] The magazine's David Wild was more enthusiastic in a retrospective review and felt that songs such as "Message of Love" and "Machine Gun" still sound powerful in spite of the unclear recording quality.[102]

According to Sean Westergaard of AllMusic, Band of Gypsys is one of the best live albums of all time and an important recording for Hendrix, who played with a remarkable degree of focus and precision on what were "perhaps his finest [live] performances."[100] Sputnikmusic's Hernan M. Campbell believed that it departed from his more psychedelic recordings with the Jimi Hendrix Experience, but still retained their intensity, particular on "Machine Gun", which Campbell called one of Hendrix's most captivating performances.[104] On the other hand, Robert Christgau felt that the "overrated" album is decent by live rock standards, but unexceptional in Hendrix's discography.[108][109] Christgau also believed that Hendrix is limited by the straighter, simpler rhythm section, but added that "Who Knows" and "Machine Gun" "are as powerful if not complex as anything he's ever put on record".[110] He stated that Hendrix is more reliant on wah-wah guitar lines for the second half of the album, except for the "rapid fire" "Message to Love".[111]

Influence[edit]

Writer Rickey Vincent describes Band of Gypsys as "a never-heard-before almalgam of punishing guitar riffs over crisp rhythm and blues grooves ... The funk-rock sound would change the face of black music, setting a template for the spectacular glam-funk of the 1970s".[112] Music writer Corey Washington adds, "the Band of Gypsys pioneered a unique style of funk that placed the guitar in the mix right along with the bass ... [they] took funk to the next level because of their rock background".[113] Murray sees their influence in the early 1970s radio hits "Freddie's Dead" by Curtis Mayfield and "That Lady" by the Isley Brothers.[114] (Hendrix was influenced by Mayfield early in his career and was a member of the Isley Brothers' touring band before the Experience). George Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic, who defined funk for the 1970s, were also influenced.[112] P-Funk's "Maggot Brain", a ten-minute guitar opus by Eddie Hazel, draws on "Machine Gun" and bassist Bootsy Collins identified Hendrix as a chief innovator in the liner notes to his What's Bootsy Doin'? album.[114][115] Later funk-influenced artists Larry Blackmon (singer for Cameo) and Nile Rodgers (guitarist for Chic and record producer) also cite the album's importance and influence.[62]

In addition to funk rock, Murray sees the Band of Gypsys as "tread[ing] an intriguing path along the common boarder between hard funk and heavy metal; less psychedelic soul than black rock".[59] Vernon Reid (guitarist for Living Colour) and Ice-T (singer for Body Count) have commented on the Band of Gypsys as an early influence.[62][116] During interviews in the 1999 documentary Band of Gypsys: Live at the Fillmore East, Reid, Velvert Turner, Slash, and Lenny Kravitz discuss "the inspiration and continuing influence that Band of Gypsys has provided".[117]

During the Band of Gypsys rehearsals in November 1969, Hendrix and Miles recorded the backing track for "Doriella Du Fontaine", with Lightnin' Rod (later known as Jalal Mansur Nuriddin) of the Last Poets.[118] Although it was not released until 1984, it is cited as an early example of hip hop.[118] Writer Gene Santoro describes it as "foreshadow[ing] the rap-meets-metal crossover of later artists like Run-DMC".[119] In 1990, the alternative hip hop group Digital Underground extensively sampled "Who Knows", the opening song from Band of Gypsys, for "The Way We Swing" on the Sex Packets album.[113] McDermott concludes that it would be difficult "to accurately measure the lasting impact Band of Gypsys has made on rock, funk, R&B, and Hip-Hop".[77]

Track listing[edit]

Side one
No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length
1. "Who Knows" (3rd. show) Jimi Hendrix Jimi Hendrix, Buddy Miles 9:34
2. "Machine Gun" (3rd. show) Hendrix Hendrix, Miles 12:38
Side two
No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length
3. "Changes" (4th. show) Buddy Miles Miles 5:11
4. "Power to Love[120]" (4th. show) Hendrix Hendrix, Miles 6:55
5. "Message of Love[120]" (4th. show) Hendrix Hendrix 5:24
6. "We Gotta Live Together" (4th. show) Miles Miles, Hendrix, Billy Cox 5:51

Personnel[edit]

Production personnel

Charts and certifications[edit]

RIAA Platinum record for Band of Gypsys on display at the Los Angeles-Universal City Hard Rock Cafe[121]
Top albums charts 1970 Peak position Weeks on chart
Canada RPM 100 Albums[122] 5 22
Germany Charts.de[123] 15 6
Netherlands Dutch Charts[124] 7 7
Norway Norwegian Charts[125] 9 7
UK Official Charts Albums[87] 6 30
US Billboard 200[45] 5 61
US Billboard R&B Albums[126] 14

In the US, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) first certified Band of Gypsys as a "Gold Record", signifying sales in excess of 500,000 copies, on June 3, 1970, less than two months after its release.[127] On February 5, 1991, it achieved "Platinum Record" status (more than one million copies sold).[127] After Capitol Records re-released the album on CD in 1997, it was given a "Double Platinum" award on January 16, 1998, for sales over two million.[127] Additionally, the 1999 Live at the Fillmore documentary DVD has received a platinum award.[127]

Release history[edit]

Band of Gypsys was re-released on compact disc in 1991 by Polydor Records in Europe and Japan.[128][129] In addition to the original tracks, it included three extra songs recorded during the Fillmore East shows.[84] These had been originally released in the US by Capitol Records in 1986 on the Band of Gypsys 2 album (despite the title, only half of the album's songs were recorded with Cox and Miles).[84] In 1997, when Band of Gypsys was re-released on CD in the US, Capitol only included the original six tracks.[130]

1991 Polydor Europe & Japan CD reissue bonus tracks
No. Title Writer(s) Lead vocals Length
7. "Hear My Train A Comin'" (1st. show) Jimi Hendrix Jimi Hendrix 9:02
8. "Foxy Lady" (3rd. show) Hendrix Hendrix 6:33
9. "Stop" (3rd. show) Jerry Ragovoy, Mort Shuman Buddy Miles 4:47

After Experience Hendrix, a family-run company, assumed control of his recording legacy, more material from the Fillmore shows has been issued. "Hear My Train" and "Stop" are included on the 1999 double CD Live at the Fillmore East, along with several songs from each of the four shows.[131] "Foxy Lady" was added to one version of the 2013 "Somewhere" single.[132] An additional three songs from the second Fillmore show are included on West Coast Seattle Boy.[133] The trio was filmed performing two of the songs that are included on the original album. Black and white footage for part of "Who Knows" was filmed by Woody Vasulka from the hall, while Jan Blom shot "Machine Gun" from the balcony.[134] It was later included on the 1999 DVD documentary Band of Gypsys: Live at the Fillmore East.[135]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Christgau 1981, p. 174.
  2. ^ Evans & Brackett 2004, p. 375.
  3. ^ a b c McDermott 1997, p. 13.
  4. ^ McDermott 1999, p. 9.
  5. ^ Shadwick 2003, p. 193.
  6. ^ McDermott 2009, pp. 168–169.
  7. ^ Roby 2002, p. 239.
  8. ^ Shapiro 1990, pp. 356–362.
  9. ^ a b Black 1999, p. 194.
  10. ^ McDermott 2009, pp. 166–174.
  11. ^ Shapiro 1990, pp. 375–376.
  12. ^ Shapiro 1990, pp. 63–64.
  13. ^ Buddy Miles and Shapiro refer to the group as "Gypsy Sons and Rainbows". Shaprio 1990, p. 385.
  14. ^ a b McDermott 2009, pp. 174–178.
  15. ^ McDermott 2009, p. 178–180.
  16. ^ Huey, Steve. "Buddy Miles: Artist Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved June 8, 2014. 
  17. ^ Shapiro 1990, p. 533.
  18. ^ Roby 2002, p. 157.
  19. ^ McDermott 2009, p. 187.
  20. ^ Shadwick 2003, pp. 203–204.
  21. ^ McDermott 2009, pp. 180–187.
  22. ^ Black 1999, pp. 213–215.
  23. ^ a b Black 1999, p. 215.
  24. ^ a b Shadwick 2003, pp. 208–209.
  25. ^ a b c d Shadwick 2003, p. 203.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Shadwick 2003, p. 212.
  27. ^ a b McDermott 1995, p. 137.
  28. ^ a b McDermott 1997, p. 15.
  29. ^ McDermott 1992, p. 239.
  30. ^ Henderson 1982, p. 286.
  31. ^ Murray 1991, p. 52.
  32. ^ a b c d e Murray 1991, p. 177.
  33. ^ a b c McDermott 1999, p. 15.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Shadwick 2003, p. 211.
  35. ^ a b c McDermott 1999, p. 18.
  36. ^ Whitehill 1992, p. 82.
  37. ^ a b Wheeler 1992, p. 67.
  38. ^ a b Henderson 1982, pp. 283–284.
  39. ^ The 3:55 version of "Who Knows" included on Live at the Fillmore East is edited from 8:23 second show version, which had microphone problems. McDermott 1999, p. 12.
  40. ^ a b c McDermott 1992, pp. 256–257.
  41. ^ Shaprio 1990, p. 409.
  42. ^ a b c McDermott 1992, p. 257.
  43. ^ Shapiro 1990, p. 410.
  44. ^ McDermott 1999, pp. 17–18.
  45. ^ a b McDermott.
  46. ^ Whitburn 1988, p. 298.
  47. ^ Shapiro 2003, p. 410.
  48. ^ Milkowski 2001, p. 45.
  49. ^ Experience Hendrix 1998, pp. 2–357.
  50. ^ a b c Shadwick 2003, p. 213.
  51. ^ Davis 1989, p. 293.
  52. ^ Milkowski 2001, p. 51.
  53. ^ McDermott 1995, p. 116.
  54. ^ McDermott 2009, p. 174.
  55. ^ Whitehill 1992, p. 59.
  56. ^ Davis 1989, p. 292.
  57. ^ Shapiro 1990, p. 408.
  58. ^ Milkowski 2001, p. 47.
  59. ^ a b Murray 1989, p. 177.
  60. ^ Shapiro 2003, p. 408.
  61. ^ Henderson 1982, p. 284.
  62. ^ a b c McDermott 1992, p. 256.
  63. ^ McDermott 1997, p. 21.
  64. ^ A Fillmore East staffer later recalled that the band had rehearsed there during the afternoons for several days (Black 1999, p. 215), although McDermott (2009, pp. 187–188) places these rehearsals at Baggy's.
  65. ^ McDermott 2009, pp. 187–188.
  66. ^ McDermott 1999, p. 11.
  67. ^ With medleys, Jucha counts 23 different and 11 new songs. Jucha 2013.
  68. ^ McDermott 2002, p. 5.
  69. ^ a b c d McDermott 1999, p. 12.
  70. ^ a b Black 1999, p. 223.
  71. ^ Smeaton 1999.
  72. ^ McDermott 1992, p. 247.
  73. ^ a b c d e Shapiro 1990, p. 536.
  74. ^ McDermott 2009, pp. 192–193.
  75. ^ a b c d McDermott 2009, pp. 193–194.
  76. ^ Jucha 2013.
  77. ^ a b McDermott 1997, p. 19.
  78. ^ a b Shadwick 2003, p. 214.
  79. ^ a b McDermott 1997, p. 7.
  80. ^ McDermott 2010, p. 36.
  81. ^ McDermott 2009, p. 195.
  82. ^ McDermott 2009, p. 194.
  83. ^ a b c d e McDermott 2009, p. 203.
  84. ^ a b c d Roby 2002, p. 160.
  85. ^ McDermott 1995, p. 138.
  86. ^ a b c d McDermott 2009, p. 206.
  87. ^ a b c d McDermott 2009, pp. 217–218.
  88. ^ a b Shapiro 1990, p. 531.
  89. ^ Sinclair 1998, p. 10.
  90. ^ Roby 2002, pp. 159–160.
  91. ^ McDermott 1997, pp. 15–16.
  92. ^ McDermott 2009, p. 198.
  93. ^ Shapiro 1990, pp. 411–414.
  94. ^ McDermott 1992, p. 240.
  95. ^ Shapiro 1990, pp. 539, 542.
  96. ^ McDermott 2000, pp. 59–61, 68.
  97. ^ McDermott 2006, p. 8.
  98. ^ McDermott 2010, pp. 36, 49.
  99. ^ McDermott 2013, pp. 5, 8, 9, 20.
  100. ^ a b Westergaard, Sean. "Band of Gypsys - Jimi Hendrix". AllMusic. Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  101. ^ Christgau 2005.
  102. ^ a b Wild, David (February 2, 1998). "Band of Gypsys : Review". Rolling Stone (New York). Archived from the original on June 4, 2014. Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  103. ^ Evans & Brackett 2004, p. 374.
  104. ^ a b Campbell, Hernan M. (May 6, 2012). "Review: Jimi Hendrix - Band of Gypsys". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  105. ^ Wells 1997, p. 59.
  106. ^ Moskowitz 2010, p. 68.
  107. ^ Tersch, Gary von (May 28, 1970). "Band of Gypys". Rolling Stone (New York). Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  108. ^ Christgau 2005
  109. ^ Christgau 1981, p. 174
  110. ^ Christgau 1981, p. 174
  111. ^ Christgau 1981, p. 174
  112. ^ a b Vincent 2013, p. 293.
  113. ^ a b Washington 2010.
  114. ^ a b Murray 1989, pp. 178–180.
  115. ^ Needs 2014.
  116. ^ Black 1999, p. 216.
  117. ^ "Film Screening: Jimi Hendrix: Band of Gypsys". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  118. ^ a b McDermott 2009, p. 180.
  119. ^ Santoro 1995, p. 114.
  120. ^ a b These song titles are used on the original Capitol LP, although they are referred to as "Power of Soul" and "Message to Love" on reissues and in the literature. Band of Gypsys CD reissue notes, McDermott 1997, p. 15.
  121. ^ RIAA Gold and Platinum award records usually do not use the actual record; in this case, the displayed record shows banding for five tracks, not two or four as on the original LP side one or two.
  122. ^ "RPM100 Albums". RPM 13 (14). June 6, 1970. Retrieved June 1, 2014. 
  123. ^ "Charts.de: Album – Jimi Hendrix, Band of Gypsys". charts.de (in German). GfK Entertainment GmbH. Retrieved June 1, 2014. 
  124. ^ "Dutch Charts: Jimi Hendrix – Band of Gypsys (album)". dutchcharts.nl (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved June 1, 2014. 
  125. ^ "Norwegian Charts: Jimi Hendrix – Band of Gypsys (album)". norwegiancharts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved June 1, 2014. 
  126. ^ "Jimi Hendrix – Awards". AllMusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved June 5, 2014. 
  127. ^ a b c d "Gold & Platinum". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved June 1, 2014. 
  128. ^ "Jimi Hendrix: Band of Gypsys (Polydor Europe)". Discogs. Zink Media, Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  129. ^ "Jimi Hendrix: Band of Gypsys (Polydor Japan)". Discogs. Zink Media, Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  130. ^ McDermott 1997, p. 2.
  131. ^ McDermott 1999, p. 24.
  132. ^ "Jimi Hendrix: Somewhere Images". Discogs. Zink Media, Inc. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  133. ^ McDermott 2010, pp. 36–39.
  134. ^ Roby 2002, p. 247.
  135. ^ Roby 2002, pp. 161–162.

References[edit]