Bayan Obo Mining District
|Bayan Obo Mining District
|false color ASTER image by NASA|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
Bayan Obo Mining District, (Mongolian: "rich"+"ovoo"; simplified Chinese: 白云鄂博矿区; traditional Chinese: 白雲鄂博礦區; pinyin: Báiyún Èbó Kuàngqū), or Baiyun-Obo or Baiyun'ebo, is a mining town in the west of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Baotou City, more than 120 kilometres (75 mi) to the south.
In the satellite image at right, vegetation appears red, grassland is light brown, rocks are black, and water surfaces are green. Two circular open-pit mines are visible, as well as a number of tailings ponds and tailings piles. 
China produced about 81,000 tons of rare earth metals in 2001; the number jumped to about 120,000 by 2006. According to the Chinese Society of Rare Earths, 9,600 to 12,000 cubic meters (340,000 to 420,000 cubic feet) of waste gas—containing dust concentrate, hydrofluoric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid—are released with every ton of rare metals that are mined. Approximately 75 cubic meters (2,600 cubic feet) of acidic wastewater, plus about a ton of radioactive waste residue are also produced.
- Lawrence J. Drewa, Meng Qingrunb and Sun Weijun (1990). "The Bayan Obo iron-rare-earth-niobium deposits, Inner Mongolia, China". Lithos 26 (1-2): 43–65. doi:10.1016/0024-4937(90)90040-8.
- Xue-Ming Yang, Michael J. Le Bas (2004). "Chemical compositions of carbonate minerals from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China: implications for petrogenesis". Lithos 72 (1-2): 97–116. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2003.09.002.
- Chengyu Wu (2007). "Bayan Obo Controversy: Carbonatites versus Iron Oxide-Cu-Au-(REE-U)". Resource Geology 58 (4): 348. doi:10.1111/j.1751-3928.2008.00069.x.
- NASA Bayan Obo image and writeup
- "Bayan Obo (Bayun-Obo; Baiyunebo) deposit, Bayan Obo, Darhan Muminggan United Banner, Baotou League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China".
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