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包头市 · ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Prefecture-level city
Deer Monument in Baotou
Deer Monument in Baotou
Baotou (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Baotou (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Baotou is located in Inner Mongolia
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Coordinates: 40°39′N 109°50′E / 40.650°N 109.833°E / 40.650; 109.833Coordinates: 40°39′N 109°50′E / 40.650°N 109.833°E / 40.650; 109.833
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
County-level divisions 10
 • Prefecture-level city 27,768 km2 (10,721 sq mi)
 • Urban 271 km2 (105 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,969 km2 (1,146 sq mi)
Elevation 1,065 m (3,494 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city 2,650,364
 • Density 95/km2 (250/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,720,099
 • Urban density 6,300/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,977,785
 • Metro density 670/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Major nationalities Han, Mongolian
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 014000
Area code(s) 472
License plate prefixes B
Local Dialect Jin: Baotou dialect
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 包頭
Simplified Chinese 包头
Postal Map Paotow
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Бугaт хот
Mongolian script ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ

Baotou (Mongolian: ᠪᠤᠭᠤᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Buɣutu qota; Chinese: 包头市) also known as Bugthot is the largest industrial city in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.[1] Governed as a prefecture-level city, its urban areas are home to a population of approximately 1.78 million, with a total population of over 2.65 million accounting for counties under its jurisdiction. The city's Mongolian name means "place with deer", and an alternate name is "Lucheng" (鹿城; Lùchéng), meaning "Deer City".

Administrative divisions[edit]

Baotou is divided into 10 county-level divisions, including 7 districts,1 county and 2 banners.

Map # Name Mongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 Census[2]) Area (km²) Density
Baotou mcp.png
1 Hondlon District ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Köndelen toɣoriɣ)
昆都仑区 Kūndūlún Qū 726,838 301 6,108
2 Donghe District ᠳᠦᠩᠾᠧ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Düŋhė toɣoriɣ)
东河区 Dōnghé Qū 512,045 423 6,024
3 Qingshan District ᠴᠢᠩᠱᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Čiŋšan toɣoriɣ)
青山区 Qīngshān Qū 481,216 280 7,182
4 Shiguai District ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Siɣuyitu toɣoriɣ)
石拐区 Shíguǎi Qū 35,805 761 57.8
5 Bayan Obo Mining District ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠣᠪᠣᠭ᠋᠎ᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Bayan Oboɣ-a Aɣurqai-yin toɣoriɣ)
白云鄂博矿区 Báiyún Èbó Kuàngqū 26,050 303 86
6 Jiuyuan District ᠵᠢᠦ ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Jiü yuvan toɣoriɣ)
九原区 Jiǔyuán Qū 195,831 734 110.3
7 Binhe New District ᠪᡳᠨ ᠾᠧ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Bin hė sin-e toɣoriɣ)
滨河新区 Bīnhé Xīn Qū 119,066 88 1353
8 Guyang County ᠭᠦᠶᠠᠩ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Güyaŋ siyan)
固阳县 Gùyáng Xiàn 175,574 5,021 35
9 Tumed Right Banner ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Tümed Baraɣun qosiɣu)
土默特右旗 Tǔmòtè Yòu Qí 276,453 2,368 116.7
10 Darhan Muminggan United Banner ᠳᠠᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠤᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Darqan Muumiŋɣan Qolboɣatu qosiɣu)
Dá'ěrhǎn Màomíng'ān
Liánhé Qí
101,486 17,410 5.8


The area now known as Baotou was inhabited since ancient times by nomads, most notably the Mongols. Near the end of the Han Dynasty, Lü Bu, a particularly noteworthy warrior, was born in today's Jiuyuan District of Baotou. Compared to the capital, Hohhot, Baotou's construction as a city came relatively late, being incorporated as a town in 1809. The city's site was chosen because it was in an arable region of the Yellow River's Great Bend.

The Gelaohui secret society and the Hui Muslim General Ma Fuxiang came to an agreement in 1922, in which Ma Fuxiang agreed to allow the Gelaohui to extort protection money from wool merchants in Baotou.[3]

A railway from Beijing was constructed in 1923, and the city began spurring some industrial sites. A German-Chinese joint-venture in 1934 constructed the Baotou Airport and opened a weekly route connecting Baotou with Ningxia and Lanzhou.

When young Owen Lattimore visited Baotou in 1925, it was still "a little husk of a town in a great hollow shell of mud ramparts, where two busy streets made a traders' quarter", but already an important railhead. Qinghai and Gansu wool and hides were brought down the Huanghe by raft and boat from Lanzhou to Baotou, and shipped from Baotou by rail to the east (in particular, to Tianjin for export). The river traffic was one-way only, however, as the fast current made sailing up the Huanghe impractical. To travel from Baotou back to Lanzhou or Yinchuan, one would use a cart and camel road. There were also caravan roads from Baotou to Ordos and the Alxa League.[4]

On September 19, 1949, after the September 19 Rebellion, Baotou fell under Communist control. The People's Government was formed in February 1950. In the early Communist years Baotou served as an industrial centre, with a significant portion of its economy coming from its steel production. The Iron and Steel Base in Baotou is one of"156 projects", which were constructed with the help of Soviet Union to develop China's national economy in the 1950s and 1960s, and it continues this reputation until this day.

Geography and climate[edit]

Baotou is located in the west of Inner Mongolia, located at the junction of two economic zones: the Bohai Economic Rim and the Upper Yellow River Natural Resources Enrichment Zone (黄河上游资源富集区). Its administrative area borders Mongolia to the north, while the Yellow River, which flows for 214 kilometres (133 mi) in the prefecture,[5] is south of the urban area itself. The Tumochuan Plateau (土默川平原), Hetao Plateau, and Yin Mountains cross the urban area and central part of the prefecture. Baotou City ranges in latitude from 41° 20' to 42° 40' N and in longitude from 109° 50' to 111° 25' E.

Baotou features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold and very dry winters, hot, somewhat humid summers, and strong winds, especially in spring. Temperatures often fall below −15 °C (5 °F) in winter and rise above 30 °C (86 °F) in summer. The annual precipitation is approximately 300 millimetres (11.8 in), with more than half of it falling in July and August alone. Due to the aridity and elevation, temperature differences between day and night can be large, especially in spring. In 2002, there were 12 instances of dust storms.[5]

Climate data for Baotou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −4.1
Average low °C (°F) −16.8
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.1
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.4 2.2 2.9 3.0 4.7 7.0 10.5 10.7 6.9 3.8 1.7 1.5 56.3
Source: Weather China


Baotou is the largest economy of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,[1] with a GDP value of RMB 340.95 billion in 2012, representing a 12.6% rise over the previous year, accounting for approximately 21.3% of the province's total.[6]

Industrial zones:

  • Baotou Xingsheng Economic & Technological Development Zone

The mines in Bayan Obo are the greatest source of rare earth metals globally. In 2005, they accounted for 45% of the total production on earth.[7]


Ethnic groups in Baotou, 2000 census.

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han Chinese 2.122.737 94.16%
Mongol 67.209 2.98%
Hui Chinese 36.234 1.61%
Manchu 22.826 1.01%
Korean 848 0.04%



  1. ^ a b "Baotou (Inner Mongolia) City Information". HKTDC. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ Millward, James A. "THE CHINESE BORDER WOOL TRADE OF 1880-1937". p. 38. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  4. ^ Owen Lattimore, The Desert to Turkestan, 1928. Pages 7-8.
  5. ^ a b "地理气候" (in Simplified Chinese). Baotou People's Government. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 
  6. ^ "2012年包头市GDP突破3400亿元". 正北方网. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  7. ^ Chengyu Wu (2007). "Bayan Obo Controversy: Carbonatites versus Iron Oxide-Cu-Au-(REE-U)". Resource Geology 58 (4): 348. doi:10.1111/j.1751-3928.2008.00069.x. 

External links[edit]