Bayram (Turkey)

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Cumhuriyet Bayramı, i.e. Republic Day, celebrations on the Bosporus in Istanbul, with the highly anticipated annual fireworks show in the national colors of red-and-white
Traditional Ramazan Bayramı, i.e. Ramadan Bayram, wishes from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, stating "Let us love, Let us be loved", in the form of mahya lights stretched across the minarets of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul

Bayram is the Turkic word for a nationally celebrated festival or holiday, applicable to both national (i.e. secular) or religious celebrations. In accordance with this dual applicability, the method with which one determines the yearly timing of Bayrams is different for national and religious holidays.

State holidays in Turkey have set dates under the nationally-used Gregorian Calendar, while the religious holidays are coordinated and publicly announced in advance by the Government's Presidency of Religious Affairs department according to the Lunar Calendar, and are subsequently accommodated into the national Gregorian Calendar, which results in the dates for religious holidays changing every year with a shift margin of approximately 11 days.

Large scale non-Turkish or non-Islamic traditions and celebrations may similarly be called Bayram, as illustrated by Halloween being referred to as "Cadılar Bayramı" (i.e. "Bayram of Witches"), Easter as "Paskalya Bayramı" (i.e. "Easter Bayram") or "Hamursuz Bayramı" ("No-dough{meaning 'yeast'} Bayram", used by Jews), Christmas as "Noel Bayramı" (i.e. "Christmas Bayram"), or Hanukkah as "Yeniden Adanma Bayramı" (i.e. "Renewal/Rededication Bayram"). However, not every special occasion or holiday is referred to as a Bayram, as illustrated by the case of World Health Day or Liberation of Istanbul, among others. Also many Albanian Muslims, Gorani people, Pomaks and Bosniaks, as well as Muslims from the Northern Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Crimea and other Turkic peoples refer only to Eid al-Fitr as "Bayram", most likely because of the enduring Ottoman Turkish influence in these parts of South-Eastern Europe.

National festivals of Turkey[edit]

Religious festivals of Turkey[edit]

Folk festivals[edit]

  • Kosaqan or Yılgayakh - A spring feast and festival Turkic and Altai folklore.
  • Sayaqan or Yhyakh - A summer feast and festival Turkish folklore. So this is a blessing, fertility and abundance ceremony.
  • Paktaqan - An autumn feast and festival Turkic and Altai folklore.
  • Paynaqan - A winter and pine tree feast and festival like Christmas in Turkic and Altai folklore.
  • Nardoqan - Nardoqan or Narduğan was a Sumerian and Turkic-Mongolian holiday, referred to the winter solstice.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

(The dictionary data base on the TDK site based on: Divanü Lugati't-Türk ("Compendium of the languages of the Turks") of Mahmud al-Kashgari, 1072–1074)