Architecture of Turkey
Architecture of Turkey or Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period refers to the architecture practised in the territory of present-day Turkey since the foundation of the republic in 1923. In the first years of the republic, Turkish architecture was influenced by Ottoman architecture, in particular during the First National Architectural Movement. However, from the 1930s, architectural styles started to differ from traditional architecture, also as a result of an increasing number of foreign architects being invited to work in the country, mostly from Germany and Austria. The Second World War was a period of isolation, during which the Second National Architectural Movement emerged. Similar to Fascist architecture, the movement aimed to create modern but nationalistic architecture.
Starting from the 1950s, isolation from the rest of the world started to diminish, leading to Turkish architects being increasingly inspired by their counterparts in the rest of the world. However they were constrained by the lack of technological infrastructure or insufficient financial resources till the 1980s. Thereafter, the liberalization of the economy and the shift towards export-led growth, paved the way for the private sector to become the leading influence on architecture.
1920s and 1930s: First national architectural movement and Modernism 
First National Architectural Movement (in Turkish: Birinci Ulusal Mimarlik Akimi) was an architectural movement led by Turkish architects Vedat Tek (1873-1942) and Mimar Kemaleddin Bey (1870-1927). Followers of the movement wanted to create a new architecture, which was based on motifs from Ottoman architecture but without Arabic or Islamic references. The movement was also labelled Turkish Neoclassical or the National Architectural Renaissance. The other followers of this movement were Arif Hikmet Koyunoglu (1888-1982) and Giulio Mongeri. Notable buildings from this era are the Istanbul Main Post Office (1905-1909), Tayyare Apartments (1919-1922), Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han (1911-1926), State Art and Sculpture Museum (1927–1930), Ethnography Museum of Ankara (1925–1928), Bebek Mosque, and Kamer Hatun Mosque.
There were various architectural experiments in the 1920s and 1930s as well. Ankara Central Station (1937) and Florya Atatürk Marine Mansion (1935) are considered as more contemporary architectural examples of the era.
Istanbul Main Post Office (1905-1909) designed by Vedat Tek
Tayyare Apartments (1919-1922) in Laleli, Istanbul designed by Mimar Kemaleddin
1940s and influence of foreign architects 
As there were not enough architects in Turkey until the 1950s, various architects were invited by the government from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France, in order to manage the rapid construction of the new capital Ankara. About 40 architects and urban planners designed and oversaw various projects (mostly in Ankara) between 1924 and 1942. Among them were Gudrun Baudisch, Rudolf Belling, Paul Bonatz, Ernst Arnold Egli, Martin Elsaesser, Anton Hanak, Franz Hillinger, Clemens Holzmeister, Werner Issel, Hermann Jansen, Theodor Jost, Heinrich Krippel, Carl Christoph Lörcher, Robert Oerley, Bernhard Pfau, Bruno Taut and Josef Thorak.
Selected examples of buildings from this era are Ankara Opera House (Renovation by Paul Bonatz, 1946–47), Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Clemens Holzmeister, 1938–63), Court of Cassation Building (Clemens Holzmeister, 1933–35).
Second national architectural movement 
Related to the rise of Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany, there was a trend towards creating a new national architecture in Turkey around the 1940s. The movement was called the Second National Architectural Movement (Turkish: Ikinci Ulusal Mimarlik Akimi). The pioneers of this movement were Sedat Hakki Eldem and Emin Onat. Similar to Nazi architecture and Fascist architecture, the movement aimed to create modern but nationalistic architecture. In order to lead this movement Sedad Hakkı Eldem, who was a professor, held National Architecture seminars at Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts focusing on the traditional Turkish house styles.
Some of the buildings related to this style are Çanakkale Martyrs' Memorial (1954–60), Şişli Mosque (1945–49), Anıtkabir (1944–53), Istanbul University Faculty of Science and Faculty of Literature buildings (1944–52) and Istanbul Radio Headquarters (1945–49). The movement was most influential between 1935 and 1950. From the 1950s, the influence of this style started to diminish due to the next wave of influences, especially International style and Rationalism.
1950s and more Western influence 
At the beginning of the 1950s, a new generation of architects such as Nevzat Erol, Turgut Cansever, Abdurrahman Hancı, Cengiz Bektaş and Hayati Tabanlıoğlu became more influential in the architectural arena. These were architects who either studied in Europe or had information of the modernist architecture of the time. Their quest for modernist architecture was in line with the International style and Rationalism. However the development of the Turkish economy was an important factor as well. Even though Turkish architects were able to follow up on the modern design of important architects of the time, they were constrained by the lack of technological infrastructure or insufficient financial resources.
Selected examples of buildings from this era are Kızılay Emek Business Center (1959–65), Istanbul Municipality Headquarters (1953), Istanbul Hilton Hotel (1955), Büyükada Anadolu Club (1951–57) and Tekel Headquarters (1959).
One of the most important developments of the times was the establishment of the Chamber of Architects of Turkey in 1954. Various professional organizations for architects had existed beforehand but there were no laws for the architectural profession until 1954.
1960s and 1970s 
After with the 1960 coup d'état, Turkey endured various kinds of political and economic crises which affected the construction industry as well as the architectural sector. Despite these hardships, architects were able to design some important buildings. Abandoning Rationalism, Turkish architects tried to design their buildings in more flexible and fragmented forms. Important works from this period are Istanbul Vakıflar Hotel (1968, today as Ceylan Intercontinental), Middle East Technical University Campuses (1961), Istanbul Manufacturers' Market (1959), Turkish Historical Society Building (1967), Grand Ankara Hotel (1960, today as Rixos Grand Ankara) and Atatürk Cultural Center (1969).
As a result of economic and social turbulence, Turkish architecture of Turkey suffered in the 1970s as well. There were no significant breakthroughs during the period. Some important designs from the 1970s are Turkish Language Association Building (1972), Ataturk Library (1973) and Abdi İpekçi Arena (1979).
1980s to present 
In January 1980, the government of Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel began implementing a far-reaching reform program designed by then Undersecretary of the Prime Ministry Turgut Özal to shift Turkey's economy toward export-led growth. These reforms had a positive effect on the construction industry and architecture. New methods such as prefabrication and curtain wall systems were introduced to Turkish architects and contractors in the 1980s. In addition, steel, aluminum, plastic and glass production increased which allowed architects to free themselves from rigid forms.
Until the 1980s, the government sector was the leading client when it came to architecture and construction. But liberalization of the economy paved the way for the private sector to become the leading influence. Notable architects from this period are Behruz Çinici, Merih Karaaslan, Sevinç Hadi, Şandor Hadi, Ersen Gürsel, Mehmet Çubuk, Doğan Tekeli, Sami Sisa, Emre Arolat, Murat Tabanlıoğlu, Melkan Tabanlıoğlu, Hüsrev Tayla, Doğan Hasol, Atilla Yücel and Kaya Arıkoğlu.
Skycrapers in Levent district of Istanbul
See also 
- "Deutschsprachige Architekten in der frühen Republik" (in German). Goethe Institut. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "Michael Meeker. Review of Bozdogan, Sibel, Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic". H-Net Reviews, Humanities & Social Sciences Online. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "The 1950s and Modernism". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- "Mapping Turkey, Short History of Architecture". www.culturalexchange-tr. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "The Search for Identity: 1st National Architecture Movement". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "Architecture of the '30s in Turkey". Dogan Hasol, Arhitext Magazine, June 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "Tayyare Apartment Building". AtelyeMim.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "XIX. Yüzyış ve XX. Yüzyıl Başı Eminönü’nde Osmanlı Büro Hanları" (in Turkish). Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi-Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Ankara - State Museum of Painting and Sculpture". Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Ankara - Ethnographical Museum". Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Bebek Mosque". ArchNet.org. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Kemer Hatun Mosque, Beyoglu, Istanbul" (in Turkish). MimarlikMuzesi.org. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Mass Housing Development by a Government Agency and the Politics of Urbanization". 14th International Planning History Conference submission by Nilufer Baturayoglu Yoney and Yildiz Salman, Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Architecture, Turkey. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "The production of a mise en scène for a nation and its subjects: Clemens Holzmeister et al. in the Ministries Quarter for Ankara, Turkey". Ali Cengizkan, The Journal of Architecture, Vol. 15, Iss. 6, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Florya Atatürk Marine Mansion". National Palaces of Turkey official web site. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Turkish Architectural Periodicals during the Republican Period, 1923-1980 by Ilker Ozdel at Dokuz Eylul University (Page 526)". Çankaya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7/2 (November 2010). Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "The Ethos of Architects Towards an Analysis of Architectural Practice in Turkey, Thesis by Nilgun Fehim Kennedy, September 2005 (Page 23)". Middle East Technical University, Turkey. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "A New Perspective on National Architecture: 2nd. National Architecture Movement". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- "Architectural Profession Around the World, Turkey". The International Union of Architects. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- "1960's (Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period)". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Modern Turkish Architecture (Renata Holod)". Academia.edu (University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "1970's up to the Present (Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period)". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Istanbul's Unprecedented Property Boom Causes Concern About Citizens' Rights". Voice of America. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "New Tower to Dwarf Istanbul's Minarets". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Isbank Tower". Emporis Buildings Database. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Istanbul Sapphire". E-Architect.co.uk. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Mosque modern". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Holod, Renata (2005). Modern Turkish architecture. Ankara: Chamber of Architects of Turkey.
- Bozdogan, Sibel (2002). Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic. University of Washington Press.
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