Demographics of Turkey
|Demographics of Republic of Turkey|
(31 December 2013)
|Growth rate||1.38% (2013)|
|Birth rate|| 17.0 births/1,000
|Death rate|| 5.0 deaths/1,000
|Life expectancy||74.5 years (2011)|
|• male||72.0 years (2011)|
|• female||77.1 years (2011)|
|Fertility rate||2.08 children born/woman (2012)|
|Infant mortality rate||11.6 deaths/1000 infants (2012)|
|0–14 years||24.5% (2013)|
|15–64 years||67.8% (2013)|
|65 and over||7.7% (2013)|
|At birth||1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)|
|Under 15||1.04 male(s)/female|
|15–64 years||1.03 male(s)/female|
|65 and over||0.84 male(s)/female|
|Nationality||noun: Turk(s) adjective: Turkish|
|Minor ethnic||Kurds, Albanians, Lazs, Azerbaijanis, Zazas, Chechens, Circassians, Arabs, Bosniaks, Tatars, Armenians, Greeks|
|Spoken||Turkish, Kurdish, Albanian, Neo-Aramaic, Laz, Georgian, Serbian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Greek, Zazaki, Arabic, Azerbaijani, Kabardian, Armenian, Ladino|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Turkey, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
As of 2010, the population of Turkey is estimated to be 73.7 million with a growth rate of 1.21% per annum (2009 figure). The population is relatively young with 25.9% falling in the 0-14 age bracket. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics in Turkey the population growth from 1990 to 2008 was 16 million or 29%.
- 1 Population
- 2 Vital statistics
- 3 Largest cities
- 4 Immigration
- 5 Ethnic groups and languages
- 6 Religion
- 7 Census
- 8 Minorities
- 9 CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
- 10 References
Source: Turkish Statistical Institute
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950-1955||1 108 000||431 000||677 000||48.4||18.8||29.6||6.30||167.4|
|1955-1960||1 237 000||485 000||752 000||46.9||18.4||28.5||6.15||163.9|
|1960-1965||1 328 000||529 000||799 000||44.3||17.6||26.7||6.05||160.5|
|1965-1970||1 355 000||562 000||792 000||40.3||16.7||23.6||5.70||156.9|
|1970-1975||1 451 000||564 000||887 000||38.7||15.0||23.7||5.30||141.3|
|1975-1980||1 523 000||545 000||977 000||36.4||13.0||23.4||4.72||119.4|
|1980-1985||1 579 000||505 000||1 074 000||33.8||10.8||23.0||4.15||96.7|
|1985-1990||1 433 000||457 000||976 000||27.7||8.8||18.9||3.28||78.0|
|1990-1995||1 419 000||432 000||987 000||25.1||7.7||17.4||2.90||63.0|
|1995-2000||1 382 000||399 000||983 000||22.6||6.5||16.1||2.57||45.5|
|2000-2005||1 296 000||373 000||923 000||19.7||5.7||14.0||2.23||31.4|
|2005-2010||1 316 000||384 000||932 000||18.7||5.5||13.2||2.15||24.0|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
Birth statistics of Turkey have been started to get from The Central Population Administrative System (MERNIS) data base after MERNIS had on-line application in 2001. Birth statistics are updated continually because MERNIS has dynamic structure. In 2010 Turkey had a crude birth rate of 17.2 per 1000, in 2011 16.7, down from 20.3 in 2001. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2010 was 2.05 children per woman, in 2011 2.02. The crude birth rate in 2010 ranged from 11.5 in West Marmara (TFR 1.52) (11,5;1.55 in 2011), similar to Bulgaria, to 27.9 in Southeast Anatolia (TFR 3.53) (27.1;3,42 in 2011), similar to Syria. Similarly, in 2012, the TFR ranged from 1.43 in Kırklareli, to 4.39 in Şanlıurfa. Deaths statistics from MERNIS are available as of 2009. Mortality data prior to 2009 ar incomplete.
|Population (01.01.)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death (per 1000)||Natural increase (per 1000)||Total fertility rate (TFR)|
|2001||1 323 195||20.3||2.37|
|2002||1 229 417||18.6||2.17|
|2003||1 198 763||17.9||2.09|
|2004||1 222 242||18.0||2.11|
|2005||1 243 513||18.1||2.12|
|2006||1 254 157||18.1||2.12|
|2007||1 287 784||18.3||2.16|
|2008||70 586 256||1 292 839||18.2||2.15|
|2009||71 517 100||1 261 299||368 390||892 909||17.5||5.1||12.4||2.08|
|2010||72 561 312||1 253 309||365 190||888 119||17.2||5.0||12.2||2.05|
|2011||73 722 988||1 241 412||375 367||861 805||16.8||5.1||11.7||2.02|
|2012||74 724 269||1 279 864||374 855||905 009||17.0||5.0||12.0||2.08|
|2013||75 627 384|
Largest cities or towns of Turkey
TÜİK's address-based calculation from December, 2013.
Ottoman Empire period
Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire welcomed altogether hundreds of thousands, maybe millions, of Spanish and Portuguese Jews after 1492; political and confessional refugees from Central Europe: Russian schismatics in 17-18th centuries, Nekrasov Cossacks (after rebellion), Polish and Hungarian revolutionaries after 1848, Jews escaping the pogroms and later the Shoah, Circassians and Chechens from the Russian Empire, White Russians fleeing the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, Russian and other socialist or communist revolutionaries, Trotskyists fleeing the USSR in the 1930s;
Republican Period (since 1923)
People moving into Turkey during the Republican Period include Muslim refugees (Muhajir) from formerly Muslim-dominated regions invaded by Christian States, like Crimean Tatars, Algerian followers of Abd-el-Kader, Mahdists from Sudan, Turkmens, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other Central Asian Turkic-speaking peoples fleeing the USSR and later the war-torn Afghanistan, Balkan Muslims, either Turkish-speaking or Bosniaks, Pomaks, Albanians, Greek Muslims etc., fleeing either the reborn majority-Christian states or later the Communist regimes, in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria for instance.
Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, there has been a considerable influx of Eastern Europeans to Turkey, particularly from the former USSR. Some of them have chosen to become Turkish citizens, while others continue to live and work in Turkey as foreigners. The district of Laleli in Istanbul is known with the nickname "Little Russia" due to its large Russian community and the numerous street signs, restaurant names, shop names and hotel names in the Russian language.
Property acquisition since the 1990s
After a change in the Turkish constitution increased foreigners' right to purchase real estate in the country in 2005, a large number of people, mostly pensioners from Western Europe, bought houses in the popular tourist destinations and moved to Turkey. The largest groups, according to the volume of purchases, are the Germans, British, Dutch, Irish, Italians and Americans.
Ethnic groups and languages
No exact data are available concerning the different ethnic groups in Turkey. The last census data according to language date from 1965 and major changes may have occurred since then. However, it is clear than Turks are in the majority, while the largest minority groups are Kurds and Arabs. Smaller minorities are the Armenians, Greeks and several Caucasian peoples. All ethnic groups are discussed below.
|Language||Census 1935||Census 1945||Census 1965|
The word Turk or Turkish also has a wider meaning in a historical context because, at times, especially in the past, it has been used to refer to all Muslim inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire irrespective of their ethnicity. The question of ethnicity in modern Turkey is a highly debated and difficult issue. Figures published in several different sources prove this difficulty by varying greatly.
It is necessary to take into account all these difficulties and be cautious while evaluating the ethnic groups. A possible list of ethnic groups living in Turkey could be as follows:
- Turkic-speaking peoples: Turks, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Karachays, Karapapak, Uzbeks, Crimean Tatars and Uyghurs
- Indo-European-speaking peoples: Kurds (Kurmanj and Zazas), Bosniaks, Albanians, Pomaks, Armenians, Hamshenis, Gorani and Greeks
- Semitic-speaking peoples: Arabs, Assyrians/Syriacs and Jews
- Caucasian-speaking peoples: Circassians, Georgians, Laz and Chechens
According to the 2012 edition of the CIA World Factbook, 70-75% of Turkey's population consists of ethnic Turks, with Kurds accounting for 18% and other minorities between 7 and 12%. According to Milliyet, a 2008 report prepared for the National Security Council of Turkey by academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia suggested that there are approximately 55 million ethnic Turks, 12.6 million Kurds, 2.5 million Circassians, 2 million Bosniaks, 500,000-1.3 million Albanians, 1,000,000 Georgians, 870,000 Arabs, 600,000, Pomaks, 80,000 Laz, 60,000 Armenians, 25,000 Assyrians/Syriacs, 20,000 Jews, and 15,000 Greeks living in Turkey.
Since the immigration to the big cities in the west of Turkey, interethnic marriage has become more common. A recent study estimates that there are 2,708,000 marriages between Turks and Kurds/Zaza.
Although numerous modern genetic studies have indicated that the present-day Turkish population is primarily descended from historical Anatolian groups, the first Turkic-speaking people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to Siberia and were palpable after the 6th century BC. Seventh-century Chinese sources preserve the origins of the Turks stating that they were a branch of the Hsiung-nu (Huns) and living near the "West Sea", perhaps the Caspian Sea. Modern sources tends to indicate that the Turks' ancestors lived within the state of the Hsiung-nu in the Transbaikal area and that they later, during the fifth century, migrated to the southern Altay.
The word Türk was used only referring to Anatolian villagers back in the 19th century. The Ottoman elite identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks. In the late 19th century, as European ideas of nationalism were adopted by the Ottoman elite, and as it became clear that the Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule, the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers will commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith, and will consider Turkish-speaking Jews, Christians, or even Alevis to be non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish-speaking or Arabic-speaking Sunnis of eastern Anatolia are sometimes considered to be Turks. The imprecision of the appellation Türk can also be seen with other ethnic names, such as Kürt(Kurd), which is often applied by western Anatolians to anyone east of Adana, even those who speak only Turkish. Thus, the category Türk, like other ethnic categories popularly used in Turkey, does not have a uniform usage. In recent years, centrist Turkish politicians have attempted to redefine this category in a more multi-cultural way, emphasizing that a Türk is anyone who is a citizen of the Republic of Turkey. Currently, article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship".
The Kurdish identity remains the strongest of the many minorities in modern Turkey. This is perhaps due to the mountainous terrain of the south-east of the country, where they predominate and represent a majority. They inhabit all major towns and cities across Turkey, however. No accurate up-to-date figures are available for the Kurdish population, because the Turkish government has outlawed ethnic or racial censuses. An estimate by the CIA World Factbook place their proportion of the population at approximately 18%. Another estimate, according to Ibrahim Sirkeci, an ethnic Turk, in his book The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, based on the 1990 Turkish Census and 1993 Turkish Demographic Health Survey, is 17.8%. Other estimates include 15.7% of the population according to the newspaper Milliyet, and 23% by Kurdologist David McDowall.
The Minority Rights Group report of 1985 (by Martin Short and Anthony McDermott) gave an estimate of 15% Kurds in the population of Turkey in 1980, i.e. 8,455,000 out of 44,500,000, with the preceding comment 'Nothing, apart from the actual 'borders' of Kurdistan, generates as much heat in the Kurdish question as the estimate of the Kurdish population. Kurdish nationalists are tempted to exaggerate it, and governments of the region to understate it. In Turkey only those Kurds who do not speak Turkish are officially counted for census purposes as Kurds, yielding a very low figure.'. In Turkey: A Country Study, a 1995 on-line publication of the U.S. Library of Congress, there is a whole chapter about Kurds in Turkey where it is stated that 'Turkey's censuses do not list Kurds as a separate ethnic group. Consequently, there are no reliable data on their total numbers. In 1995 estimates of the number of Kurds in Turkey is about 8.5 million.' out of 61.2 million, which means 13%. Kurdish national identity is far from being limited to the Kurmanji language community, as many Kurds whose parents migrated towards Istanbul or other large non-Kurdish cities mostly speak Turkish, which is one of the languages used by the Kurdish nationalist publications.
Armenians in Turkey have an estimated population of 40,000 (1995) to 70,000. Most are concentrated around Istanbul. The Armenians support their own newspapers and schools. The majority belong to the Armenian Apostolic faith, with smaller numbers of Armenian Catholics and Armenian Evangelicals.
An estimated 25,000 Assyrians/Syriacs live in Turkey, with about 17,000 in Istanbul and the other 8,000 scattered in southeast Turkey. They belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Catholic Church, and Chaldean Catholic Church. The Mhallami, who usually are described as Arabs, have Assyrian/Syriac ancestry. They live in the area between Mardin and Midyat, called in Syriac "I Mhalmayto" (ܗܝ ܡܚܠܡܝܬܐ).
It is difficult to determine how many ethnic Azeris currently reside in Turkey, as ethnicity is a rather fluid concept in Turkey, especially amongst Turkic-speaking and Caucasian groups who have been more readily and easily assimilated into mainstream Turkish culture. According to the Looklex Encyclopaedia, Azerbaijani people make up 800,000 of Turkey's population. Up to 300,000 of Azeris who reside in Turkey are citizens of Azerbaijan. In the Eastern Anatolia Region, Azeris are sometimes referred to as acem (see Ajam) or tat. They currently are the largest ethnic group in the city of Iğdır and second largest ethnic group in Kars.
Towards the end of the Russian-Circassian War (1763–1864), many Circassians fled their homelands in the Caucasus and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Most ethnic Circassians have fully assimilated into Turkish culture, making it difficult to trace, count, or even estimate their ethnic presence.
The Greeks constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, including its district Princes' Islands, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada), and historically also in western Asia Minor (centred on Izmir/Smyrni), the Pontic Alps (centred on Trebzon and Sumelia), and central Anatolia (Cappadoccia )and northeastern Anatolia (Erzinjan, Erzerum, Kars, and Ardahan). The Istanbul Greeks are the remnants of the estimated 200,000 Greeks permitted under the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne to remain in Turkey following the 1923 population exchange, which involved the forcible resettlement of approximately 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and East Thrace and of half a million Turks from all of Greece except for Western Thrace. After years of persecution (e.g. the Varlık Vergisi (1942-1944) and the Istanbul Pogrom of 1955), emigration of ethnic Greeks from the Istanbul region greatly accelerated, reducing the 120,000-strong Greek minority to about 7,000 by 1978. The 2008 figures released by the Turkish Foreign Ministry places the current number of Turkish citizens of Greek descent at the 2,000–3,000 mark. According to Milliyet there are 15,000 Greeks in Turkey, while according to Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey was estimated at 2,500 in 2006.
Most Laz today live in Turkey, but the Laz minority group has no official status in Turkey. Their number today is estimated to be around 250,000 and 500,000. Lazes are Sunni Muslims. Only a minority are bilingual in Turkish and their native Laz language which belongs to the South Caucasian group. The number of the Laz speakers is decreasing and is now limited chiefly to the Rize and Artvin areas. The historical term Lazistan — formerly referring to a narrow tract of land along the Black Sea inhabited by the Laz as well as by several other ethnic groups — has been banned from official use and replaced with Doğu Karadeniz (which includes Trabzon). During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the Muslim population of Russia near the war zones was subjected to ethnic cleansing; many Lazes living in Batum fled to the Ottoman Empire, settling along the southern Black Sea coast to the east of Samsun.
The Roma in Turkey descend from the times of the Byzantine Empire. According to some reports, there are about 500,000-700,000 Roma in Turkey. The neighborhood of Sulukule, located in Western Istanbul, is the oldest Roma settlement in Europe.
There are no statistics of people's religious beliefs nor is it asked in the census. According to the government, 99.8% of the Turkish population is Muslim, mostly Sunni, some 10 to 15 million are Alevis. The remaining 0.2% is other - mostly Christians and Jews. The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 reported that in a poll 96% of Turkish citizens answered that "they believe there is a God", while 1% responded that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". In a Pew Research Center survey, 53% of Turkey's Muslims said that "religion is very important in their lives". Based on the Gallup Poll 2006-08, Turkey was defined as More religious, in which over 63 percent of people believe religion is important. According to the Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation, 62% of women wear the headscarf or hijab in Turkey. 33% of male Muslim citizens regularly attend Friday prayers.
- Muslim - 96.83% (80-85% Sunni, 15-20% Alevi)
- Christian - 0.13% (60% Armenian Orthodox, 20% Syrian Orthodox, 10% Protestant, 8% Chaldean Catholic, 2% Greek Orthodox)
- Jewish - 0.03% (96% Sephardi, 4% Ashkenazi)
- Bahá'í Faith - 0.01%
- Atheist - 3%
The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the Ottoman Empire; according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007:
- 52.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (Religious)
- 34.3 % defined themselves as ""a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (Not religious).
- 9.7% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (Fully devout).
- 2.3% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (Non-believer).
- 0.9% defined themselves as "someone with no religious conviction" (Atheist).
Census of 1927
|Language||Mother tongue||Only language spoken||Second best language spoken|
|Province / Language||Turkish||Kurdish||Arabic||Zazaki||Circassian||Greek||Georgian||Armenian||Laz||Pomak||Bosnian||Albanian||Jewish|
|Adana (incl. Osmaniye)||866,316||7,581||22,356||332||51||51||0||28||9||0||312||483||29|
|Ankara (inclu. Kırıkkale)||1,590,392||36,798||814||21||393||124||41||66||120||7||126||833||64|
|Bolu (inclu. Düzce)||375,786||363||0||0||1,593||3||1,541||488||1,791||0||40||6||1|
|Çankırı (incl. Karabük)||250,510||158||1||0||0||1||0||3||2||0||0||0||0|
|Gümüşhane (incl. Bayburt)||260,419||2,189||0||0||91||0||0||0||17||0||0||0||0|
|Kars (incl. Ardahan & Iğdır)||471,287||133,144||61||992||215||6||8||5||24||1||5||4||1|
|Kastamonu (incl. Düzce)||439,355||1,090||2||0||3||2||180||849||1||0||0||0||0|
|Konya (incl. Karaman)||1,092,819||27,811||67||4||1,139||3||7||1||5||1||11||75||0|
|Niğde (incl. Aksaray)||353,146||8,991||10||0||227||5||0||12||4||0||15||4||0|
|Siirt (incl. Batman & Şırnak)||46,722||179,023||38,273||484||1||0||15||98||3||0||10||0||0|
|Zonguldak (incl. Bartın & Karabük)||649,757||43||26||0||5||17||2||3||15||0||1||1||1|
Provinces with Turkish speakers in majority.
Provinces with Turkish speakers in plurality.
Provinces with Kurdish speakers in plurality.
Provinces with Kurdish speakers in majority.
The concept of "minorities" has only been accepted by the Republic of Turkey as defined by the Treaty of Lausanne of 1924 and thence strictly limited to Greeks, Jews and Armenians, only on religious matters, excluding from the scope of the concept the ethnic identities of these minorities as of others such as the Kurds who make up 15% of the country; others include Assyrians/Syriacs of various Christian denominations, Alevis and all the others.
There are many reports from sources such as (Human Rights Watch, European Parliament, European Commission, national parliaments in EU member states, Amnesty International etc.) on persistent yet declining discrimination.
Certain current trends are:
- Turkish imams get salaries from the state (like Greek Orthodox clerics in Greece), whereas Turkish Alevi as well as non-Orthodox and non-Armenian clerics are not paid
- Imams can be trained freely at the numerous religious schools and theology departments of universities throughout the country; minority religions can not re-open schools for training of their local clerics due to legislation and international treaties dating back to the end of Turkish War of Independence. The closing of the Theological School of Halki is a sore bone of contention between Turkey and the Eastern Orthodox world;
- The Turkish state sends out paid imams, working under authority from the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı) to various European or Asian countries with Turkish- or Turkic-speaking populations, with as local heads officials from the Turkish consulates;
- Turkey has recently engaged in promulgating a series of legal enactments aiming at removal of the procedural hurdles before the use of several local languages spoken by Turkish citizens such as Kurdish (Kurmanji), Arabic and Zaza as medium of public communication, together with several other smaller ethnic group languages. A few private Kurdish teaching centers have recently been allowed to open. Kurdish-language TV broadcasts on 7/24 basis at the public frequency denominated in the government-owned TRT 6, while the private national channels show no interest yet. However there are already several satellite Kurdish TV stations operating from Kurdish Autonomous Region at Northern Iraq and Western Europe, broadcasting in Kurdish, Turkish and Neo-Aramaic languages, Kurdistan TV, KurdSAT, etc.;
- Non-Muslim minority numbers are said to be falling rapidly, mainly as a result of aging, migration (to Israel, Greece, the United States and Western Europe).
- There is concern over the future of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, which suffers from a lack of trained clergy due to the closure of the Halki school. The state does not recognise the Ecumenical status of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
According to figures released by the Foreign Ministry in December 2008, there are 89,000 Turkish citizens designated as belonging to a minority, two thirds of Armenian descent.
CIA World Factbook demographic statistics
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook:
0-14 years: 26.6% (male 10,707,793/female 10,226,999)
15-64 years: 67.1% (male 26,741,332/female 26,162,757)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 2,259,422/female 2,687,245) (2011 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 72.5 years
male: 70.61 years
female: 74.49 years (2011 est.)
urban population: 70% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94.1%
female: 90.3% (2011 est.)
- "Turkish Statistical Institute". Turkstat.gov.tr. Retrieved 2011-05-16.
- "Turkey - Data & Statistics". World Bank. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- "CIA World Factbook". CIA. March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
- Population Statistics And Projections
- World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- Turkish Statistical Institute
- http://www.citypopulation.de/Turkey-RBC20.html December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de
- Modern Turkey, Bill Park, Taylor & Francis, 2011, page 10
- UN Demographic Yearbooks
- Icduygu, A., Toktas, S., & Soner, B. A. (2008). The politics of population in a nation-building process: Emigration of non-muslims from turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(2), 358-389.
- American Heritage Dictionary (2000). "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition - "Turk"". Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
- Andrews, Peter A. Ethnic groups in the Republic of Turkey., Beiheft Nr. B 60, Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Wiesbaden: Reichert Publications, 1989, ISBN 3-89500-297-6 ; + 2nd enlarged edition in 2 vols., 2002, ISBN 3-89500-229-1
- Turkey. The World Factbook. CIA
- "Türkiyedeki Kürtlerin Sayısı!". Milliyet (in Turkish). 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
- Kurdish Life in Contemporary Turkey: Migration, Gender and Ethnic Identity, Anna Grabolle Celiker, page 160, I.B.Tauris, 2013
- Yardumian, A.; Yardumian, T. G. (2011). "Who Are the Anatolian Turks?". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 50: 6–42. doi:10.2753/AAE1061-1959500101.
- Hodoğlugil, U. U.; Mahley, R. W. (2012). "Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations". Annals of Human Genetics 76 (2): 128–141. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00701.x. PMID 22332727.
- Rosser, Z.; Zerjal, T.; Hurles, M.; Adojaan, M.; Alavantic, D.; Amorim, A.; Amos, W.; Armenteros, M.; Arroyo, E.; Barbujani, G.; Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Bertranpetit, J.; Bosch, E.; Bradley, D. G.; Brede, G.; Cooper, G.; Côrte-Real, H. B.; De Knijff, P.; Decorte, R.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Evgrafov, O.; Gilissen, A.; Glisic, S.; Gölge, M.; Hill, E. W.; Jeziorowska, A.; Kalaydjieva, L.; Kayser, M.; Kivisild, T. (2000). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language". The American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (6): 1526–1543. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948. PMID 11078479. 
- Nasidze I, Sarkisian T, Kerimov A, Stoneking M (March 2003). "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome". Hum. Genet. 112 (3): 255–61. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0874-4. PMID 12596050.
- Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Kivisild, T.; Kalfoğlu, E.; Atasoy, S.; Cavalleri, G. L.; Lillie, A. S.; Roseman, C. C.; Lin, A. A.; Prince, K.; Oefner, P. J.; Shen, P.; Semino, O.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Underhill, P. A. (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics 114 (2): 127–148. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. 
- Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Karin, M.; Bendikuze, N.; Gomez-Casado, E.; Moscoso, J.; Silvera, C.; Oguz, F. S.; Sarper Diler, A.; De Pacho, A.; Allende, L.; Guillen, J.; Martinez Laso, J. (2001). "HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: Relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 308–317. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004308.x. PMID 11380939.
- Wells, R. S.; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.; Underhill, P. A.; Evseeva, I.; Blue-Smith, J.; Jin, L.; Su, B.; Pitchappan, R.; Shanmugalakshmi, S.; Balakrishnan, K.; Read, M.; Pearson, N. M.; Zerjal, T.; Webster, M. T.; Zholoshvili, I.; Jamarjashvili, E.; Gambarov, S.; Nikbin, B.; Dostiev, A.; Aknazarov, O.; Zalloua, P.; Tsoy, I.; Kitaev, M.; Mirrakhimov, M.; Chariev, A.; Bodmer, W. F. (2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (18): 10244–10249. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946. PMID 11526236.
- Peter Zieme: The Old Turkish Empires in Mongolia. In: Genghis Khan and his heirs. The Empire of the Mongols. Special tape for Exhibition 2005/2006, p.64
- Leiser, Gary (2005), "Turks", in Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization, Routledge
- (Kushner 1997: 219; Meeker 1971: 322)
- Similarly, the Hellene was a derogatory term among Greeks in the same period, its renewed popularity in the 19th Century – like that of Türk – deriving from European ideas of nationalism
- (Kushner 1997: 220-221)
- (Meeker 1971: 322)
- (Meeker 1971: 323)
- (Kushner 1997: 230)
- Milliyet. "55 milyon kişi 'etnik olarak' Türk". Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- KONDA Research and Consultancy, Social Structure Survey 2006
- Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. "Country Profile: Turkey". Retrieved 2010-02-06.
- CIA. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 2011-07-27.
- "Kürt Meselesi̇ni̇ Yeni̇den Düşünmek". KONDA. July 2010. pp. 19–20. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- Sirkeci, Ibrahim (2006). The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany. New York: Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN 978-0-7734-5739-3. Retrieved 2006-08-11.
- David McDowall. A Modern History of the Kurds. Third Edition. I.B.Tauris, May 14, 2004 - 504 pages, page 3.
- Turkey: A Country Study, Federal Research Division, Kessinger Publishing, Jun 30, 2004 - 392 pages. Page 140 .
- Turay, Anna. "Tarihte Ermeniler". Bolsohays: Istanbul Armenians. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Hür, Ayşe (2008-08-31). "Türk Ermenisiz, Ermeni Türksüz olmaz!". Taraf (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-09-02. "Sonunda nüfuslarını 70 bine indirmeyi başardık."
- Human Rights Watch 1999 Report on Turkey
- "Turkey-Peoples". Looklex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- Life of Azerbaijanis in Turkey. An interview with Sayyad Aran, Consul General of the Azerbaijan Republic to Istanbul. Azerbaijan Today
- (Turkish) Qarslı bir azərbaycanlının ürək sözləri. Erol Özaydın
- (Turkish) Iğdır Sevdası, Mücahit Özden Hun
- (Turkish) KARS: AKP'nin kozu tarım desteği. Milliyet. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2008
- Kilic, Ecevit (2008-09-07). "Sermaye nasıl el değiştirdi?". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-25. "6-7 Eylül olaylarından önce İstanbul'da 135 bin Rum yaşıyordu. Sonrasında bu sayı 70 bine düştü. 1978'e gelindiğinde bu rakam 7 bindi."
- "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- Lois Whitman Denying Human Rights and Ethnic Identity: The Greeks of Turkey. Human Rights Watch, Sep 1, 1992 - 54 pages. Page 2 
- Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.
- "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005" (PDF). Eurobarometer. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Richard Wike and Juliana Menasce Horowitz. "Lebanon's Muslims: Relatively Secular and Pro-Christian". Pew Global Attitudes Project.
- 2009 Gallup poll Gallup Poll
- Gallup World View
- Lamb, Christina (2007-04-23). "Head scarves to topple secular Turkey?". The Times (London).
- Lamb, Christina (2007-05-06). "Headscarf war threatens to split Turkey". Times Online (London).
- Clark-Flory, Tracy (2007-04-23). "Head scarves to topple secular Turkey?". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- Religious Freedom Report U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2009-09-15.
- KONDA Research and Consultancy (2007-09-08). "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in daily life" (PDF). Milliyet.
- Heinz Kloss & Grant McConnel, Linguistic composition of the nations of the world, vol,5, Europe and USSR, Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 1984, ISBN 2-7637-7044-4
- Ahmet Buran Ph.D., Türkiye'de Diller ve Etnik Gruplar, 2012
- "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demographics of Turkey.|