Demographics of Turkey

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Demographics of Republic of Turkey
Turkey-demography.png
1961–2010
Population Increase 76,667,864
(31 December 2013)
Growth rate Increase 1.38% (2013)
Birth rate Decrease 16.9 births/1,000
population (2013)
Death rate Decrease 5.0 deaths/1,000
population (2012)
Life expectancy Increase 76.9 years (2013)
 • male Increase 74.7 years (2013)
 • female Increase 79.3 years (2013)
Fertility rate Decrease 2.07 children born/woman (2013)
Infant mortality rate Decrease 11.6 deaths/1000 infants (2012)
Age structure
0–14 years Decrease 24.5% (2013)
15–64 years Increase 67.8% (2013)
65 and over Increase 7.7% (2013)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years 1.03 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.84 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Turk(s) adjective: Turkish
Major ethnic Turks
Minor ethnic Kurds, Albanians, Lazs, Azerbaijanis, Zazas, Chechens, Circassians, Arabs, Bosniaks, Tatars, Armenians, Greeks
Language
Official Turkish
Spoken Turkish, Kurdish, Albanian, Neo-Aramaic, Laz, Georgian, Serbian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Greek, Zazaki, Arabic, Azerbaijani, Kabardian, Armenian, Ladino

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Turkey, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

In 2010, the population of Turkey was estimated to be 73.7 million[1] with a growth rate of 1.21% per annum (2009 figure).[2] The population is relatively young with 25.9% falling in the 0-14 age bracket.[3] According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics in Turkey the population growth from 1990 to 2008 was 16 million or 29%.[4]

Population[edit]

Historical population[5]
Year Pop. ±%
2007 70,586,256 —    
2008 71,517,100 +1.3%
2009 72,561,312 +1.5%
2010 73,722,988 +1.6%
2011 74,724,269 +1.4%
2012 75,627,384 +1.2%
2013 76,667,864 +1.4%


Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[6][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 1 108 000 431 000 677 000 48.4 18.8 29.6 6.30 167.4
1955–1960 1 237 000 485 000 752 000 46.9 18.4 28.5 6.15 163.9
1960–1965 1 328 000 529 000 799 000 44.3 17.6 26.7 6.05 160.5
1965–1970 1 355 000 562 000 792 000 40.3 16.7 23.6 5.70 156.9
1970–1975 1 451 000 564 000 887 000 38.7 15.0 23.7 5.30 141.3
1975–1980 1 523 000 545 000 977 000 36.4 13.0 23.4 4.72 119.4
1980–1985 1 579 000 505 000 1 074 000 33.8 10.8 23.0 4.15 96.7
1985–1990 1 433 000 457 000 976 000 27.7 8.8 18.9 3.28 78.0
1990–1995 1 419 000 432 000 987 000 25.1 7.7 17.4 2.90 63.0
1995–2000 1 382 000 399 000 983 000 22.6 6.5 16.1 2.57 45.5
2000–2005 1 296 000 373 000 923 000 19.7 5.7 14.0 2.23 31.4
2005–2010 1 316 000 384 000 932 000 18.7 5.5 13.2 2.15 24.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Registered births and deaths[7][edit]

Birth statistics of Turkey have been started to get from The Central Population Administrative System (MERNIS) data base after MERNIS had on-line application in 2001. Birth statistics are updated continually because MERNIS has dynamic structure.[8] In 2010 Turkey had a crude birth rate of 17.2 per 1000, in 2011 16.7, down from 20.3 in 2001. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2010 was 2.05 children per woman, in 2011 2.02. The crude birth rate in 2010 ranged from 11.5 in West Marmara (TFR 1.52) (11,5;1.55 in 2011), similar to Bulgaria, to 27.9 in Southeast Anatolia (TFR 3.53) (27.1;3,42 in 2011), similar to Syria. Similarly, in 2012, the TFR ranged from 1.43 in Kırklareli, to 4.39 in Şanlıurfa.[9] Deaths statistics from MERNIS are available as of 2009. Mortality data prior to 2009 ar incomplete.

Population (01.01.) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death (per 1000) Natural increase (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR)
2001 1 323 195 20.3 2.37
2002 1 229 417 18.6 2.17
2003 1 198 763 17.9 2.09
2004 1 222 242 18.0 2.11
2005 1 243 513 18.1 2.12
2006 1 254 157 18.1 2.12
2007 1 287 784 18.3 2.16
2008 70 586 256 1 292 839 18.2 2.15
2009 71 517 100 1 261 299 368 390 892 909 17.5 5.1 12.4 2.08
2010 72 561 312 1 253 309 365 190 888 119 17.2 5.0 12.2 2.05
2011 73 722 988 1 241 412 375 367 861 805 16.8 5.1 11.7 2.02
2012 74 724 269 1 286 828 376 000 910 828 17.1 5.0 12.1 2.09
2013 75 627 384 1 283 062 372 094 910 968 16.9 4.9 12.0 2.07
2014 76 667 864

Largest cities[edit]

Proportional circle map with town population in 2012.

Immigration[edit]

Main article: Immigration to Turkey

Ottoman Empire period[edit]

Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire welcomed altogether hundreds of thousands, maybe millions, of Spanish and Portuguese Jews after 1492; political and confessional refugees from Central Europe: Hungarian revolutionaries after 1848, Jews escaping the pogroms and later the Shoah, Circassians and Chechens from the Russian Empire, Trotskyists fleeing the USSR in the 1930s;

Republican Period (since 1923)[edit]

People moving into Turkey during the Republican Period include Muslim refugees (Muhajir) from formerly Muslim-dominated regions invaded by Christian States, like Crimean Tatars, Algerian followers of Abd-el-Kader, Mahdists from Sudan, Turkmens, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other Central Asian Turkic-speaking peoples fleeing the USSR and later the war-torn Afghanistan, Balkan Muslims, either Turkish-speaking or Bosniaks, Pomaks, Albanians, Greek Muslims etc., fleeing either the reborn majority-Christian states or later the Communist regimes, in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria for instance.

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, there has been a considerable influx of Eastern Europeans to Turkey, particularly from the former USSR. Some of them have chosen to become Turkish citizens, while others continue to live and work in Turkey as foreigners. The district of Laleli in Istanbul is known with the nickname "Little Russia" due to its large Russian community and the numerous street signs, restaurant names, shop names and hotel names in the Russian language.

Property acquisition since the 1990s[edit]

After a change in the Turkish constitution increased minorities' right to purchase real estate in the country in 2005, a large number of people, mostly pensioners from Western Europe, bought houses in the popular tourist destinations and moved to Turkey. The largest groups, according to the volume of purchases, are the Germans, British, Dutch, Irish, Italians and Americans.

Internal migration[edit]

Place of origin (rows) versus residence (columns) for Turkish citizens in 2013[11]
Regions Istanbul Western Marmara Aegean Eastern Marmara Western Anatolia Mediterranean Central Anatolia Western Black Sea Eastern Black Sea North East Anatolia Central East Anatolia South East Anatolia Total Population
Istanbul 2,178,507 69,455 64,829 81,454 39,360 37,702 4,521 11,596 8,178 2,896 3,301 4,342 2,506,141
Western Marmara 522,303 2,374,778 183,810 132,190 44,389 26,686 5,120 10,152 4,333 5,319 7,050 8,776 3,324,906
Aegean 290,571 73,437 7,018,009 204,398 131,120 162,251 16,885 21,784 10,136 14,669 19,541 27,120 7,989,921
Eastern Marmara 515,743 63,238 126,854 4,298,730 184,591 60,258 10,806 32,862 10,191 7,872 9,335 12,001 5,332,481
Western Anatolia 267,762 33,610 251,757 123,849 3,696,875 187,092 49,012 29,031 8,156 10,215 13,199 20,225 4,690,783
Mediterranean 458,941 50,290 242,000 106,939 219,789 7,267,352 96,055 31,316 15,969 21,300 44,474 175,984 8,730,409
Central Anatolia 1,329,513 86,282 287,161 226,751 1,194,185 298,070 3,467,570 68,775 15,971 20,263 31,148 36,336 7,062,025
Western Black Sea 2,601,839 173,795 243,693 440,537 927,399 128,275 54,245 4,005,804 41,711 18,923 21,020 26,885 8,684,126
Eastern Black Sea 1,898,914 91,233 148,552 515,356 237,689 69,487 18,931 194,634 2,380,133 33,525 11,254 12,526 5,612,234
North East Anatolia 1,551,566 110,130 490,219 570,439 335,131 98,820 61,363 33,333 31,033 2,014,691 38,842 19,790 5,355,357
Central East Anatolia 1,252,516 78,567 346,942 284,096 160,983 383,175 31,046 20,532 10,407 30,922 3,426,839 129,590 6,155,615
South East Anatolia 1,157,274 61,327 433,076 166,560 148,068 970,877 32,394 22,450 10,285 21,139 143,422 7,600,488 10,767,360
Total Population 14,025,449 3,266,142 9,836,902 7,151,299 7,319,579 9,690,045 3,847,948 4,482,269 2,546,503 2,201,734 3,769,425 8,074,063 76,211,358

Ethnic groups and languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Turkey

No exact data are available concerning the different ethnic groups in Turkey. The last census data according to language date from 1965 and major changes may have occurred since then. However, it is clear that the Turkish are in the majority, while the largest minority groups are Kurds and Arabs. Smaller minorities are the Armenians, Greeks and several Caucasian peoples. All ethnic groups are discussed below.

Population of Turkey according to language
Language Census 1935[12] Census 1945[13] Census 1965[13]
Number  % Number  % Number  %
Turkish 13,828,000 87.5 16,598,037 88.3 28,175,579 90.2
Kurdish 1,473,000 9.3 1,476,562 7.9 2,108,721 6.9
Zazaki 147,707 0.5
Arabic 145,000 0.9 247,204 1.3 368.971 1.2
Greek 109,000 0.7 88,680 0.5 49.143 0.2
Circassian 92,000 0.6 66,691 0.4 57,337 0.2
Ladino 79,000 0.5 51,019 0.3 9,124 0.0
Armenian 77,000 0.5 56,179 0.3 32,484 0.1
Laz 46,987 0.3 27,715 0.1
Georgian 40,076 0.2 32,334 0.1
Abaza 8,602 0.0 10,643 0.0
others 110,137 0.6 157,449 0.5
Total 15,803,000 18,790,174 31,391,207
Muslim and non-Muslim population in Turkey, 1914–2005 (in thousands)[14]
Year 1914 1927 1945 1965 1990 2005
Muslims
12,941
13,290
18,511
31,139
56,860
71,997
Greeks
1,549
110
104
76
8
3
Armenians
1,204
77
60
64
67
50
Jews
128
82
77
38
29
27
Others
176
71
38
74
50
45
Total 15,997 13,630 18,790 31,391 57,005 72,120
% non-Muslim
19.1
2.5
1.5
0.8
0.3
0.2

The word Turk or Turkish also has a wider meaning in a historical context because, at times, especially in the past, it has been used to refer to all Muslim inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire irrespective of their ethnicity.[15] The question of ethnicity in modern Turkey is a highly debated and difficult issue. Figures published in several different sources prove this difficulty by varying greatly.

It is necessary to take into account all these difficulties and be cautious while evaluating the ethnic groups. A possible list of ethnic groups living in Turkey could be as follows:[16]

  1. Turkic-speaking peoples: Turks, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Karachays, Karapapak, Uzbeks, Crimean Tatars and Uyghurs
  2. Indo-European-speaking peoples: Kurds (Kurmanj and Zazas[17][18]), Bosniaks, Albanians, Pomaks, Armenians, Hamshenis, Gorani and Greeks
  3. Semitic-speaking peoples: Arabs, Assyrians/Syriacs and Jews
  4. Caucasian-speaking peoples: Circassians, Georgians, Laz and Chechens

According to the 2012 edition of the CIA World Factbook, 70-75% of Turkey's population consists of ethnic Turks, with Kurds accounting for 18% and other minorities between 7 and 12%.[19] According to Milliyet, a 2008 report prepared for the National Security Council of Turkey by academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia suggested that there are approximately 55 million ethnic Turks, 12.6 million Kurds, 2.5 million Circassians, 2 million Bosniaks, 500,000-1.3 million Albanians, 1,000,000 Georgians, 870,000 Arabs, 600,000, Pomaks, 80,000 Laz, 60,000 Armenians, 25,000 Assyrians/Syriacs, 20,000 Jews, and 15,000 Greeks living in Turkey.[20]

Since the immigration to the big cities in the west of Turkey, interethnic marriage has become more common. A recent study estimates that there are 2,708,000 marriages between Turks and Kurds/Zaza.[21]

Turks[edit]

See also: Turkish people
Turkish women and a school boy from Istanbul, 1873.

Although numerous modern genetic studies have indicated that the present-day Turkish population is primarily descended from historical Anatolian groups,[22][23][24][25][26][27][28] the first Turkic-speaking people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to Siberia and were palpable after the 6th century BC.[29] Seventh-century Chinese sources preserve the origins of the Turks stating that they were a branch of the Hsiung-nu (Huns) and living near the "West Sea", perhaps the Caspian Sea.[30] Modern sources tends to indicate that the Turks' ancestors lived within the state of the Hsiung-nu in the Transbaikal area and that they later, during the fifth century, migrated to the southern Altay.[30]

The word Türk was used only referring to Anatolian villagers back in the 19th century. The Ottoman elite identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks.[31][32] In the late 19th century, as European ideas of nationalism were adopted by the Ottoman elite, and as it became clear that the Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule, the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation.[33] During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, and a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers will commonly consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith, and will consider Turkish-speaking Jews, Christians, or even Alevis to be non-Turks.[34] On the other hand, Kurdish-speaking or Arabic-speaking Sunnis of eastern Anatolia are sometimes considered to be Turks.[35] The imprecision of the appellation Türk can also be seen with other ethnic names, such as Kürt(Kurd), which is often applied by western Anatolians to anyone east of Adana, even those who speak only Turkish.[34] Thus, the category Türk, like other ethnic categories popularly used in Turkey, does not have a uniform usage. In recent years, centrist Turkish politicians have attempted to redefine this category in a more multi-cultural way, emphasizing that a Türk is anyone who is a citizen of the Republic of Turkey.[36] Currently, article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone who is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship".

Ethnic Turks are the majority in Turkey, numbering 55.5 to 60 million.[37][38][39][40]

Kurds[edit]

Main article: Kurds in Turkey
Percentage of Kurdish population in Turkey by region[41] Dark Red (Central Eastern Anatolia): 79.1% Red (Southeastern Anatolia): 64.1% Light Red (Northeast Anatolia): 32.0% Pink: 14.8 - 4.9% White: 1.3 - 0.1%

The Kurdish identity remains the strongest of the many minorities in modern Turkey. This is perhaps due to the mountainous terrain of the south-east of the country, where they predominate and represent a majority. They inhabit all major towns and cities across Turkey, however. No accurate up-to-date figures are available for the Kurdish population, because the Turkish government has outlawed ethnic or racial censuses. An estimate by the CIA World Factbook place their proportion of the population at approximately 18%.[3] Another estimate, according to Ibrahim Sirkeci, an ethnic Turk, in his book The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, based on the 1990 Turkish Census and 1993 Turkish Demographic Health Survey, is 17.8%.[42] Other estimates include 15.7% of the population according to the newspaper Milliyet, and 23% by Kurdologist David McDowall.[20][43]

The Minority Rights Group report of 1985 (by Martin Short and Anthony McDermott) gave an estimate of 15% Kurds in the population of Turkey in 1980, i.e. 8,455,000 out of 44,500,000, with the preceding comment 'Nothing, apart from the actual 'borders' of Kurdistan, generates as much heat in the Kurdish question as the estimate of the Kurdish population. Kurdish nationalists are tempted to exaggerate it, and governments of the region to understate it. In Turkey only those Kurds who do not speak Turkish are officially counted for census purposes as Kurds, yielding a very low figure.'. In Turkey: A Country Study, a 1995 on-line publication of the U.S. Library of Congress, there is a whole chapter about Kurds in Turkey where it is stated that 'Turkey's censuses do not list Kurds as a separate ethnic group. Consequently, there are no reliable data on their total numbers. In 1995 estimates of the number of Kurds in Turkey is about 8.5 million.' out of 61.2 million, which means 13%. Kurdish national identity is far from being limited to the Kurmanji language community, as many Kurds whose parents migrated towards Istanbul or other large non-Kurdish cities mostly speak Turkish, which is one of the languages used by the Kurdish nationalist publications.

Arabs[edit]

Main article: Arabs in Turkey

There are an estimated 800,000-1 million Arabs living near the border with Syria, particularly in the province of Hatay, Mardin, Şanlıurfa, Siirt .[44]

Armenians[edit]

Main article: Armenians in Turkey

Armenians in Turkey have an estimated population of 40,000 (1995) to 70,000.[45][46] Most are concentrated around Istanbul. The Armenians support their own newspapers and schools. The majority belong to the Armenian Apostolic faith, with smaller numbers of Armenian Catholics and Armenian Evangelicals.

Assyrians/Syriacs[edit]

Main article: Syriacs in Turkey

An estimated 25,000 Assyrians/Syriacs live in Turkey, with about 17,000 in Istanbul and the other 8,000 scattered in southeast Turkey. They belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Catholic Church, and Chaldean Catholic Church. The Mhallami, who usually are described as Arabs, have Assyrian/Syriac ancestry. They live in the area between Mardin and Midyat, called in Syriac "I Mhalmayto" (ܗܝ ܡܚܠܡܝܬܐ).

Azerbaijanis[edit]

It is difficult to determine how many ethnic Azeris currently reside in Turkey, as ethnicity is a rather fluid concept in Turkey, especially amongst Turkic-speaking and Caucasian groups who have been more readily and easily assimilated into mainstream Turkish culture.[47] According to the Looklex Encyclopaedia, Azerbaijani people make up 800,000 of Turkey's population.[48] Up to 300,000 of Azeris who reside in Turkey are citizens of Azerbaijan.[49] In the Eastern Anatolia Region, Azeris are sometimes referred to as acem (see Ajam) or tat.[50] They currently are the largest ethnic group in the city of Iğdır[51] and second largest ethnic group in Kars.[52]

Since linguistically the two are so similar, the safest way to count or estimate the number of Azeris from the Turks in Turkey is to note that face that Azeris are practically all Shia Muslims while their Turkish and Kurdish neighbors are Sunni Muslims

Chechens[edit]

Towards the end of the Russian-Caucasian War (1817–1864), many Chechens fled their homelands in the Caucasus and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Chechens number from tens or hundreds of thousands.

Circassians[edit]

Towards the end of the Russian-Circassian War (1763–1864), many Circassians fled their homelands in the Caucasus and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Most ethnic Circassians have fully assimilated into Turkish culture, making it difficult to trace, count, or even estimate their ethnic presence.

Georgians[edit]

Main article: Chveneburi

There are approximately 1 million people of Georgian ancestry in Turkey, according to the newspaper Milliyet.[20]

Greeks[edit]

The Greeks constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, including its district Princes' Islands, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada), and historically also in western Asia Minor (centred on Izmir/Smyrni), the Pontic Alps (centred on Trebzon and Sumelia, see Pontic Greeks), and central Anatolia (Cappadoccia ) and northeastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus region (Erzinjan, Erzerum, Kars, and Ardahan, see Caucasus Greeks). The Istanbul Greeks are the remnants of the estimated 200,000 Greeks permitted under the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne to remain in Turkey following the 1923 population exchange, which involved the forcible resettlement of approximately 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and East Thrace and of half a million Turks from all of Greece except for Western Thrace. After years of persecution (e.g. the Varlık Vergisi (1942–1944) and the Istanbul Pogrom of 1955), emigration of ethnic Greeks from the Istanbul region greatly accelerated, reducing the 120,000[53]-strong Greek minority to about 7,000 by 1978.[54] The 2008 figures released by the Turkish Foreign Ministry places the current number of Turkish citizens of Greek descent at the 2,000–3,000 mark.[55] According to Milliyet there are 15,000 Greeks in Turkey,[20] while according to Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey was estimated at 2,500 in 2006.[56]

Laz[edit]

Main article: Laz people

Most Laz today live in Turkey, but the Laz minority group has no official status in Turkey. Their number today is estimated to be around 250,000[57][58][59] and 500,000.[60][61] Lazes are Sunni Muslims. Only a minority are bilingual in Turkish and their native Laz language which belongs to the South Caucasian group. The number of the Laz speakers is decreasing and is now limited chiefly to the Rize and Artvin areas. The historical term Lazistan — formerly referring to a narrow tract of land along the Black Sea inhabited by the Laz as well as by several other ethnic groups — has been banned from official use and replaced with Doğu Karadeniz (which includes Trabzon). During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the Muslim population of Russia near the war zones was subjected to ethnic cleansing; many Lazes living in Batum fled to the Ottoman Empire, settling along the southern Black Sea coast to the east of Samsun.

Roma people[edit]

Main article: Roma in Turkey
A Gipsy camp near Istanbul (1901)

The Roma in Turkey descend from the times of the Byzantine Empire. According to some reports, there are about 500,000-700,000 Roma in Turkey.[20][62][63][64] The neighborhood of Sulukule, located in Western Istanbul, is the oldest Roma settlement in Europe.[citation needed]

Religion[edit]

There are no statistics of people's religious beliefs nor is it asked in the census. According to the government, 99.8% of the Turkish population is Muslim, mostly Sunni, some 10 to 15 million are Alevis.[65] The remaining 0.2% is other - mostly Christians and Jews.[3] The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 reported that in a poll 96% of Turkish citizens answered that "they believe there is a God", while 1% responded that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".[66] In a Pew Research Center survey, 53% of Turkey's Muslims said that "religion is very important in their lives".[67] Based on the Gallup Poll 2006–08, Turkey was defined as More religious, in which over 63 percent of people believe religion is important.[68][69] According to the Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation, 62% of women wear the headscarf or hijab in Turkey.[70][71][72] 33% of male Muslim citizens regularly attend Friday prayers.

Religious groups according to estimates:[65][73]

The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the Ottoman Empire; according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007:[74]

  • 52.8% defined themselves as "a religious person who strives to fulfill religious obligations" (Religious)
  • 34.3 % defined themselves as ""a believer who does not fulfill religious obligations" (Not religious).
  • 9.7% defined themselves as "a fully devout person fulfilling all religious obligations" (Fully devout).
  • 2.3% defined themselves as "someone who does not believe in religious obligations" (Non-believer).
  • 0.9% defined themselves as "someone with no religious conviction" (Atheist).

Census[edit]

Istanbul experienced a rapid population growth (The gray areas are buildings)

Census of 1927[edit]

Provinces, 1927 census.[75]
Province Population
İstanbul 794.444
İzmir 526.065
Konya 504.384
Balıkesir 421.066
Şebinkarahisar 108.735
Cebelibereket 107.694
Siirt 102.433
Total 13.648.270

1965 census[edit]

Languages spoken in Turkey, 1965 census[76]
Language Mother tongue Only language spoken Second best language spoken
Abaza 4,563 280 7,556
Albanian 12,832 1,075 39,613
Arabic 365,340 189,134 167,924
Armenian 33,094 1,022 22,260
Bosnian 17,627 2,345 34,892
Bulgarian 4,088 350 46,742
Pomak 23,138 2,776 34,234
Chechen 7,563 2,500 5,063
Circassian 58,339 6,409 48,621
Croatian 45 1 1,585
Czech 168 25 76
Dutch 366 23 219
English 27,841 21,766 139,867
French 3,302 398 96,879
Georgian 34,330 4,042 44,934
German 4,901 790 35,704
Greek 48,096 3,203 78,941
Italian 2,926 267 3,861
Kurdish (Kurmanji) 2,219,502 1,323,690 429,168
Judæo-Spanish 9,981 283 3,510
Laz 26,007 3,943 55,158
Persian 948 72 2,103
Polish 110 20 377
Portuguese 52 5 3,233
Romanian 406 53 6,909
Russian 1,088 284 4,530
Serbian 6,599 776 58,802
Spanish 2,791 138 4,297
Turkish 28,289,680 26,925,649 1,387,139
Zaza 150,644 92,288 20,413
Total 31,009,934 28,583,607 2,786,610
Languages spoken in Turkey by provinces, 1965 census[77]
Province / Language Turkish Kurdish Arabic Zazaki Circassian Greek Georgian Armenian Laz Pomak Bosnian Albanian Jewish
Adana (including Osmaniye) 866,316 7,581 22,356 332 51 51 0 28 9 0 312 483 29
Adıyaman 143,054 117,325 7 6,705 0 0 0 84 4 0 0 0 0
Afyonkarahisar 499,461 125 19 1 2,172 169 2 2 1 16 14 2 1
Ağrı 90,021 156,316 105 4 2 2 77 5 0 1 103 0 0
Amasya 279,978 2,179 9 2 1,497 6 1,378 208 6 0 10 336 1
Ankara (including Kırıkkale) 1,590,392 36,798 814 21 393 124 41 66 120 7 126 833 64
Antalya 486,697 23 2 0 0 14 0 0 2 0 0 1 0
Artvin 190,183 46 4 0 0 4 7,698 1 12,093 1 1 0 0
Aydın 523,583 168 85 0 112 71 4 1 4 0 26 88 0
Balıkesir 698,679 560 38 8 3,144 236 1,273 9 205 1,707 314 24 4
Bilecik 137,674 5 4 0 736 4 73 1 1 2 6 3 0
Bingöl 62,668 56,881 19 30,878 17 0 1 11 1 0 0 0 3
Bitlis 56,161 92,327 3,263 2,082 205 1 5 16 0 0 0 1 2
Bolu (including parts of Düzce) 375,786 363 0 0 1,593 3 1,541 488 1,791 0 40 6 1
Burdur 194,910 2 7 0 0 3 12 0 0 0 0 1 0
Bursa 746,633 213 22 0 799 106 2,938 35 517 65 1,169 1,928 69
Çanakkale 338,379 443 0 25 1,604 5,258 4 9 12 3,675 516 6 121
Çankırı (including parts of Karabük) 250,510 158 1 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 0 0 0
Çorum 474,638 8,736 4 0 1,808 12 8 51 3 7 0 0 0
Denizli 462,860 283 28 5 8 97 1 1 0 2 1 3 0
Diyarbakır 178,644 236,113 2,536 57,693 1 1 3 134 3 48 1 5 0
Edirne 290,610 386 104 21 9 18 2 12 3 10,285 329 58 92
Elazığ 244,016 47,446 17 30,921 0 2 0 2 30 12 3 2 0
Erzincan 243,911 14,323 13 298 4 5 0 12 2 3 0 1 0
Erzurum 555,632 69,648 86 2,185 109 8 4 11 24 7 1 5 1
Eskişehir 406,212 327 42 0 1,390 4 3 0 14 23 114 78 0
Gaziantep 490,046 18,954 885 1 4 6 0 4 3 0 1 11 0
Giresun 425,665 305 1 1 2 0 2,029 0 5 0 0 0 0
Gümüşhane (including Bayburt) 260,419 2,189 0 0 91 0 0 0 17 0 0 0 0
Hakkari (including parts of Şırnak) 10,357 72,365 165 0 1 0 1 21 2 0 0 0 0
Hatay 350,080 5,695 127,072 7 780 767 11 376 6 2 8 44 1
Isparta 265,305 688 75 11 8 91 0 1 2 1 1 3 4
Mersin 500,207 1,067 9,430 23 76 137 13 12 19 3 3 9 1
İstanbul 2,185,741 2,586 2,843 26 317 35,097 849 29,479 128 165 3,072 4,341 8,608
İzmir 1,214,219 863 352 5 1,287 898 15 17 15 1,289 2,349 1,265 753
Kars (including Ardahan and Iğdır) 471,287 133,144 61 992 215 6 8 5 24 1 5 4 1
Kastamonu (including parts of Düzce) 439,355 1,090 2 0 3 2 180 849 1 0 0 0 0
Kayseri 509,932 8,454 34 8 17,110 1 1 9 6 9 15 160 1
Kırklareli 252,594 602 136 24 5 3 5 3 7 3,375 1,148 144 11
Kırşehir 185,489 11,309 4 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Kocaeli 320,808 235 0 10 1,467 63 2,755 46 2,264 381 3,827 22 7
Konya (including Karaman) 1,092,819 27,811 67 4 1,139 3 7 1 5 1 11 75 0
Kütahya 397,221 105 13 2 17 4 2 88 9 0 0 34 0
Malatya 374,449 77,794 33 10 14 5 7 148 5 4 0 3 0
Manisa 746,514 241 15 0 488 42 67 2 6 54 116 192 3
Kahramanmaraş 386,010 46,548 21 0 4,185 0 0 13 3 0 0 9 0
Mardin (including parts of Batman) 35,494 265,328 79,687 60 75 11 15 11 0 0 1 6 0
Muğla 334,883 6 4 1 0 28 0 0 0 1 0 0 4
Muş 110,555 83,020 3,575 507 898 0 1 3 103 0 0 0 0
Nevşehir 203,156 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 0
Niğde (including Aksaray) 353,146 8,991 10 0 227 5 0 12 4 0 15 4 0
Ordu 538,978 12 0 0 5 0 4,815 34 0 1 0 1 0
Rize 275,291 11 1 1 0 9 4 0 5,754 1 0 1 0
Sakarya 388,481 2,163 32 3 538 6 4,535 2 2,671 23 2,899 794 1
Samsun 747,115 1,366 3 0 3,401 91 2,350 5 51 319 10 610 0
Siirt (including parts of Batman and parts of Şırnak) 46,722 179,023 38,273 484 1 0 15 98 3 0 10 0 0
Sinop 261,341 2,126 0 0 659 1 1,144 228 3 5 0 7 3
Sivas 649,099 32,284 19 23 2,086 0 0 217 1 0 515 0 0
Tekirdağ 284,222 548 76 18 5 19 52 8 2 1,627 6 51 102
Tokat 483,948 3,974 7 3 5,934 0 367 45 2 0 0 964 0
Trabzon 590,799 72 12 0 0 4,535 1 11 0 0 0 0 0
Tunceli 120,553 33,431 20 2,370 28 0 0 4 0 18 10 8 0
Şanlıurfa 207,652 175,100 51,090 14,554 3 0 5 2 4 0 2 0 0
Uşak 190,506 16 2 0 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0
Van 118,481 147,694 557 3 1 2 1 1 8 0 1 1 66
Yozgat 433,385 2,424 1 0 1,597 2 0 118 0 0 14 1 0
Zonguldak (including Bartın and parts of Karabük) 649,757 43 26 0 5 17 2 3 15 0 1 1 1

      Provinces with Turkish speakers in majority       Provinces with Turkish speakers in plurality       Provinces with Kurdish speakers in plurality       Provinces with Kurdish speakers in majority

Minorities[edit]

Modern Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as secular (Laiklik, Turkish adaptation of French Laïcité), i.e. without a state religion, or separate ethnic divisions/ identities.

The concept of "minorities" has only been accepted by the Republic of Turkey as defined by the Treaty of Lausanne of 1924 and thence strictly limited to Greeks, Jews and Armenians, only on religious matters, excluding from the scope of the concept the ethnic identities of these minorities as of others such as the Kurds who make up 15% of the country; others include Assyrians/Syriacs of various Christian denominations, Alevis and all the others.

There are many reports from sources such as (Human Rights Watch, European Parliament, European Commission, national parliaments in EU member states, Amnesty International etc.) on persistent yet declining discrimination.

Certain current trends are:

  • Turkish imams get salaries from the state (like Greek Orthodox clerics in Greece), whereas Turkish Alevi as well as non-Orthodox and non-Armenian clerics are not paid
  • Imams can be trained freely at the numerous religious schools and theology departments of universities throughout the country; minority religions can not re-open schools for training of their local clerics due to legislation and international treaties dating back to the end of Turkish War of Independence. The closing of the Theological School of Halki is a sore bone of contention between Turkey and the Eastern Orthodox world;
  • The Turkish state sends out paid imams, working under authority from the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı) to various European or Asian countries with Turkish- or Turkic-speaking populations, with as local heads officials from the Turkish consulates;
  • Turkey has recently engaged in promulgating a series of legal enactments aiming at removal of the procedural hurdles before the use of several local languages spoken by Turkish citizens such as Kurdish (Kurmanji), Arabic and Zaza as medium of public communication, together with several other smaller ethnic group languages. A few private Kurdish teaching centers have recently been allowed to open. Kurdish-language TV broadcasts on 7/24 basis at the public frequency denominated in the government-owned TRT 6, while the private national channels show no interest yet. However there are already several satellite Kurdish TV stations operating from Kurdish Autonomous Region at Northern Iraq and Western Europe, broadcasting in Kurdish, Turkish and Neo-Aramaic languages, Kurdistan TV, KurdSAT, etc.;
  • Non-Muslim minority numbers are said to be falling rapidly, mainly as a result of aging, migration (to Israel, Greece, the United States and Western Europe).
  • There is concern over the future of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, which suffers from a lack of trained clergy due to the closure of the Halki school. The state does not recognise the Ecumenical status of the Patriarch of Constantinople.

According to figures released by the Foreign Ministry in December 2008, there are 89,000 Turkish citizens designated as belonging to a minority, two thirds of Armenian descent.[78]

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook:[3]

Age structure
0-14 years: 26.6% (male 10,707,793/female 10,226,999)
15-64 years: 67.1% (male 26,741,332/female 26,162,757)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 2,259,422/female 2,687,245) (2011 est.)

Sex ratio
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 72.5 years
male: 70.61 years
female: 74.49 years (2011 est.)

Urbanization
urban population: 70% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010–15 est.)

Nationality
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94.1%
male: 97.9%
female: 90.3% (2011 est.)

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