|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (January 2011)|
Republic Day is the name of a holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they became republics.
- 1 January
- 2 February
- 3 March
- 4 April
- 5 May
- 6 June
- 7 July
- 8 September
- 9 October
- 10 November
- 11 December
- 12 Republic Day in other countries
- 13 See also
- 14 References
26 January in India
India gained its independence on 15 August 1947, after which the process of preparing a constitution was started. The Constitution was passed on 26 November 1949 in the Constituent Assembly. It was adopted on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, when the country became a republic in true sense. 26 January was selected, because it was this day in 1930 when the Declaration of Indian Independence was passed.
To mark this occasion, a grand parade is held along Rajpath in New Delhi, the capital of India, beginning from Raisina Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), along the [ic Day, which is called 'Beating Retreat'.
1 February in Hungary
On 1 February 1946 Hungary commemorates the proclamation of Republic of Hungary. Since 2004, this day is a national commemoration day, not a public or national holiday.
23 March in Pakistan
In Pakistan, 23 March marks two related events; the first was the passing of the Lahore Resolution in 1940, by the leaders of the Muslim League, essentially demanding a separate state for Muslims, ultimately leading to the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The second event was the formal declaration of Pakistan as an Islamic Republic in 1956, having previously held the status of a Dominion). The main events of this day include a full military parade and the awarding of honors at the Presidential Palace by the President.
1 April in Iran
28 May in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Nepal
On 28 May 1918 Armenia and Azerbaijan declared independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, thus forming the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. It was the first sovereign republic in the history of both countries and Azerbaijan the first democratic parliamentary republic in the Muslim world. However the holiday was not celebrated during Soviet times, and it only achieved consistency after the collapse of the USSR.
A decade-long People's Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal in 2006, culminated in a peace accord and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal democratic republic on 28 May 2008.
31 May in South Africa (1961–1994)
Between 1961 and 1994, 31 May was celebrated in South Africa as Republic Day. This practice was discontinued in 1995 following the attainment of majority rule and the reorganisation of public holidays as a consequence. On the last Republic Day, in 1994, South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations.
2 June in Italy
The Festa della Repubblica is celebrated on the second day of June, and it commemorates the institutional referendum of 1946 when (by universal suffrage) the Italian population was called to decide what form of government (monarchy or republic) to give to the country after World War II and the fall of Fascism.
After 85 years of monarchy, with 12,717,923 votes for and 10,719,284 votes against, Italy became a Republic, and the monarchs of the House of Savoy were deposed and exiled. This is one of the most important Italian public holidays which, like 14 July in France and 4 July in the USA, celebrates the birth of the nation. A grand military parade is held in central Rome.
1 July in Ghana
This is Ghana's republican day.
4 July in the Philippines
From 1946 to 1961, this day was celebrated as Independence Day, in honour of the country's freedom from the United States of America and the establishment of the Third Republic in 1946. In 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal changed the date of Independence Day to 12 June "in commemoration of our people's declaration of their inherent and inalienable right to freedom and independence", and designating 4 July as "Philippine Republic Day" according to Republic Act № 4166. The current date of 12 June celebrates the First Philippine Republic's secession from the Spanish Empire in 1898, which received limited recognition as the islands were among the possessions that Spain had already ceded to the United States as a consequence of the Spanish-American War.
Today, 4 July is no longer a public holiday though it is sometimes referred to as "Filipino-American Friendship Day".
14 July in Iraq
14 July 1958 is the day the Hashemite monarchy was overthrown in Iraq by popular forces led by Abdul Karim Kassem, who became the nation's new leader. The event was commemorated in Baghdad with a statue in 14 July Square.
25 July in Tunisia
Republic Day in Tunisia celebrates the abolition of the monarchy by the National Assembly, resulting in the proclamation of the Republic of Tunisia. Habib Bourguiba was chosen to be the first President of Tunisia.
24 September in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago officially ceased being a Commonwealth realm on 1 August 1976 with the promulgation of a new, republican constitution. Republic Day is however celebrated as a public holiday on 24 September, the date when the first Parliament met. The holiday was not included in the official calendar of observances from 1999 to 2001 to make way for Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day, which is celebrated on 30 March. The Republic Day holiday was reinstated in 2002.
5 October in Portugal
5 October in Portugal is known as Implantação da República. It celebrates the proclamation of the Portuguese First Republic in 1910.
10 October in Taiwan
10 October in Taiwan is a national holiday commemorating the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, the symbolic start of the Chinese revolution with the Wuchang Uprising. It is also known as the Double Ten Day.
Second-to-last Monday in October in Rhodesia (1970–1979)
Although the government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) a republic on 2 March 1970, the annual Republic Day holiday took place on the second-to-last Monday in October. It was abolished in October 1979 by the interim government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia.
25 October in Kazakhstan
In the waning days of Soviet rule, individual republics of the Soviet Union sought greater autonomy. The Soviet Union agreed in early 1990 to give up its monopoly of political power. Following the lead of Lithuanian SSR, Russian SFSR and others, Kazakh SSR declared its sovereignty on 25 October 1990, and Kazakhstan subsequently became independent on 16 December 1991 as the Soviet Union collapsed. 25 October, the anniversary of the adoption of the "Declaration on State Sovereignty of Kazakh SSR" by the Kazakh legislature in 1990, is now commemorated as Republic Day (Kazakh: Республика күні, Respwblïka küni), a public holiday in Kazakhstan.
29 October in Turkey
On 29 October 1923, the Turkish constitution was amended and Turkey became a republic. This formally declared the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Republic Day (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Bayramı) is celebrated throughout Turkey every year. Commemorative events usually begin in the afternoon on the previous day. In observance of the holiday, government offices and schools close for a day. Also, there are fireworks shows in all cities of Turkey.
11 November in the Maldives
On 11 November 1968, the monarchy of the Maldives was abolished and replaced by a republic.
15 November in Brazil
On 15 November 1889, in the city of Rio de Janeiro (the Brazilian capital at that time), a military coup led by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca overthrew Emperor Pedro II and declared Brazil a republic.
15 November in Northern Cyprus
On 15 November 1983, Northern Cyprus was proclaimed.
29 November in the former Yugoslavia (1945–2002)
On 29 November 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia established the foundations of post-war Yugoslavia as a federal republic, which was officially proclaimed on the same date in 1945. Republic Day (local name: Dan Republike or Дан Републике) marked the occasion two consecutive days, 29 and 30 November, and was likely the most important holiday (the other two-day holidays were New Year and May Day).
In elementary schools first graders were inducted into the Pioneer Movement on or around Republic Day. Employees merged the holiday with weekends and extra days off to form weekends of three, four or even five days. Urban dwellers took the occasion to visit their relatives in the country, who marked the event with pig slaughter and the ensuing feast.
In the 1980s, as central and Communist Party authority eroded, dissenters targeted Republic Day celebrations for criticism. In 1987, Bosnian garage rock band Zabranjeno pušenje published a song entitled Dan Republike, in which they criticized the state of the economy and protested the general indifference to the ideals behind the holiday. The band had to change some of the lyrics before being allowed to air the song.
In 1990, Slovenia was the first federal republic to cease observing the holiday. Other seceded republics followed suit as Yugoslavia dissolved. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia kept the holiday until 2002.
The date "29.XI.1943" figured prominently on the Yugoslav coat of arms.
13 December in Malta
On 13 December 1974, the constitution of Malta was substantially revised, transforming the former British colony from a Commonwealth Realm into a republic within the Commonwealth. The British monarch was no longer Reġina ta' Malta (Queen of Malta) and the new Head of State was President Sir Anthony Mamo. This occasion is marked every year as Republic Day (Maltese: Jum ir-Repubblika) in Malta. The monument of Republic Day is at Marsa.
18 December in Niger
18 December 1958 is commemorated in the Republic of Niger as Republic Day, the national holiday. Although not the date of formal independence from France, 18 December marks the founding of the Republic and creation of the Presidency of the Republic of Niger, following the constitutional changes of the French Fifth Republic, and the elections of 4 December 1958 held across the French colonial possessions. Nigerians consider this date to be the founding of their nation. Between 18 December 1958 and 5 August 1964, Niger remained a semi-autonomous republic within the French Community.
The 16th is celebrated in Niger with official festivals and appearances of political leaders, as well as public parties and festivities. The 50th anniversary celebrations were held in 2006, centered not in the capitol, but in the regional center of Tillabéry, and surrounded by sports, musical and arts competitions, the opening of new buildings, a National Youth Festival, and other public festivities.
Republic Day in other countries
- Albania: First Albanian Republic 21 January (1925), Second People's Republic of Albania 11 January (1946)
- Algeria: 3 July (1962)
- Armenia: 28 May (1918, see Democratic Republic of Armenia)
- Azerbaijan: 28 May (1918, see Azerbaijan Democratic Republic)
- Burkina Faso: 11 December (1958, when the Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community.)
- Chad: 28 November (1958)
- East Germany: 7 October
- Gambia: 24 April (1970)
- Greece: 24 July (1974)
- Ghana: 1 July (1960)
- Guyana: 23 February (1970, also known as Mashramani)
- Iceland: 17 June (1944)
- India: 26 January (1950)
- Iran: 1 April (also known as "Islamic Republic Day")
- Iraq: 14 July
- Kenya: around 12 December (1963, see Jamhuri Day.)
- Lithuania: 15 May (1920, known as the Constituent Assembly Day)
- Macedonia: 8 September 1991 (Independence), 2 August 1944 and 1903 (Establishing SR Macedonia and ASNOM; Kruševo Republic)
- Maldives: 11 November (1968)
- Nepal: 28 May (2008)
- Niger: 18 December (1958)
- North Korea: 9 September (1948)
- Pakistan: 23 March (1956)
- Sierra Leone: 27 April, (1961)
- Sri Lanka: 22 May, (1972)
- Tunisia: 25 July, (1957)
- Turkey: 29 October (1923, see Republic Day (Turkey))
- Trinidad and Tobago: 24 September (1976)
- Nepal:15 Jestha (2064)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Republic Day.|
- Commémoration du 18 décembre à Tillabéri : Sons et lumières à la cité des Maïga. Assane Soumana, Sahel Dimanche. 12 December 2008
2. NALIS - Trinidad and Tobago, ^ http://www2.nalis.gov.tt/Research/SubjectGuide/RepublicDay/tabid/250/Default.aspx