Republic Day

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Frecce Tricolori at the Festa della Repubblica in Italy, 2 June 2005.

Republic Day is the name of a holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they became republics. In some countries, it is known as National Day or Proclamation Day, or by some other sort of name.


Contents

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
See alsoReferencesExternal links

January[edit]

26 January in India[edit]

Main article: Republic Day (India)

India gained its independence on 15 August 1947, after which the process of preparing a constitution was started. The Constitution was passed on 26 November 1949 in the Constituent Assembly. It was adopted on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system, when the country became a republic in true sense. 26 January was selected, because it was this day in 1930 when the Declaration of Indian Independence was passed.[1] India achieved independence from British rule on 15 August 1947 following the Indian independence movement noted for largely peaceful nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress. The independence came through the Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo 6 c. 30), an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth (later Commonwealth of Nations): India and Pakistan.[2] India obtained its independence on 15 August 1947 as a constitutional monarchy with George VI as head of state and the Earl Mountbatten as governor-general. The country, though, did not yet have a permanent constitution; instead its laws were based on the modified colonial Government of India Act 1935. On 28 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed to draft a permanent constitution, with Dr.B. R. Ambedkar as chairman. While India's Independence Day celebrates its freedom from British Rule, the Republic Day celebrates of coming into force of its constitution.

A draft constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947.[3] The Assembly met, in sessions open to public, for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950. Two days later, it came into effect throughout the nation.

February[edit]

1 February in Hungary[edit]

The Memorial Day of the Republic (A köztársaság emléknapja) commemorates the proclamation of the Republic of Hungary on 1 February 1946. Since 2004, this day is a national commemoration day, not a public or national holiday.

23 February in Guyana[edit]

See also: Mashramani

On 23 February 1970, Guyana was declared a "cooperative republic" within the Commonwealth of Nations.

March[edit]

23 March in Pakistan[edit]

Main article: Pakistan Day

In Pakistan, 23 March marks two related events; the first was the passing of the Lahore Resolution in 1940, by the leaders of the Muslim League, essentially demanding a separate state for Muslims, ultimately leading to the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The second event was the formal declaration of Pakistan as an Islamic Republic in 1956, having previously held the status of a Dominion. The main events of this day include a full military parade and the awarding of honors at the Presidential Palace by the President.

April[edit]

1 April in Iran[edit]

Islamic Republic Day (روز جمهوری اسلامی) is celebrated on Farvardin 12 of the Iranian calendar to mark the anniversary of the 1979 establishment of the Islamic Republic. Farvardin 12 falls on or around April 1 in the Gregorian calendar.

24 April in the Gambia[edit]

On 24 April 1970, the Gambia became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.

May[edit]

15 May in Lithuania[edit]

The Constituent Assembly of Lithuania met for the first time on 15 May 1920. The day is commemorated as Constituent Assembly Day.

28 May[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

{{|Public holidays in Azerbaijan}} On 28 May 1918, Azerbaijan declared independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, thus forming the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Azerbaijan was the first democratic parliamentary republic in the Muslim world. The holiday was not celebrated during Soviet times, and it only achieved consistency after the collapse of the USSR.

Nepal[edit]

A decade-long People's Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal in 2006, culminated in a peace accord and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal democratic republic on 28 May 2008.

31 May in South Africa (1961–1994)[edit]

Between 1961 and 1994, 31 May was celebrated in South Africa as Republic Day. This practice was discontinued in 1995 following the attainment of majority rule and the reorganisation of public holidays as a consequence. On the last Republic Day, in 1994, South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations.

June[edit]

2 June in Italy[edit]

Republic Day is celebrated on 2 June. It commemorates the referendum of 1946, when the Italian population was called to decide what form of government (monarchy or republic) to give to the country after World War II and the fall of Fascism. After 85 years of monarchy, Italy became a Republic, and the monarchs of the House of Savoy were deposed and exiled. This is one of the most important Italian public holidays which, like 14 July in France and 4 July in the USA, celebrates the birth of the nation. A grand military parade is held in central Rome.[2]

17 June in Iceland[edit]

Lýðveldisdagurinn (literally, "the Republic's Day") commemorates the independence of Iceland on 17 June 1944.

July[edit]

1 July in Ghana[edit]

On 1 July 1960, Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana proclaimed a republic and became its first president.

4 July in the Philippines[edit]

From 1946 to 1961, this day was celebrated as Independence Day, in honour of the country's freedom from the United States of America and the establishment of the Third Republic in 1946. In 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal changed the date of Independence Day to 12 June "in commemoration of our people's declaration of their inherent and inalienable right to freedom and independence", and designating 4 July as "Philippine Republic Day" according to Republic Act № 4166. The current date of 12 June celebrates the First Philippine Republic's secession from the Spanish Empire in 1898, which received limited recognition as the islands were among the possessions that Spain had already ceded to the United States as a consequence of the Spanish-American War.

Today, 4 July is no longer a public holiday though it is sometimes referred to as "Filipino-American Friendship Day".

14 July in Iraq[edit]

14 July 1958 is the day the Hashemite monarchy was overthrown in Iraq by popular forces led by Abdul Karim Kassem, who became the nation's new leader. The event was commemorated in Baghdad with a statue in 14 July Square.

25 July in Tunisia[edit]

Republic Day in Tunisia celebrates the abolition of the monarchy by the National Assembly, resulting in the proclamation of the Republic of Tunisia. Habib Bourguiba was chosen to be the first President of Tunisia.

August[edit]

2 August in Macedonia[edit]

In the Republic of Macedonia, 2 August is celebrated as the Day of the Republic (Macedonian: Ден на Републиката, Den na Republikata). It commemorates the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising of 2 August 1903, and the first meeting of the Anti-fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia on 2 August 1944. The day is also celebrated as St. Elijah's Day, or Ilinden.

September[edit]

24 September in Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Trinidad and Tobago officially ceased being a Commonwealth realm on 1 August 1976 with the promulgation of a new, republican constitution. Republic Day is however celebrated as a public holiday on 24 September, the date when the first Parliament met. The holiday was not included in the official calendar of observances from 1999 to 2001 to make way for Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day, which is celebrated on 30 March. The Republic Day holiday was reinstated in 2002.

October[edit]

5 October in Portugal[edit]

5 October in Portugal is known as Implantação da República. It celebrates the proclamation of the Portuguese First Republic in 1910.

7 October in East Germany (1949-1989)[edit]

The Tag der Republik commemorated the establishment of the German Democratic Republic on 7 October 1949. East Germany was dissolved on 3 October 1990.

10 October in Taiwan[edit]

10 October in Taiwan is a national holiday commemorating the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, the symbolic start of the Chinese revolution with the Wuchang Uprising. It is also known as the Double Ten Day.

Second-to-last Monday in October in Rhodesia (1970–1979)[edit]

Although the government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) a republic on 2 March 1970, the annual Republic Day holiday took place on the second-to-last Monday in October. It was abolished in October 1979 by the interim government of Zimbabwe Rhodesia.

29 October in Turkey[edit]

Main article: Republic Day (Turkey)

On 29 October 1923, the Turkish constitution was amended and Turkey became a republic. This formally declared the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Republic Day (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Bayramı) is celebrated throughout Turkey every year. Commemorative events usually begin in the afternoon on the previous day. In observance of the holiday, government offices and schools close for a day. Also, there are fireworks shows in all cities of Turkey.

November[edit]

11 November in the Maldives[edit]

On 11 November 1968, the monarchy of the Maldives was replaced by a republic.

15 November[edit]

Brazil[edit]

On 15 November 1889, in the city of Rio de Janeiro (the Brazilian capital at that time), a military coup led by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca overthrew Emperor Pedro II and declared Brazil a republic.

Northern Cyprus[edit]

On 15 November 1983, Northern Cyprus was proclaimed.

28 November in Chad[edit]

On 28 November 1958, Chad became an autonomous state within the French Community.

29 November in the former Yugoslavia (1945–2002)[edit]

On 29 November 1943, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia established the foundations of post-war Yugoslavia as a federal republic, which was officially proclaimed on the same date in 1945. Republic Day (local name: Dan Republike or Дан Републике) marked the occasion two consecutive days, 29 and 30 November, and was likely the most important holiday (the other two-day holidays were New Year and May Day).

In elementary schools first graders were inducted into the Pioneer Movement on or around Republic Day. Employees merged the holiday with weekends and extra days off to form weekends of three, four or even five days. Urban dwellers took the occasion to visit their relatives in the country, who marked the event with pig slaughter and the ensuing feast.

In the 1980s, as central and Communist Party authority eroded, dissenters targeted Republic Day celebrations for criticism. In 1987, Bosnian garage rock band Zabranjeno pušenje published a song entitled Dan Republike, in which they criticized the state of the economy and protested the general indifference to the ideals behind the holiday. The band had to change some of the lyrics before being allowed to air the song.

In 1990, Slovenia was the first federal republic to cease observing the holiday. Other seceded republics followed suit as Yugoslavia dissolved. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia kept the holiday until 2002.

The date "29.XI.1943" figured prominently on the Yugoslav coat of arms.

December[edit]

1 December in the Central African Republic[edit]

On 1 December 1958, Ubangi-Shari became an autonomous territory within the French Community as the Central African Republic.

11 December in Burkina Faso[edit]

On 11 December 1958, Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community. This is commemorated in Burkina Faso as the Proclamation of the Republic.

12 December in Kenya[edit]

Main article: Jamhuri Day

Kenya gained independence as a Commonwealth realm on 12 December 1963. Exactly one year later, the Republic of Kenya was established and Jomo Kenyatta became its first president.

13 December in Malta[edit]

On 13 December 1974, the constitution of Malta was substantially revised, transforming the former British colony from a Commonwealth realm into a republic within the Commonwealth. The British monarch was no longer Reġina ta' Malta (Queen of Malta) and the new Head of State was President Sir Anthony Mamo. This occasion is marked every year as Republic Day (Maltese: Jum ir-Repubblika) in Malta. The monument of Republic Day is at Marsa.

16 December in Kazakhstan[edit]

In the waning days of Soviet rule, individual republics of the Soviet Union sought greater autonomy. The Soviet Union agreed in early 1990 to give up its monopoly of political power. Following the lead of Lithuanian SSR, Russian SFSR and others, Kazakh SSR declared its sovereignty on 25 October 1990, and Kazakhstan subsequently became independent on 16 December 1991 as the Soviet Union collapsed. 16 December is now commemorated as Republic Day (Kazakh: Республика күні, Respwblïka küni), a public holiday in Kazakhstan.

18 December in Niger[edit]

Main article: Republic Day (Niger)

18 December 1958 is commemorated in the Republic of Niger as Republic Day, the national holiday. Although not the date of formal independence from France, 18 December marks the founding of the Republic and creation of the Presidency of the Republic of Niger, following the constitutional changes of the French Fifth Republic, and the elections of 4 December 1958 held across the French colonial possessions. Nigerians consider this date to be the founding of their nation. Between 18 December 1958 and 5 August 1964, Niger remained a semi-autonomous republic within the French Community.

The 18th is celebrated in Niger with official festivals and appearances of political leaders, as well as public parties and festivities. The 50th anniversary celebrations were held in 2006, centered not in the capitol, but in the regional center of Tillabéry, and surrounded by sports, musical and arts competitions, the opening of new buildings, a National Youth Festival, and other public festivities.[3]

28 December in South Sudan[edit]

South Sudan gained independence from Sudan on July 9, 2011, but on December 28, 2012, South Sudan declared republic from Hungary by Salva Kiir Mayardit.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]