First tankōbon volume, released in Japan on July 6, 1992.
(Bishōjo Senshi Sērāmūn)
|Written by||Naoko Takeuchi|
|Magazine||Nakayoshi, Run Run|
|Original run||December 28, 1991 – February 3, 1997|
|Anime television series|
|Sailor Moon (anime)|
|Directed by||Junichi Satō
|Produced by||Iriya Azuma
|Written by||Sukehiro Tomita
|Music by||Takanori Arisawa|
|Original run||March 7, 1992 – February 8, 1997|
|Original net animation|
|Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal|
|Directed by||Munehisa Sakai|
|Produced by||Junichirō Tsuchiya
|Written by||Yuji Kobayashi|
|Music by||Yasuharu Takanashi|
|Released||July 5, 2014 – ongoing|
Sailor Moon (美少女戦士セーラームーン Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn?, originally translated as Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon and later as Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon) is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It was originally serialized in Nakayoshi from 1991 to 1997; the 52 individual chapters were published in 18 tankōbon volumes. The series follows the adventures of Usagi Tsukino as she transforms into the titular character to search for a princess and an artifact called the "Legendary Silver Crystal" (「幻の銀水晶」 Maboroshi no Ginzuishō?, lit. "Phantom Silver Crystal"). During her journey, she leads a diverse group of comrades, the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士 Sērā Senshi?) — Sailor Guardians in later editions — as they battle against villains to prevent the theft of the Silver Crystal and the destruction of the Solar System.
The 18 manga volumes have been adapted into an anime series titled Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon which was produced by Toei Animation. The series was broadcast from 1992 to 1997 in Japan over the course of five seasons. Toei Animation also developed three feature films, one television special, three short films and a live-action television adaptation titled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. A reboot of the anime series titled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal began simulcasting in 2014. Several companies have developed merchandising based on the series, including light novels, collectible trading card games, action figures, musical theater productions, several collections of soundtracks and a large number of video games. The manga series was licensed for an English language release by Kodansha Comics USA in North America, and in Australia and New Zealand by Random House Australia. The entire anime series has been licensed by Viz Media for an English language release in North America and by Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand.
Since its release, Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon has received wide critical acclaim and has become one of the most popular manga and anime series worldwide. The manga's 18 volumes have sold over one million copies worldwide and reviewers have praised the art, characterization and humor of the story. The anime is popular in several countries and is arguably one of the most influential in boosting the popularity of Japanese animation in Western culture. Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon is often cited with popularizing the concept of a team of magical girls and for revitalizing the magical girl genre. The franchise is also credited with redefining the genre, as previous magical girls did not use their powers to fight evil and the concept is now considered one of its standard archetypes.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Production
- 3 Media
- 4 Reception
- 5 Legacy
- 6 References
- 7 External links
A middle-school student named Usagi Tsukino befriends Luna, a talking cat that gives her a magical brooch enabling her to become Sailor Moon: a pretty soldier destined to save Earth from the forces of evil. Luna and Usagi assemble a team of fellow Sailor Soldiers to find their princess and the "Legendary Silver Crystal." They encounter the studious Ami Mizuno, who awakens as Sailor Mercury, Rei Hino, a local shrine maiden who awakens as Sailor Mars, Makoto Kino, a transfer student who awakens as Sailor Jupiter and Mamoru Chiba, a high-school student who assists them as Tuxedo Mask. A young, aspiring idol named Minako Aino, who also operates as Sailor Venus, later joins them, accompanied by her feline companion Artemis.
In the first arc, the group battles the Dark Kingdom. Led by Queen Beryl, a team of generals — the Four Kings of Heaven (四天王 Shiten'ō?, lit. "Four Heavenly Kings") — attempt to find the Silver Crystal to free an imprisoned, evil entity called Queen Metaria. Usagi and her team discover that in their previous lives they were members of the ancient moon kingdom called Silver Millennium. The Dark Kingdom waged war against them, resulting in the destruction of the moon kingdom. Its ruler Queen Serenity later sent her daughter Princess Serenity, her guardians the Sailor Soldiers, their feline advisers Luna and Artemis, and the princess's true love Prince Endymion into the future to be reborn through the power of the Silver Crystal. The team recognize Usagi as the reincarnated Serenity and Mamoru as Endymion. The Soldiers kill the Four Kings, who turn out to have been Endymion's guardians who defected in their past lives. In a final confrontation with the Dark Kingdom, Minako kills Queen Beryl; she and the other Soldiers then sacrifice their lives in an attempt to destroy Queen Metaria. Using the Silver Crystal, Usagi succeeds in killing Metaria and resurrects her friends.
At the beginning of the second arc, Usagi and Mamoru's daughter Chibiusa arrives from the future to find the Silver Crystal. As a result, the Soldiers encounter Wiseman and his Black Moon Clan, who are pursuing her. Chibiusa takes the Soldiers to the future city Neo-Tokyo, where her parents rule as Neo-Queen Serenity and King Endymion. During their journey they meet Sailor Pluto, guardian of the Time-Space Door. Sailor Pluto stops the Clan's ruler Prince Demand from destroying the time-space continuum, leading to her death. Chibiusa later awakens as a Soldier — Sailor Chibi Moon — and helps Usagi kill Wiseman's true form, Death Phantom.
The third arc revolves around a group of lifeforms called Death Busters, created by Professor Soichi Tomoe, who seek to transport the entity Pharaoh 90 to Earth to merge with the planet. Tomoe's daughter Hotaru is absorbed by the entity Mistress 9, who must open the dimensional gateway through which Pharaoh 90 must travel. Auto-racer Haruka Tenoh and violinist Michiru Kaioh appear as Sailor Uranus and Sailor Neptune, who guard the outer rim of the Solar System from external threats. Physics student Setsuna Meioh, Sailor Pluto's reincarnation, joins the protagonists. Usagi obtains the Holy Grail, transforms into Super Sailor Moon, and attempts to use the power of the Grail and the Silver Crystal to destroy Pharaoh 90. This causes Hotaru to awaken as Sailor Saturn, whom Haruka, Michiru and Setsuna initially perceive as a threat. As the harbinger of death, Hotaru uses her power of destruction to sever Pharaoh 90 from the Earth and instructs Setsuna to use her power over time-space to close the dimensional gateway. Usagi, as Princess Serenity, then uses her power to recreate the planet.
The next arc introduces the Dead Moon Circus, led by Queen Nehelenia, the self-proclaimed "rightful ruler" of both Silver Millennium and Earth. Nehelenia invades Elysion, which hosts the Earth's Golden Kingdom, capturing its High Priest Helios and instructs her followers to steal the Silver Crystal. As Prince Endymion, Mamoru is revealed to be the owner of the Golden Crystal — the sacred stone of the Golden Kingdom. Mamoru and the Soldiers combine their powers with those of the Holy Grail, enabling Usagi to transform into Eternal Sailor Moon and kill Nehelenia. Four of Nehelenia's henchmen, the Amazoness Quartet, are revealed to be Soldiers called the Sailor Quartet, who are destined to become Chibiusa's guardians. They had been awakened prematurely and corrupted by Nehelenia.
In the final arc, Usagi and her friends enter high school and are drawn into a battle against Shadow Galactica, a group of false Sailor Soldiers. Their leader Sailor Galaxia plans to steal the Sailor Crystals of true Soldiers to overthrow the galaxy and to kill an evil life-form known as Chaos. After killing Mamoru and most of the Sailor Soldiers, Sailor Galaxia steals their Sailor Crystals. Usagi travels to the Galaxy Cauldron to defeat Galaxia and revive her teammates. Joining Usagi are the Sailor Starlights who come from the planet Kinmoku, their ruler Princess Kakyuu and the infant Sailor Chibichibi who came from a distant future. Later, Chibiusa and the Sailor Quartet join Usagi and company. After numerous battles as well as the death of Galaxia, Sailor Chibichibi reveals her true form as Sailor Cosmos. Usagi then destroys Chaos with the "Legendary Silver Crystal." Mamoru and the Sailor Soldiers are revived and return to Earth with Usagi. The series ends with Usagi and Mamoru's wedding, six years later.
Naoko Takeuchi redeveloped Sailor Moon from her 1991 manga serial Codename: Sailor V, which was first published on August 20, 1991, and featured Sailor Venus as the main protagonist. Takeuchi wanted to create a story with a theme about girls in outer space. While discussing with her editor Fumio Osano, he suggested the addition of Sailor fuku. When Codename: Sailor V was proposed for adaptation into an anime by Toei Animation, Takeuchi redeveloped the concept so Sailor Venus became a member of a team. The resulting manga series became a fusion of the popular magical girl genre and the Super Sentai series, of which Takeuchi was a fan. Recurring motifs include astronomy, astrology, Greek and Roman myth, geology, Japanese elemental themes, teen fashions, and schoolgirl antics.
Takeuchi said discussions with Kodansha originally envisaged a single story arc; the storyline was developed in meetings a year before serialization began. After completing the arc, Toei and Kodansha asked Takeuchi to continue the series. She wrote four more story arcs, which were often published simultaneously with the five corresponding seasons of the anime adaptation. The anime ran one or two months behind the manga. As a result, the anime follows the storyline of the manga fairly closely, although there are deviations. Takeuchi later said because Toei's production staff were mostly male, she feels the anime has "a slight male perspective."
Takeuchi later said she planned to kill off the protagonists, but Osano rejected the notion and said, "[Sailor Moon] is a shōjo manga!" When the anime adaptation was produced, the protagonists were killed in the final battle with the Dark Kingdom, although they were revived. Takeuchi resented that she was unable to do that in her version. Takeuchi also intended for the Sailor Moon anime adaptation to last for one season, but due to the immense popularity, Toei asked Takeuchi to continue the series. At first, she struggled to develop another storyline to extend the series. While discussing with Osano, he suggested the inclusion of Usagi's daughter from the future, Chibiusa.
Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon was written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It spans 52 chapters known as "acts," and ten separate side-stories. It was first serialized in the monthly manga anthology Nakayoshi starting on December 28, 1991; the series ended on February 3, 1997. The side-stories appeared simultaneously in RunRun—another of Kodansha's manga magazines. The 52 chapters were published in 18 tankōbon volumes by Kodansha from July 6, 1992, to April 4, 1997. In 2003, the chapters were re-released in a collection of 12 shinzōban volumes to coincide with the release of the live-action series. The manga was retitled Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon and included new cover art, and revised dialogue and illustrations. Volumes 1 and 2 of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Short Stories were also published. In 2013, the chapters were once again re-released in 10 kanzenban volumes to commemorate the manga's 20th anniversary, which includes digitally remastered artwork, new covers and color artwork from its Nakayoshi run. The books have been enlarged from the typical Japanese manga size to A5. The short stories were republished in two volumes, with the order of the stories shuffled. Codename: Sailor V was also included in the third edition.
The Sailor Moon manga was initially licensed for an English release by Mixx (later Tokyopop) in North America. The manga was first published as a serial in MixxZine beginning in 1997, but was later removed from the magazine and made into a separate, monthly comic to finish the first, second and third arcs. At the same time, the fourth and fifth arcs were printed in a secondary magazine called Smile. The series was later collected into three-part graphic novels spanning eighteen volumes, which were published from December 1, 1998, to September 18, 2001. Tokyopop's license expired in 2005 and its edition went out of print. Daily pages from the Tokyopop version ran in the Japanimation Station, a service accessible to users of America Online. In May 2005, Tokyopop's license to the Sailor Moon manga expired, and its edition went out of print.
In 2011, Kodansha Comics USA announced it would publish the Sailor Moon manga and the lead-in series Codename: Sailor V in English. It would also re-publish the twelve volumes of Sailor Moon simultaneously with the two-volume edition of Codename Sailor V, from September 2011 to July 2013. The first volume of the two related short stories was published on September 10, 2013; the other was published on November 26.
The manga has also been licensed in other English-speaking countries. In the United Kingdom, the volumes are distributed by Turnaround Publisher Services. In Australia, the manga is distributed by Random House Australia.
Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon
Toei Animation produced an anime television series based on the 52 manga chapters, also titled Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon. It was directed by Junichi Satō, Kunihiko Ikuhara and Takuya Igarashi. The series premiered in Japan on TV Asahi on March 7, 1992, and ran for 200 episodes until its conclusion on February 8, 1997. Most of the international versions, including the English adaptations, are titled Sailor Moon. The series featured Kotono Mitsuishi as Usagi Tsukino, Aya Hisakawa as Ami Mizuno, Michie Tomizawa as Rei Hino, Emi Shinohara as Makoto Kino, Rica Fukami as Minako Aino, Kae Araki as Chibiusa, Megumi Ogata as Haruka Ten'oh, Masako Katsuki as Michiru Kaioh, Chiyoko Kawashima as Setsuna Meioh, Yuko Minaguchi as Hotaru Tomoe, Shiho Niiyama as Kou Seiya, Chika Sakamoto as Kou Yaten, Narumi Tsunoda as Kou Taiki, Toru Furuya as Mamoru Chiba, Keiko Han as Luna, and Yasuhiro Takato as Artemis.
Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal
On July 6, 2012, Kodansha and Toei Animation announced that it would commence production of a new anime adaptation for a simultaneous worldwide release in 2013 as part of the series' 20th anniversary celebrations. The idol group Momoiro Clover Z would perform the opening and closing theme music. In April 2013, it was announced the new anime had been delayed. On August 4, it was confirmed the new anime will be streamed late in the year.
On January 9, 2014, it was announced the anime will premiere in July. On March 13, 2014, the new anime's official website was updated to show a countdown beginning on March 14 for an announcement due to occur on March 21. That day, Toei's website showed an image displaying the key visual art, synopsis, and staff for the new anime. It also revealed the anime would be called Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal (美少女戦士セーラームーンCrystal Bishōjo Senshi Sērāmūn Kurisutaru). The series is animated by Toei Animation and directed by Munehisa Sakai.
The cast and premiere date were announced at the 20th Anniversary Project Special Stage on April 27, 2014. The anime would premiere on July 5, 2014, and episodes would premier on the first and third Saturdays of each month. The cast of Crystal featured Hisako Kanemoto as Ami Mizuno, Rina Satō as Rei Hino, Ami Koshimizu as Makoto Kino, Shizuka Itō as Minako Aino, Kenji Nojima as Mamoru Chiba and Ryō Hirohashi as Luna. Kotono Mitsuishi reprised her role as Usagi for Crystal. On April 30, Toei confirmed the series will run for 26 episodes, streaming worldwide on video sharing service Niconico with subtitles in 12 languages on the first and third Saturdays of each month.
In May 2014, Viz Media licensed the Sailor Moon Crystal anime for an English-language release in North America as Sailor Moon Crystal. The series began streaming on Hulu and Neon Alley simultaneously on July 5, 2014. Crunchyroll also began streaming the series on its website during the simulcast. At the 2014 Anime Expo convention in Los Angeles, Viz marketing director Charlene Ingram announced that the cast used for the Sailor Moon re-dub would also reprise their roles in Crystal. On November 28, 2014, Madman Entertainment announced that they have the rights for Sailor Moon Crystal for Australia & New Zealand.
Films and television specials
Three animated theatrical feature films based on the original Sailor Moon series have been released in Japan. The films are side-stories that do not correlate with the timeline of the original series. A one hour television special was aired on TV Asahi in Japan on April 8, 1995. In 1997, an article in Variety stated that the The Walt Disney Company was interested in acquiring the rights to Sailor Moon as a live action film to be directed by Stanley Tong.
There have been numerous companion books to Sailor Moon. Kodansha released some of these books for each of the five story arcs, collectively called the Original Picture Collection. The books contain cover art, promotional material and other work by Takeuchi. Many of the drawings are accompanied by comments on the way she developed her ideas, created each picture and commentary on the anime interpretation of her story. Another picture collection, Volume Infinity, was released as a self-published, limited-edition artbook after the end of the series in 1997. This artbook includes drawings by Takeuchi and her friends, her staff, and many of the voice actors who worked on the anime. In 1999, Kodansha published the Materials Collection; this contained development sketches and notes for nearly every character in the manga, and for some characters that never appeared. Each drawing includes notes by Takeuchi about costume pieces, the mentality of the characters and her feelings about them. It also includes timelines for the story arcs and for the real-life release of products and materials relating to the anime and manga. A short story, Parallel Sailor Moon is also featured, celebrating the year of the rabbit.
In mid-1993, the first musical theater production based on Sailor Moon premiered; Anza Ohyama starred as Sailor Moon. As of August 2014[update], 30 such musicals have been produced, with one in pre-production. The shows' stories include anime-inspired plotlines and original material. Music from the series has been released on about 20 memorial albums. The popularity of the musicals has been cited as a reason behind the production of the live action television series, Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon.
During the original run musicals ran in the winter and summer of each year, with summer musicals staged at the Sunshine Theater in the Ikebukuro area of Tokyo. In the winter, musicals toured to other large cities in Japan, including Osaka, Fukuoka, Nagoya, Shizuoka, Kanazawa, Sendai, Saga, Oita, Yamagata and Fukushima. The final incarnation of the first run, New Legend of Kaguya Island (Revised Edition) (新・かぐや島伝説 <改訂版> Shin Kaguyashima Densetsu (Kaiteban)?), went on stage in January 2005, following which, Bandai officially put the series on a hiatus. On June 2, 2013, Fumio Osano announced on his Twitter page that the Sailor Moon musicals would begin again in September 2013. The 20th anniversary show La Reconquista ran from September 13 to 23 at Shibuya's AiiA Theater Tokyo, with Satomi Ōkubo as Sailor Moon. Satomi Ōkubo reprised the role in the 2014 production Petite Étrangère which ran from August 21 to September 7, 2014, again at AiiA Theater Tokyo.
In early 2014, Megahouse released a set of Sailor Moon trading figures consisting of twelve figurines, two for each Sailor Soldier and two for Tuxedo Mask.
In 1995, Renaissance-Atlantic Entertainment, Bandai and Toon Makers, Inc. conceptualized their own version of Sailor Moon, which was half live-action and half Western-style animation. Toon Makers produced a 17-minute proof of concept presentation video as well as a two-minute music video, both of which were directed by Rocky Sotoloff, for this concept. Renaissance-Atlantic presented the concept to Toei, but it was turned down as their concept would have cost significantly more than simply exporting and dubbing the anime adaptation.
At the 1998 Anime Expo convention in Los Angeles, the music video was shown. It has since been copied numerous times and has been viewed on many streaming video sites. Because of the relatively poor quality of the source video and circulated footage, many anime fans thought that the music video was actually a leaked trailer for the project. Additional copies of the footage have since been uploaded to the Internet and served only to bolster the mistaken assumption, in addition to incorrectly citing the production to Saban Entertainment, who became known for a similar treatment that created the Power Rangers series.
Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon
In 2003, Toei Company produced a Japanese live-action Sailor Moon television series using the new translated English title of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Its 49 episodes were broadcast on Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting from October 4, 2003 to September 25, 2004. Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon featured Miyuu Sawai as Usagi Tsukino, Chisaki Hama as Ami Mizuno, Keiko Kitagawa as Rei Hino, Mew Azama as Makoto Kino, Ayaka Komatsu as Minako Aino, Jouji Shibue as Mamoru Chiba, Keiko Han as Luna and Kappei Yamaguchi as Artemis. The series was an alternate retelling of the Dark Kingdom arc, adding a storyline different from that in the manga and first anime series, with original characters and new plot developments. In addition to the main episodes, two direct-to-video releases appeared after the show ended its television broadcast. "Special Act" is set four years after the main storyline ends, and shows the wedding of the two main characters. "Act Zero" is a prequel showing the origins of Sailor V and Tuxedo Mask.
The Sailor Moon franchise has spawned several video games across various genres and platforms. Most were made by Bandai and its subsidy Angel; others were produced by Banpresto. The early games were side-scrolling fighters; later ones were unique puzzle games, or versus fighting games. Another Story was a turn-based role-playing video game. The only Sailor Moon game produced outside Japan, 3VR New Media's The 3D Adventures of Sailor Moon, went on sale in North America in 1997. A video game called Sailor Moon: La Luna Splende (Sailor Moon: The Shining Moon) was released in early 2011 for the Nintendo DS.
Sailor Moon is one of the most popular manga series of all time and continues to enjoy high readership worldwide. By the end of 1995, more than one million copies of its tankōbon volumes had been sold in Japan. The manga won the Kodansha Manga Award in 1993 for shōjo. The English adaptations of both the manga and the anime series became the first successful shōjo title in the United States. The character of Sailor Moon is recognized as one of the most important and popular female superheroes of all time.
Sailor Moon has also become popular internationally. Sailor Moon was broadcast in Spain and France beginning in December 1993; these became the first countries outside Japan to broadcast the series. It was later aired in Australia, South Korea, the Philippines, Poland, Italy, Peru, Brazil, Sweden and Hong Kong, before North America picked up the franchise for adaptation. In the Philippines, Sailor Moon was one of its carrier network's main draws, helping it to become the third-biggest network in the country. In 2001, the Sailor Moon manga was Tokyopop's best selling property, outselling the next-best selling titles by at least a factor of 1.5. In Diamond Comic Distributors's May 1999 "Graphic Novel and Trade Paperback" category, Sailor Moon Volume 3 was the best-selling comic book in the United States.
In his 2007 book Manga: The Complete Guide, Jason Thompson gave the manga series three stars out of four. He enjoyed the blending of shōnen and shōjo styles, and said the combat scenes seemed heavily influenced by Saint Seiya, but shorter and less bloody. He also said the manga itself appeared similar to Super Sentai television shows. Thompson found the series fun and entertaining, but said the repetitive plot lines were a detriment to the title, which the increasing quality of art could not make up for; even so, he called the series "sweet, effective entertainment." Thompson said although the audience for Sailor Moon is both male and female, Takeuchi does not use excessive fanservice for males, which would run the risk of alienating her female audience. Thompson said fight scenes are not physical and "boil down to their purest form of a clash of wills", which he says "makes thematic sense" for the manga.
Comparing the manga and anime, Sylvain Durand said the manga artwork is "gorgeous", but its storytelling is more compressed and erratic and the anime has more character development. Durand said "the sense of tragedy is greater" in the manga's telling of the "fall of the Silver Millennium," giving more detail about the origins of the Shitennou and on Usagi's final battle with Beryl and Metaria. Durand said the anime omits information that makes the story easy to understand, but judges the anime more "coherent" with a better balance of comedy and tragedy, whereas the manga is "more tragic" and focused on Usagi and Mamoru's romance.
For the week of September 11, 2011, to September 17, 2011, the first volume of the re-released Sailor Moon manga was the best-selling manga on the The New York Times Manga Best Sellers list, with the first volume of Codename: Sailor V in second place. The first print run of the first volume sold out after four weeks.
The first episode of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Crystal earned a viewership of over one million on Niconico during the first two days of streaming it.
The manga and anime series have been cited as reinvigorating the magical girl genre by adding dynamic heroines and action-oriented plots. After its success, many similar magical girl series, including Magic Knight Rayearth, Wedding Peach, Nurse Angel Ririka SOS and Pretty Cure, emerged. Sailor Moon has been called "the biggest breakthrough" in English-dubbed anime until 1995, when it premiered on YTV, and "the pinnacle of little kid shōjo anime." Cultural anthropologist Matt Thorn said that soon after Sailor Moon, shōjo manga began to be featured in book shops rather than fandom-dominated comic shops. The series are credited as beginning a wider movement of girls taking up shōjo manga. Canadian author Gilles Poitras defines a generation of anime fans as those who were introduced to anime by Sailor Moon in the 1990s, saying they were both much younger than other fans and were also mostly female.
Historian Fred Patten credits Takeuchi with popularizing the concept of a Super Sentai-like team of magical girls, and Paul Gravett credits the series with revitalizing the magical girl genre itself. A reviewer for Them Anime Reviews also credited the anime series with changing the genre—its heroine must use her powers to fight evil, not simply have fun as previous magical girls had done.
In western culture, Sailor Moon is sometimes associated with the feminist and Girl Power movements and with empowering its viewers, especially regarding the "credible, charismatic and independent" characterizations of the Sailor Soldiers, which were "interpreted in France as an unambiguously feminist position". Although Sailor Moon is regarded as empowering to girls, and feminist in concept through the aggressive nature and strong personalities of the Sailor Soldiers, it is a specific type of feminist concept where "traditional feminine ideals [are] incorporated into characters that act in traditionally male capacities". While the Sailor Soldiers are strong, independent fighters who thwart evil—which is generally a masculine stereotype—they are also ideally feminized through the transformation of the Sailor Soldiers from teenage girls into magical girls, which heavy emphasis on jewelery, make-up and their highly sexualized outfits with cleavage, short skirts and accentuated waists.
The most notable hyper-feminine features of the Sailor Soldiers—and most other females in Japanese girls' comics—are the girls' thin bodies, extremely long legs, and, in particular, round, orb-like eyes. Eyes are commonly known as the primal source within characters where emotion is evoked—sensitive characters have larger eyes than insensitive ones. Male characters generally have smaller eyes that have no sparkle or shine in them like the eyes of the female characters. The stereotypical role of women in Japanese culture is to undertake romantic and loving feelings; therefore, the prevalence of hyper-feminine qualities like the openness of the female eye in Japanese girls' comics is clearly exhibited in Sailor Moon. Thus, Sailor Moon emphasizes a type of feminist model by combining traditional masculine action with traditional female affection and sexuality through the Sailor Soldiers. Its characters have been described as "catty stereotypes", with Sailor Moon's character in particular being singled out as less than feminist.
James Welker said Sailor Moon's futuristic setting helps to make lesbianism "naturalized" and a peaceful existence. Yukari Fujimoto said although there are few "lesbian scenes" in Sailor Moon, it has become a popular subject for yuri parodic dōjinshi. She cites this to the source work's "cheerful" tone, although she says "though they seem to be overflowing with lesbians, the position of heterosexuals is earnestly secured."
In English-speaking countries, Sailor Moon developed a cult following among anime fans and male university students. Patrick Drazen says the Internet was a new medium that fans used to communicate and played a role in the popularity of Sailor Moon. Fans could use the Internet to communicate about the series, organize campaigns to return Sailor Moon to U.S. broadcast, to share information about episodes that had not yet aired, or to write fan fiction. In 2004, one study said there were 3,335,000 websites about Sailor Moon, compared to 491,000 for Mickey Mouse. NEO magazine said part of the series' allure was that fans communicated via the Internet about the differences between the dub and the original version. The Sailor Moon fandom was described in 1997 as being "small and dispersed." In a United States study, twelve children paid rapt attention to the fighting scenes in Sailor Moon, although when asked whether they thought Sailor Moon was violent, only two said yes and the other ten described the episodes as "soft" or "cute."
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1994). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Original Picture Collection vol. I (1st ed.). Japan: Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324507-1.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版（１）". kc.kodansha.co.jp. Kodansha Comics. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン 完全版（１）". kc.kodansha.co.jp. Kodansha Comics. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン DVD‐COLLECTION Vol.1". toei-video.co.jp. Toei Video. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン DVD‐COLLECTION Vol.2(完)". toei-video.co.jp. Toei Video. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (2013). "Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon ~Ten Years of Love and Miracles~". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon: Short Stories 2. New York: Kodansha Comics USA. pp. 196–200. ISBN 978-1-612-62010-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 2003). Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon shinzōban vol. 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334777-X.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (December 18, 1993). "Vol. 1". Codename wa Sailor V 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-322801-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 29, 2004). "Vol. 1". Codename: Sailor V shinzoban vol. 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334929-2.
- "Public Interview with Takeuchi Naoko". Ex.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Grigsby, Mary. "Sailormoon: Manga (Comics) and Anime (Cartoon) Superheroine Meets Barbie: Global Entertainment Commodity Comes to the United States" (PDF). Archived from the original on June 17, 2012.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 286. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Allison, Anne (2000). "A Challenge to Hollywood? Japanese Character Goods Hit the US". Japanese Studies (Routledge) 20 (1): 67–88. doi:10.1080/10371390050009075.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Schodt, Frederik (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5.
- Alverson, Brigid (May 27, 2011). "Sailor Moon 101: Pretty, Powerful, And Pure of Heart". MTV. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 23, 2003). "Punch!". Bishōjo Senshi Sailormoon Shinsouban Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334783-4.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 23, 2003). "Punch!". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon shinsouban Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334783-4.
- 美少女戦士セーラームーン (1) (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
- 美少女戦士セーラームーン (18) (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
- 美少女戦士セーラームーン 新装版(1) (in Japanese). Kodansha. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版（1）：美少女戦士セーラームーン20周年プロジェクト公式サイト". Sailormoon-official.com. 2013-11-16. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版 ショートストーリーズ（１）". kc.kodansha.co.jp. Kodansha Comics. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン新装版 ショートストーリーズ（２）". kc.kodansha.co.jp. Kodansha Comics. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "美少女戦士セーラームーン 完全版（１）". kodansha.co.jp. Kodansha Comics. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Brad Stephenson (January 23, 2012). "3rd Gen Japanese Sailor Moon Manga Shopping Guide". moonkitty.net. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Elly (October 10, 2013). "Sailor Moon Kanzenban + iPad Mini + Smart Phone Cases". Miss Dream. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- "Mixx Controversies: Analysis". Features. Anime News Network. August 14, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- "Sailor Moon Volume 1". Mixx Entertainment. Archived from the original on November 7, 2004. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
- "Sailor Moon StarS Volume 3". Mixx Entertainment. Archived from the original on November 10, 2004. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
- "Tokyopop Out of Print". October 13, 2007. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- "MIXX ENTERTAINMENT COLLABORATES WITH CENTRAL PARK MEDIA TO PUBLISH SAILOR MOON AND PARASYTE COMICS IN THE JAPANIMATION STATION™ SECTION OF AMERICA ONLINE (AOL)". Mixx Entertainment. October 22, 1999. Archived from the original on October 29, 2000. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Tokyopop Out of Print". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on May 19, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2006.
- "Kodansha USA Announces the Return of Sailor Moon". Press release. March 18, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- "Sailor Moon 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House. September 13, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Sailor Moon 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "Codename Sailor V 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "Sailor Moon Short Stories 1 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "Sailor Moon Short Stories 2 by Naoko Takeuchi – Book". Random House. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "Sailor Moon Vol. 1". Turnaround Publisher Services. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- "Sailor Moon 5". Random House Australia. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
- "Sailor Moon staff information". Usagi.org. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "Sailor Moon Manga Gets New Anime in Summer 2013". Anime News Network. July 6, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- Zahed, Ramin (July 6, 2012). "New 'Sailor Moon' Reboot Arrives in 2013". Animation Magazine. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "New Sailor Moon Anime to Stream Worldwide This Winter". Anime News Network. August 4, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "New Sailor Moon Anime Delayed – News". Anime News Network. September 6, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "New Sailor Moon Anime by Toei to Premiere in July – News". Anime News Network. January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Sailor Moon Website's Animation Page Opens a Countdown – News". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "2014's New Sailor Moon Crystal Anime's 1st Image, Story Intro Posted Online – News". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Kotono Mitsuishi Leads New Sailor Moon Crystal Anime Cast". Anime News Network. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Mammano, Michael (July 4, 2014). "The Sailor Moon Reboot: What We Know and What to Expect". Den of Geek. Retrieved October 14, 2014.
- "Sailor Moon Crystal Anime Confirmed for 26 Episodes - News". Anime News Network. 2014-04-30. Retrieved 2014-05-09.
- "Viz Licenses New Sailor Moon Crystal Anime". Anime News Network. 2014-05-16.
- "Crunchyroll to Stream Sailor Moon Crystal". Anime News Network. 2014-05-24. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- Mammano, Michael (July 7, 2014). "Sailor Moon Blu-ray/DVD Details, Voice Cast, and Release Date". Den of Geek. DoGTech. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- "Madmen Entertainment Acquires Sailor Moon Series and Sailor Moon Crystal". Anime News Network. 2014-11-28.
- "Sailor Moon SuperS Special" (in Japanese). April 8, 1995. TV Asahi.
- Archerd, Army (May 15, 1997). "‘Magoo’ goes stunt-crazy". Variety. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
Disney, which wanted Tong to create an international franchise with his direction of the “live” “Magoo,” is also in the process of acquiring rights to the Japanese cartoon “Sailor Moon,” also for Tong to direct
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1994). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume I Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324507-1.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1994). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume II Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324508-X.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume III Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324518-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume IV Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN ISBN 4-06-324519-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1997). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324522-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1999). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- "セーラームーン ビデオ・DVDコーナー" (in Japanese). Sailormoon. Channel. Retrieved July 19, 2009.[dead link]
- Font, Dillon (May 2004). "Sailor Soldiers, Saban Style". Animefringe. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
- これまでの公演の紹介 93サマースペシャルミュージカル 美少女戦士セーラームーン 外伝 ダーク・キングダム復活篇 (in Japanese). Sailormoon. Channel. Retrieved July 21, 2009.[dead link]
- これまでの公演の紹介 ９４サマースペシャルミュージカル美少女戦士セーラームーンＳうさぎ・愛の戦士への道 (in Japanese). Sailormoon. Channel. Retrieved July 21, 2009.[dead link]
- "９５スプリングスペシャルミュージカル 美少女戦士セーラームーンS 変身・スーパー戦士への道(改訂版)" (in Japanese). Sailormoon. Channel. Retrieved July 21, 2009.[dead link]
- Lobão, David Denis (May 24, 2007). "Musicais do OhaYO! – Parte 2" (in Portuguese). Universo Online. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
- "Osabu Twitter" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- "Sailor Moon Chibi Trading Figures Scheduled for Early 2014". Crunchyroll. October 10, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- "Saban Moon". Crystal Millennium of Commemoration. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- "Sailormoon. Channel – History of Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on August 6, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- "Sailormoon. Channel – Sailor Moon Live Action TV Corner". Archived from the original on June 17, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- Mays, Jonathon (April 6, 2004). "Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon – Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
- "実写板DVD(TVシリーズ)" (in Japanese). Sailormoon. Channel. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
- "Game Search". GameFAQs - Video Game Cheats, Reviews, FAQs, Message Boards, and More. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "The 3D Adventures of Sailor Moon for PC". GameFAQs. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "New Sailor Moon DS Game to Ship in Spring in Italy – Interest". Anime News Network. September 16, 2011. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Schodt, Frederik (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5.
- Joel Hahn. "Kodansha Manga Awards". Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
- Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga: The Complete Guide. New York: Ballantine Books & Del Rey Books. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8.
- "Can Sailor Moon Break Up the Superhero Boys Club?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2014-07-19.
- "Sailor Moon superhero may replace Power Rangers". Ludington Daily News. Retrieved 2014-07-19.
- Sailor Moon (superhero). The Superhero Book: The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Comic Book Icons. Retrieved 2014-07-19.
- "Moon Prism Power! Why Sailor Moon is the perfect female superhero". Leslie IRL. Retrieved 2014-07-19.
- "Grrrl power: why female superheroes matter". Pop Mythology. Retrieved 2014-07-19.
- セーラームーンのあゆみ 1993年 (in Japanese). Sailormoon. Channel. Retrieved July 21, 2009.[dead link]
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- "ICv2 News – Sailor Moon Graphic Novels Top Bookstore Sales – Demonstrates Shoujo's Potential". ICv2. August 14, 2001. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- "MIXX'S SAILOR MOON MANGA IS THE NUMBER 1 GRAPHIC NOVEL OR TRADE PAPERBACK IN AMERICA!" Mixx Entertainment. June 18, 1999. Retrieved on August 21, 2011.
- "Sailor Moon – Jason Thompson's House of 1000 Manga". Anime News Network. March 3, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- Durand, Sylvain (March–April 1996). "Sailor Moon: Manga vs Animation". Protoculture Addicts (39): 39.
- Taylor, Ihsan. "Best Sellers – The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "New York Times Manga Best Seller List, September 11–17". Anime News Network. September 23, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
- "Kodansha: Sailor Moon 1 Reprinted after 50,000 Sell Out – News". Anime News Network. October 14, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Sailor Moon Crystal Gets 1 Million Views on Niconico in 2 Days". Anime News Network. July 8, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide. p. 199.
- Poitras, Gilles (December 1, 2000) Anime Essentials: Every Thing a Fan Needs to Know Stone Bridge Press, ISBN 1-880656-53-1 pp.31–32
- Sevakis, Justin (January 1, 1999). "Anime and Teen Culture... Uh-oh.". Anime News Network. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
- Alverson, Brigid (February 17, 2009). "Matt Thorn Returns to Translation". Publishers Weekly. PWxyz, LLC. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
- http://www.akadot.com/story.php?id=30[dead link]
- Deppey, Dirk (2005). "She's Got Her Own Thing Now". The Comics Journal (269). Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
Scratch a modern-day manga fangirl, and you're likely to find someone who watched Sailor Moon when she was young.
- "Atsukamashii Onna – Taking One for the Team: A Look at Sentai Shows (vol V/iss 11/November 2002)". Sequential Tart. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Watching Anime, Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews by Fred Patten page 50
- Paul Gravett (2004) Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics (Harper Design, ISBN 1-85669-391-0) page 78
- "THEM Anime Reviews 4.0 – Sailor Moon". Themanime.org. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Penedo, Nicolas (2008). Nicolas Finet, ed. Dicomanga: le dictionnaire encyclopédique de la bande dessinée japonaise (in French). Paris: Fleurus. p. 464. ISBN 978-2-215-07931-6.
- "Femspec". Femspec. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
- "The Toronto Star Archive". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. July 27, 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Allison, Anne (June 2000). "Sailor Moon: Japanese Superheroes for Global Girls". In Timothy J. Craig. Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. M. E. Sharpe. pp. 259–278. ISBN 978-0-7656-0561-0.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 281. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- "Animerica: Animerica Feature: Separated at Birth? Buffy vs. Sailor Moon". Animerica. April 7, 2004. Archived from the original on April 7, 2004. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "Animerica: Animerica Feature: Separated at Birth? Buffy vs. Sailor Moon". Animerica. April 7, 2004. Archived from the original on April 7, 2004. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Yoshida, Kaori (2002). "Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime". Western Washington University. Archived from the original on November 11, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Welker, James (2006) "Drawing Out Lesbians: Blurred Representations of Lesbian Desire in Shōjo Manga" in Subhash Chandra e. d., Lesbian Voices: Canada and the World: Theory, Literature, Cinema New Delhi: Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd ISBN 81-8424-075-9 p.177, 180.
- Matsumoto, Jon (June 19, 1996). "Fans Sending an SOS for 'Sailor'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "We're Playing Their Toons". washingtonpost.com. December 6, 2004. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Cox, Gemma. "Neo Magazine – Article". Neomag.co.uk. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
- Updike, Edith (1997). "The Novice Who Tamed The Web". Business Week. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
- Allison, Anne (2001). "Cyborg Violence: Bursting Borders and Bodies with Queer Machines" (PDF). Cultural Anthropology 16 (2): 237–265. doi:10.1525/can.2001.16.2.237. Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sailor Moon.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Sailor Moon|
- Official Sailor Moon website (Japanese)
- Official Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon 20th anniversary project website (Japanese)
- USA Network site (via Internet Archive)
- Sailor Moon (manga) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
- Sailor Moon at DMOZ