Roundabout in the centre of Caterham valley
Caterham shown within Surrey
|OS grid reference|
|Civil parish||Caterham on the Hill|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ambulance||South East Coast|
|EU Parliament||South East England|
|UK Parliament||East Surrey|
Caterham (pronunciation: // KAY-tər-uum) is a town in the Tandridge District of Surrey, England. The town is geographically divided into two sections: Caterham on the Hill and Caterham Valley that includes the main town centre. The town lies close to the A22, 21 miles from Guildford and a few miles south of Croydon, in a valley cut into the dip slope of the North Downs. Caterham on the Hill is above the western side of the valley. The resident population of Caterham is 20,957 people. Due to its proximity to London, Caterham is predominantly a commuter town.
An encampment on the top of White Hill, in Caterham Valley south of Caterham School, between Bletchingley and Caterham is called The Cardinal's Cap and has been excavated and inspected in designating it a Scheduled Ancient Monument. With close ramparts forming two or more lines, archaeologists describe the fort as a "large multivallate hillfort at War Coppice Camp".
Its inner bank is about 0.5m wide and 0.4m high with a ditch 7m wide and 0.3m deep situated 2m below its crest. To the west of the ditch is the second bank, 8m wide and 0.5m high. Beyond this the second ditch has become completely infilled over the years but survives as a buried feature approximately 8m wide, visible as a terrace. Traces of a second, slighter terrace are situated further down the slope, representing evidence of additional scarping. The defences to the north east include an inner bank 5m wide and up to 0.5m high from the interior and 4m high from the exterior with a surrounding ditch 8m wide and 0.6m deep. Beyond this is a counterscarp bank 6m wide and up to 1m high. A 35m long section of a second ditch, which has become partially infilled over the years, survives 25m further out to the north east. In the southern and south eastern areas of the monument, sections of the hillfort have been disturbed by later quarrying activity. Although the monument was originally thought to be either Roman Britain or Neolithic in date, excavations in 1950 showed it to be Iron Age and what had previously been thought to be a fragment of an earthwork was almost complete with the banks of the ramparts having been palisaded and revetted to strengthen their defence.
Post Norman Conquest 
Caterham's church of St Lawrence is of Norman construction and retains a rector as its incumbent. In the reign of King John, Roger son of Everard de Gaist gave this including its church lands to the monastery of Waltham Holy Cross. Everard's grandfather was Geoffery of Caterham who gave land to his son in the 12th century. This monastery ran the glebe as a manor, receiving a grant of free warren in their demesne lands of Caterham in 1253; holding it until the dissolution of the monasteries.
Caterham's original village centre consisted in the nearest part of the ridge of Caterham on the Hill to the railway station in Caterham Valley, including at the street ascending the relatively steep, short hill, Church Hill. Although no conservation area has been designated in either civil parish  four secular buildings, including The King and Queen Public House, three close churches as well as a vault and tomb in St Lawrence's churchyard are listed; these are along Hill Street/ Church Hill in Caterham on the Hill.
The combined manors of Caterham, Porkele, Upwode, Gatiers and Halyngbury 
Porkele had been formerly included in the manor given to Waltham Abbey; together the latter manors comprised 1,000 acres (400 ha). Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham (1402–1460) held these manors leaving them in 1458 to his third son John Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire when his son died without issue in 1499, under the terms of grant the elder branch, the following Duke of Buckingham inherited. His heirs sold them on the dissolution to Lord Berners who died in debt in 1533 resulting in bona vacantia and seizure by the Crown. In 1570 Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (as Lord Buckhurst, later Lord High Treasurer, held the 'manor of Caterham and Portele farm,' which he conveyed in that year to Henry Shelley; Sir Thomas's Sondes's widow leased the lands in 1599 to her half-brother, Main Plot seditionist Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham. Then in 1615 her daughter Frances Leveson gave the rest of that lease, due the tenant's attainder to Sir Edward Barrett and Walter Barrett while the reversion was held by Sir Richard Sondes. George Ede purchased this massive estate in 1612 and it passed to Jasper Ockley in 1616. Sir Isaac Shard who was one of two Sheriffs of the City of London in 1730 who conveyed it to Thomas Clark and then passed as with the other manors; in 1911 W. L. Williams its owner lived at Portley in what remained of the estate. De Stafford School in Caterham on the Hill occupies a small part of the estate and is named after the earlier known owner. Adjoining Sunnydown School, state-run, is at what was Portley House and is for secondary education for boys with a Statement of Special Educational Needs.
The Manor of Salmons 
The only manor did not have as high-profile owners. In 1339 John de Horne released some land Caterham (and more in Warlingham) to Roger Salaman, who at his death in 1343 was "seised of a tenement". A manor of Salmons appears in 1605 by William Jordan, who soon afterwards acquired the second manor of Caterham (see above) with which Salmons afterwards descended. It was bought out of Chancery, into which it went on the death of Charles Day, by George Drew, who sold to members of the Horne family, who owned the relatively small estate in 1911.
Post Reformation 
The Rectorial manor of Caterham 
In 1544, the King granted the main rectorial manor was granted (in fee) to William Sackville JP In 1553 William Sackville and Eleanor passed the manor to Robert Hartopp, goldsmith of London, dying two years later succeeded by Elias his son, who was left it to his nephew John, whose widow Joan sold the manor in 1609 to George Evelyn who gave it to his son Sir John Evelyn on his marriage to Elizabeth Cocks. Later owners of the manor were Sir John's purchaser James Linch, his issue including Susan Hussey and her son James who sold the manor in 1699 to George Roffey. His nephew inherited it of the same name and in 1770 his sons sold the title alone and perhaps house to Matthew Robinson. Richard Hewetson bought it in 1780 passing it to his nephew Henry Hewetson holding until the Regency period. Henry's nephew William Hewetson ceased to lay claim to any manorial rights however in any event the lands had been separately sold to Henry Rowed, whose son Henry settled the estate on his wife Susan Glover in 1765. Their daughter Katherine Glover inherited these lands.
A second manor Manning and Bray report on was the main tenant's under the monastery and was held by for example buyers: William Jordan in 1607; Sir Isaac Shard (see above), who held his first court in 1726; after 1825 Charles Day of the firm of Day & Martin held but leaving no clear heirs this estate ended up in the hands of the chancery. Taxing (costs) judge George Henry Drew held the main lands and title followed by W. L. Williams in 1911.
Post Industrial Revolution 
In 1840 Caterham contained a total of 477 residents (figures taken from that census, compiled in an 1848 topographical encyclopedia) and in 1848 468 acres (189 ha) of its 2,386 acres (966 ha) were common land. Similar to today, 175 acres (71 ha) mostly steeper acres were woodland.
The more modern locality of Caterham Valley in a basin opening to the north (to Warlingham) and along its slopes is a product of the Victorian age and the coming of the Caterham railway line in 1856, which is still a terminus.
Victorian expansion of the town required the building of a much larger parish church, leading to the Church of St Mary the Virgin's building in 1866, directly across the road from St Lawrence's. As it also grew Caterham Valley gained its own Anglican church, to St. John the Evangelist, which was consecrated in 1882.
From 1877 Caterham barracks on the hill was a depot for the footguards regiments. In August 1975 a local public house (the Caterham Arms) which was frequented by soldiers was targeted by an IRA bomb. The barracks were closed in the 1990s and the site redeveloped for housing.
Two high streets therefore serve two very close yet substantial and affluent communities (see demographics), one with the railway station and more modern buildings, one with more historic buildings as soon as the closest hill (to the northwest) is climbed from the heart of Caterham Valley. This set-up means that localism is present in that the Godstone Road during the middle of the 20th century bypassed Caterham Valley staying high and using Tillingdown, along the east of Caterham Valley from St John's School to the Croydon Road roundabout, thereby removing A22 traffic, while businesses set up and thrived in the valley itself.
The North Downs Way in Caterham 
The North Downs Way, a popular National trail with walkers passes very close to the town and includes here a public house along Stanstead Road, readily accessible from Caterham, from either Harestone Valley Road or Tupwood Lane, the Celtic hillfort promontory of the Downs mentioned above The Cardinal's Cap and; Fosterdown or Pilgrims' Fort a London Defensive Fort at the top of part of the ridge forming Godstone Hill, in Caterham Valley.
Local Government 
Surrey County Council, headquartered in Kingston, elected every four years, has two councillors from Caterham. David Hodge, leader of the county council and representative of Warlingham lives in Caterham.
|2009||John Alexander Orrick||Caterham Hill|
|2009||Sally Ann Barbara Marks||Caterham Valley|
|2012||Geoffrey Duck||Queens Park|
|2010||Rod Stead||Queens Park|
Civil Parishes 
Caterham Valley is the smaller in population of the two Civil Parish Councils with two wards and six elected parish councillors. Caterham on the Hill has three wards and nine parish councillors.
Administrative Geography 
Before 1889 Caterham was the most eastern market town of a Surrey that stretched north to Southwark. North eastern parts of the county were absorbed gradually, in part by the County of London in 1889 (to South Norwood and Wimbledon which as a result have London Postcodes) and then to towns and villages within the present boundaries that form Greater London in 1965. From 1885 Oxted and Godstone developed from villages to towns. Tandridge District formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of Caterham and Warlingham urban district along with Godstone Rural District.
Physical Geography 
Caterham on the Hill is located on a considerable area of upland extending north past adjoining Kenley Aerodrome to Kenley and Hartley Hill in Reedham. This elevated area carries on west until Hooley/Old Merstham and forms a very narrow, fairly steep ridge south of Caterham Valley's centre; east of the centre of Caterham Valley are marginally higher rolling pastures of the North Downs on top of a more crevassed smaller mass of upland which forms the village of Woldingham followed by a much larger area of upland stretching from Biggin Hill to Downe and Knockholt, Kent.
The M25 motorway (between junctions 6 and 7) is 80 to 90m below and less than 200m south of the North Downs path and the southern border of Caterham Valley civil parish and is linked by an uninterrupted hilltop dual carriageway to the north of Caterham and its lowest point, Croydon Road roundabout. 
Elevation Soil and Geology 
Elevations range from 230m Above Ordnance Datum in the southwest extreme, "Whitehill Tower, War Coppice Road in Caterham Valley". to 110m Above Ordnance Datum along the railway track, immediately below Croydon Road roundabout, a tripoint partly in Woldingham, Whyteleafe and Caterham.
Caterham lies within the North Downs and Caterham Valley's southern border is immediately south of the North Downs Way, part of a national trail network, which is here on top of the southern edge of the North Downs.
Soil here has the expected shallow, lime-rich soil over chalk or limestone of the escarpment with lower parts of the escarpment summit here, where the topsoil has eroded, having slightly acid, loamy and clayey soils with impeded drainage, which makes that soil particularly fertile.
The gault clay and the middle chalk that lies under the North Downs are both at their thickest around the valley that occupies the centre of Caterham Valley. While earlier cretaceous clays and greensand and sandy material, underlying, is evident where terrain has eroded, 90 million years ago the North Downs hard chalk was deposited, a white limestone comprising over 95% calcium carbonate. It contains thin beds of marl and nodules of flint, either scattered or in bands. The North Downs extending from Farnham to Dover are formed by this chalk. They now have an often white, almost vertical south-facing slope. In lower slopes flints washed up by early seas come more to the surface and appear closer to the surface.
across Kenley Aerodrome:
|across or down the North Downs
Warwick Wold, Bletchingley
|across or down the North Downs
|across or down the North Downs
As of the 2001 census, Caterham has a total population of 20,957 people among 8,413 households; of these 96% describe themselves as white and 75% Christian. 
Church Walk 
Church Walk Shopping Centre is a small shopping mall situated opposite Caterham railway station in Caterham Valley. Church Walk was built on the site of the Valley Hotel, which was demolished in 1988. Long before the Valley Hotel was built (to cater for visitors arriving on the new railway trains) there used to be a tennis court, croquet lawn, rose garden, fountain, and Mr. Woollet's nursery.
Local companies 
Caterham Cars, makers of the Caterham 7 sports car, had a dealership based in Station Avenue although the cars have actually been supplied by a factory in Dartford since the company expanded. The Caterham dealership closed in February 2013 after the premises were sold for development and the showroom relocated to Crawley. When Caterhams were first built, they were built in a small factory behind a petrol station in Townend, on Caterham-on-the-Hill.
Caterham Cars are known as much for racing as they are for road use.
The house building company, Croudace, have their head office in Caterham. Caterham School and several supermarket chains are also large local employers. The local NHS trust, Surrey Oaklands, is also based in the town.
Caterham railway station is the modern terminus of the 1856-built Caterham Line from Purley. Trains operate into London Victoria station and London Bridge station, and on Sundays also to Charing Cross station.
Eight bus routes operate through Caterham, with half being operated by Metrobus. They run buses from Caterham to places such as East Grinstead, Croydon, Redhill and Oxted. Of the remaining four routes, buses are run by: Quality Line to Old Coulsdon; Abellio London to Sutton; Arriva London to Addington Village; and Southdown PSV to East Grinstead.
Caterham has two youth football clubs, Caterham Pumas FC and Queens Park FC. The Old Caterhamians Rugby Football Club, was established in 1928. Caterham Cricket Club previously played in Queen's Park and now share facilities with the rugby club. Caterham Sea Cadets, formed in 1942, also participate in a number of watersports activities.
Queens Park YFC play their home games in the heart of Caterham - at Queens Park and are an FA Chartered Standard Club. They have a number of youth teams and are looking to set up an Under 21 team in the summer of 2012.
Caterham Pumas Football Club play their matches at Joliffe Playing Field. They have youth football teams for children under six to those under eighteen; they also have two adult teams.
Caterham has a mixture of state and private schools. The two most notable private schools in Caterham are Caterham School and Oakhyrst Grange School, both are on the outskirts of the town. The main state secondary school is de Stafford School. A secondary school for boys with special educational needs called Sunnydown school is also in Caterham on the Hill. The Laurels Day Nursery and Preschool is located at Town End. There are also several state and private primary schools in the town.
Culture and community 
A community arts centre and theatre situated in the old Caterham Barracks. The building is made out of the two converted gymnasiums. There is a skatepark called "Skaterham" in Caterham on The Hill. It has indoor and outdoor sections, built on the grounds of the former Guards Chapel.
Based in the town centre the Miller Centre is a theatre and community centre that puts on regular non-professional shows, films and is host to a number of clubs and community groups.
The small East Surrey Museum houses a local history collection.
Caterham has churches representing a variety of Christian denominations. The oldest church remaining in use is the church of St. Lawrence, which was established around 1095. The church has been used by several different denominations, including Quakers and Romanian Orthodox. It was largely replaced from 1866 onwards, following the consecration of the church of St. Mary the Virgin.
As the town in the valley expanded after the railway was built, several churches were founded. Caterham United Reformed Church was built by nonconformists in 1863, followed by the Church of St. John the Evangelist in 1881.
Notable people 
The television presenter Angus Deayton grew up in Caterham, he attended both Oakhyrst Grange and Caterham Schools. Notable sportspeople from Caterham include the footballer Nicky Forster and Dar Lyon, first class cricketer, both of whom were born in the town. Actors Bill Nighy and Jon Finch were born in Caterham; Michael Robbins, another actor, died there.
See also 
- Surrey County Council data
- Samuel Lewis (editor) (1848). "Caston - Catterick". A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- H.E. Malden (editor) (1912). "Parishes: Caterham". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- Large, multivallate hillfort at War Coppice Camp, Caterham Valley Details from listed building database (1008498). National Heritage List for England. English Heritage.
- Stowe manuscript 942, folio 262b
- Conservation Areas in Tandridge District
- Ordnance Survey map, courtesy of English Heritage
- Patent Roll 36 Henry VIII, pt. xxviii, manuscript 30.
- "OpenStreetMap". OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Geoff Hare. "The Guards and Caterham". Caterham Barracks Community Trust. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "23 Persons Injured In Bomb Blast". Observer - Reporter. Associated Press. 28 August 1975. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Caterham Barracks - a brief development summary". Caterham Barracks Community Trust. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "History of Surrey Police - Murder of PC John Schofield". Surrey Police. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Hodge, Mr David". Surrey County Council. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Surrey's County councillors". Surrey County Council. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Your Councillors". Caterham Valley Parish Council. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Your Parish Councillors". Caterham Hill Parish Council. 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Robert Simonson (29 February 2012). "The administrative boundaries of the county of Surrey". Surrey County Council. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Miles between Guildford Surrey and Caterham N7 Surrey". Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Ordnance Survey (2008). Dorking, Box Hill and Reigate: Leatherhead and Caterham (Map). 1 : 25,000. Explorer 146. ISBN 978-0-319-24007-6.
- Grid reference Finder measurement tools
- "Home - North Downs Way - National Trails website". Natural England. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Cranfield University National Soil Resources Institute
- "The geology of the county of Surrey". Surrey Museums. November 2006. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- Natural England - Geodiversity
- 2001 CENSUS TOWN/VILLAGE PROFILE : Caterham. Tandridge District Council. 19 April 2004. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Caterham Cars - Relocation". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Principle Employers in Tandridge. Surrey County Council. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Redhill and East Surrey bus timetables". Surrey County Council. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Caterham Pumas - History". Caterham Pumas. 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Sunnydown". Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Nursery in Town End". Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- Peter Wood (1998). "My memories of Caterham Carnival". Caterham & District Carnival. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Ridge Radio Website". Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "St. Lawrence's Ancient Church". St. Mary's - Caterham team ministry. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "St. Mary's Church". St. Mary's - Caterham team ministry. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "Transcript: Any Questions? 22 May 2006". BBC. 22 May 2006. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- "Church of St John, Caterham Valley". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- Vanessa Thorpe (18 April 2004). "The Observer Profile: Angus Deayton". The Observer. Retrieved 22 September 2012.