Arriva London

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Arriva London
Arriva logo.svg
Au Morandarte Flickr DSC00247 (12559513535).jpg
Parent Arriva
Founded 1998
Headquarters Wood Green
Service area Greater London
Service type Bus operator
Routes 101 (September 2014)
Depots 13
Fleet 1,589 (September 2014)
Website www.arrivalondon.com

Arriva London is a bus company operating services in Greater London. It is a subsidiary of Arriva and operates services under contract to Transport for London. It was formed in 1998 from previously separate Arriva subsidiaries Grey-Green, Leaside Buses, Kentish Bus, London & Country and South London Transport. Operations are split between two registered companies, Arriva London North Limited and Arriva London South Limited.

History[edit]

Arriva London logo on AEC Routemaster RM2217

The origins of Arriva London can be traced back to 1980 when the Cowie Group purchased the Grey-Green coach business in London.[1][2][3] In February 1987, Grey-Green commenced operating bus routes in north and east London under contract to London Regional Transport.[1][4][5][6]

Meanwhile, on 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 11 separate business units, two of which were Leaside Buses and South London Transport.[7][8] As part of the privatisation of London bus services, the Cowie Group purchased these business units in September 1994 and January 1995.[9] Leaside Buses operated six depots in Clapton, Enfield, Palmers Green, Stamford Hill, Tottenham and Wood Green and South London Transport four in Brixton, Norwood, South Croydon and Thornton Heath.

On 1 August 1996, the Cowie Group purchased British Bus, which owned the Kentish Bus and London & Country businesses that also operated London bus services.[10][11] In November 1997, the Cowie Group was rebranded as Arriva.[12] Shortly after, Grey-Green, Kentish Bus, Leaside Buses, London & Country and South London Transport were all brought together under the Arriva London brand.

Arriva London North[edit]

Arriva London North Limited[7] operates nine bus garages.

Palmers Green (AD)[edit]

One of Palmers Green's Alexander Dennis Enviro400s for route 102

As at September 2014, Palmers Green garage operated routes 34, 102, 125 and 329.[13] Route 34 transferred to Metroline on 8 November 2014. Route 125 will transfer to Metroline on 31 January 2015.[14][15]

History[edit]

Opened in July 1912 by the London General Omnibus Company to house their Central London bus fleet operating in competition with the MET trams. Just before World War II the allocation at Palmers Green was entirely AEC Regents, whilst afterwards it was allocated AEC Regent III RT, RTL, RTW and SRTs the only garage to be allocated all four standard double deck types, although none could fit in the garage until the roof could be raised by 10 inches, which was completed in 1952 after a process taking 20 weeks. The garage was further modernised in 1974 by which time 60 buses were allocated. AEC Routemasters arrived in 1969 replacing the RTs, but the RTs lasted there until 1978.

One man operated buses in the form of AEC Regal VIs began arriving and were followed in time by AEC Swifts, Daimler Fleetlines, and MCW Metrobuses. The Routemasters lasted on route 29 until the late 1980s, and in 1994 the allocation was 51, entirely MCW Metrobuses. In latter years the allocation has increased slightly and other than Metrobuses, Volvo B10Ms and Alexander ALX400 bodied DAF DB250LFs have been allocated.

Ash Grove (AE)[edit]

Main article: Ash Grove bus garage

As at September 2014, Ash Grove bus garage operated routes 38, 78, 106, 168 and 254.[13]

History[edit]

One of three new garages opened in 1981 by London Buses at a cost of £3.5 million, it had space for 140 buses undercover and a further 30 in the yard. The roof was unusual in being carried by 10 35-ton triangular trusses, said to be the largest in the UK, supported on reinforced concrete columns. Although technically in Hackney, buses showed "CAMBRIDGE HEATH Ash Grove Garage" on their blinds.

On opening the garage took over Hackney's operation of Red Arrow routes 502 and 513 using brand new Leyland Nationals which had been stored at the garage, and also the entire Hackney and Dalston allocations. Unfortunately Ash Grove found itself in the London Forest operation, and also had a reputation for staff militancy and closed in 1991. The garage was re-opened in 1994 by Kentish Bus to operate their Leyton area route gains, although they referred to it as Cambridge Heath. It was also used over the years to house stored vehicles for the London's Transport Museum, and again in 2000 to store additional AEC Routemasters that had been acquired to supplement shortages in London.

In 2000 it was reopened by the London Buses subsidiary East Thames Buses which took over the former Harris Bus routes after that company ran into financial difficulties. Hackney Community Transport also moved into the garage yard in recent times to house its routes won in the London area although East Thames Buses later moved to new premises in Mandela Way, Southwark and were replaced at the garage by Arriva's new Mercedes-Benz Citaro articulated buses for route 38 following the conversion from Routemasters in November 2005.

On 27 April 2013, Arriva London commenced operating route 106.[16] In addition, from May 2014, route 38 was operated with New Routemasters.[17]

Tottenham (AR)[edit]

As at September 2014, Tottenham garage operated routes 41, 67, 76, 123, 149, 230, 243, 341, N41 and N76.[13]

History[edit]

Tottenham garage was built in 1913 by the MET to run buses to support their tram network. The buses were requisitioned during World War I, and then between 1917-1919 the garage was loaned to AEC. Before World War II in 1939 the allocation consisted of ST, STL and LTs, but during the war it was the first garage to receive utility Guy Arabs, and later in 1949 London's first 8 ft wide buses. When route 236 moved with its RFs to Dalston in 1971 it signalled an absence of single deckers at the garage that would last until 2001 when route W4 was won.

MCW Metrobuses and AEC Routemasters were the staple diet of the depot for many years until the new Alexander ALX400 bodied DAF DB250LFs arrived. The final Routemasters left Tottenham in September 2004 when route 73 was converted to Mercedes-Benz Citaro articulated bus operation and moved to Lea Valley. However Tottenham has retained a single Routemaster for the Arriva London Heritage fleet for use at shows and special events. It is probably the most famous too, being the (numerically) first production Routemaster, RM5.

Clapton (CT)[edit]

As at September 2014, Clapton garage operated routes 38, 242, 393 and N38.[18]

History[edit]

Clapton garage has its origins back as far as 1882 when it was known as Hackney Tram Depot and housed horse trams. In the early 1900s it was taken over by the London County Council to house electric trams which lasted here until 1939 when trolleybuses took over. In the early 1940s some of the surrounding buildings in Bohemia Place were knocked down to provide more space and better access to the garage.[citation needed]

By 1950 the depot had changed its name to Clapton to avoid confusion with the nearby Well Street garage (H) prior to being converted for motorbus operation. Following the conversion the parking area allowed for 90 buses and in 1959 67 RTLs were allocated as part of the trolleybus replacement program. Over the years the garage has seen various types allocated including RT, RM, DMS, M and Ts, but in 1987 with just a few MCW Metrobuses and AEC Routemasters remaining the garage was closed with the remaining work transferred to the newer Ash Grove bus garage.[citation needed]

In 1989 the garage was reprieved to take some pressure off of Walthamstow by housing MRLs for route 236. With the closure of Ash Grove in 1991, work started to build up steadily, and then in 1995 route 253 was allocated from the closed Stamford Hill garage. In 1998 Clapton received the first low-floor double deckers in London in the DLAs purchased by Arriva, and also tried out LPG buses, most notably a DAF with a Plaxton Prestige body. In 2001 the allocation was over 100 buses.[citation needed]

Barking (DX)[edit]

As at September 2014, Barking garage operated routes 128, 135, 150, 173, 325, 647 and 678.[18] Route 135 will pass to Docklands Buses on 23 May 2015.[19]

History[edit]

Barking garage was opened in 1992 by Grey-Green to meet the demands of their expanding North East London operations.[20] Dix Coaches was a subsidiary of Grey-Green operating from a base in the Dagenham area, which moved to the new depot on opening, hence the DX code.

Enfield (E)[edit]

As at September 2014, Enfield garage operated routes 121, 192, 279, 307, 313, 317, 349, 377, 379 and N279.[18] Route 192 transferred to London General on 8 November 2014.[15]

History[edit]

Enfield garage was built in 1927 by the London General Omnibus Company. Further land was soon acquired in the front of the depot for use as a bus stand, which later also got used as a terminus for trolleybuses. The garage was modernised at a cost of over £6 million in the early 1980s, and when it re-opened in 1984 it had space for 106 buses. More recently it has become a central part of Arriva London operations with the accident repair centre and undertaking of major refurbishments.

Edmonton (EC)[edit]

As at September 2014, Edmonton garage operated routes 123, 125, 184, 318, 382, 397, 444, 629 and 657, W6 and W11.[21] Route 444 will transfer to Tower Transit on 7 March 2015, while route 657 will pass to Go-Ahead London on 9 March 2015.[14][15]

History[edit]

Opened in 1993 by London Suburban Bus to operate routes 4 and 271, and later 41. The company was taken over in 1995 by MTL London Northern, with routes 4 and 271 transferred to Holloway, and route 41 transferred to Cowie Leaside with the garage was closed in 1996.[citation needed]

The garage was reopened by London Country North East#County Bus & Coach in 1997, and in 1998 this operation was merged with the Leaside Travel unit. In 2005 the garage was adapted for Mercedes-Benz Citaro articulated buses on route 149.[22]

On 1 March 2014, Edmonton reopened.[23]

Stamford Hill (SF)[edit]

As at September 2014, Stamford Hill garage operated routes 67, 73, 253, N73 and N253.[24]

History[edit]

Opened as an Electric Car shed in 1907 by London County Council and was converted to trolleybus operation in 1939. It became a bus garage in 1961 and between 1965 and 1966 it took part in comparative trials between the XA, XF and RML types with the XAs remaining at the garage.[citation needed]

The garage closed in 1995, only to be reopened in 1996 for use by Leaside Travel. It was also used by Grey-Green during the Cowie ownership but, was closed again in 2000 during Arriva ownership, only to reopen again in July 2002.[citation needed]

Wood Green (WN)[edit]

As at September 2014, Wood Green garage operated routes 29, 141, 144, 221, 329, 617, N29 and W3.[25]

History[edit]

Transformed in the early 1900s from a horse tram depot to a modern tram depot with a capacity of 67. It was completely re-modelled in the late 1930s to allow for trolleybus operations and a capacity of 108. The garage was further adapted again in 1960 for buses. AEC Routemasters arrived to replace trolleybuses in April 1961, and with the closure of West Green in 1962 more work arrive.

Arriva London South[edit]

Arriva London South Limited[8] operate four bus garages.

Brixton (BN)[edit]

As at September 2014, Brixton garage operated routes 50, 59, 109, 137, 159, 319 and N109.[26] Routes 109 and N109 will transfer to Abellio London on 8 January 2015.[15][27]

History[edit]

Originally built as a depot for cable trams which ran up Brixton Hill in 1892, it was re-built between 1904-06 for use by electric trams. In 1993 it was extended onto a site formerly owned by the water board and containing a large water main, and then in 1949 reconstruction started to bury the main and convert the depot into one large building instead of two smaller ones. The last trams ran from the depot in 1951, by which time AEC Regent III RTs had started to arrive with the last remaining until 1976.

In 1971 Brixton became one of the first to receive Daimler Fleetlines and then in 1984 MCW Metrobuses. The garage also received the first production Wright Cadet bodied DAF single deckers in 2001. Brixton was also the last depot to operate AEC Routemasters in regular service in London on route 159 until December 2005. Now the garage has only double-decker buses, all the other single-decker buses have been transferred to other garages.

Norwood (N)[edit]

As at September 2014, Norwood garage operated routes 2, 59, 133, 176, 415, 417, 432, 690, N2, N133 and N137.[28] Route 415 will transfer to Abellio London on 7 March 2015, while route 432 will pass to London General on 4 April 2015.[15][29]

History[edit]

Norwood garage was opened in 1909 by the London General Omnibus Company. The garage has had a steady allocation over the years and in 1951 took over some of the vehicles for the Festival of Britain services from the nearby Norwood Tram Depot. In 1981 the garage underwent complete reconstruction, with the buses and staff being transferred temporarily to the reopened Clapham Garage until 1984.

The allocation has mainly been Leyland Olympians and AEC Routemasters until recently when Alexander ALX400 bodied DAF DB250s were allocated in its completely double-deck allocation which included the Northern Counties Palatine bodied Volvo Olympians which came with the operation of the former Londonlinks routes 176/route 188.

The garage previously supplied some buses and drivers for route 19 following the conversion from Routemaster operation in 2005, but this ceased with the closure of Battersea, with the whole of the route transferring to Brixton.

Croydon (TC)[edit]

As at September 2014, Croydon garage operated routes 60, 166, 194, 197, 264, 312, 403, 412, 466, 612, 627, 685 and T31.[25]

History[edit]

Built by the London General Omnibus Company in 1915, the garage was handed over to Thomas Tilling on opening as part of an agreement between the two operators. The garage had to have roof reconstruction in the early 1930s to allow roofed double deckers to use the garage and was totally destroyed in 1941 after an air raid which also killed four staff and destroyed 56 buses. The reconstruction was finally completed in the mid-1950s. AEC Regent III RTs mainly monopolised the garage until the arrival of AEC Routemasters in 1964.

In 1969 experimental XAs and later FRM1 were tested on route 233. When the XAs departed in 1973 they were replaced by Daimler Fleetlines which lasted until January 1993. LSs started to arrive in the late 1970s and MCW Metrobus in 1985 until they were replaced by Leyland Titans. When Elmers End closed a reshuffle took place with the Routemasters departing and the garage became fully one man operated, and later in 1994 the garage became fully double deck with the departure of the last Leyland Nationals.

Thornton Heath (TH)[edit]

As at September 2014, Thornton Heath garage operated routes 198, 250, 255, 289, 410 and 450.[25]

History[edit]

Originally opened as the garage for the first horse tramway in Croydon in 1879 it was later rebuilt as an electric tram depot in 1901. Initially it could house 26 trams, but was extended the following year to take 43 cars. Thornton Heath was earmarked for closure as a tram depot for reconstruction at the tram replacement program of 1950–52, but actually shut before the last tram finished with the work and staff moving to Purley.

Buses were starting to operate from the new garage before reconstruction was complete in 1951 with 54 AEC Regent III RTs, just half of its capacity. AEC Routemasters arrived in the early 1960s bringing it up to 84 buses. The RTs lasted until 1976, outlasting the RMs which were replaced by Daimler Fleetlines in 1971, although they did return between 1976–1978 and 1982–1987 when the garage became entirely one man operated.

By 1994 the garage was worked almost entirely by Leyland Olympians and MCW Metrobuses with a few Dennis Dart and MCW Metroriders. There was also a period where the then South London Transport regularly transferred vehicles about, and whilst Thornton Heath retained its Olympians throughout, they were joined not only by Metrobuses, but also Leyland Titans. Thornton Heath also briefly flirted with SR-class StarRiders, as well as sharing vehicle evaluation duties with Bromley for the DA/SA classes of vehicle, operating SA1 From October 1989 to February 1990 before swapping it for DA1, which stayed here for a further 6 months before being moved to Westlink.

Former Garages[edit]

Battersea (BA)[edit]

History[edit]

The original Battersea garage was opened in 1906 by the London Roadcar Company on the north side of Hester Road, but by 1914 more space was needed and an annex was built on the south side. Two modernisation schemes were undertaken, first in the 1960s to allow for AEC Routemasters to be allocated and again in 1971 when a new canteen and recreation room was built.

The garage closed in 1985 with its allocation being split between Victoria and Wandsworth garages. Battersea was however given a reprieve some time later when it was used to house the London Buses coaches and sightseeing operations until 1988, when the entire operation moved to Wandsworth garage. In 1993, a yard adjacent to the old garage was opened as a base for Kentish Bus route 19 operation after it had moved out of its Covent Garden Market base.

Most of the area formally occupied on both the North and South sides of Hester Road has now been built into a luxury flats complex. The only section remaining is the small shed which was originally an outstation from Brixton garage housing the route 19 Routemasters. When the Routemasters left in July 2005 the garage received an allocation of Alexander ALX400 bodied Volvo B7TLs for route 19, although some of these need to be parked at (and use drivers from) Norwood garage because there was not enough space for these larger buses.

In November 2009, Battersea garage was closed and the site redeveloped.

Beddington Farm (CN)[edit]

History[edit]

A modern purpose built depot that was largely open air. Opened in 1990 by London Country Bus Services, it ran 73 vehicles, although had space for 120. Beddington Farm was to replace the existing garages at Godstone and Chelsham and operated both LB tendered routes and existing London Country Croydon area routes. Beddington Farm became a Londonlinks depot when the Non-London work moved away before coming under Arriva South. It was transferred to Arriva London in 1999 with six routes and buses painted red, green or blue. In 2007 route 450 was transferred to Beddington Garage from Thornton Heath in a swap with route 289.

On 3 March 2012, route 455 passed to Abellio London.[30][31]

In July 2011 Arriva confirmed Beddington Farm would close by 31 March 2012.[32]

Lee Valley (LV)[edit]

History[edit]

Mercedes-Benz Citaro as operated by Arriva London from 2003 until 2011 on routes 29, 38, 73 and 149

The depot is at the back of an industrial estate alongside the River Lea close to Northumberland Park. The depot was opened in 2005 to house the Mercedes-Benz Citaro articulated buses for route 149 which were later joined by more with the conversion of route 73.

On 15 October 2011, route W3 was transferred to this garage.

On 28 January 2012, route 318 was transferred to this garage. On 25 February 2012, route 397 was transferred to this garage. On 3 March 2012, Arriva London commenced operating route W11.[33] On 10 March 2012, route 379 was transferred to this garage. On 24 March 2012, routes 34, 444 and 657 were transferred to this garage.

On 3 September 2012, routes 628, 653, 683 and 688 passed to Sullivan Buses.[34][35][36]

On 1 March 2014, Lee Valley garage was announced closed with the site required by National Grid with operations transferred to a reopened Edmonton.[23]

Fleet[edit]

As at September 2014, the fleet consisted of 1,589 buses.[37]

The Heritage Fleet[edit]

The Heritage Fleet logo.png
AEC Routemaster RML901 at the 2007 Cobham bus rally, showing the Heritage fleet advertising

The Heritage Fleet was set up in 2006 by Arriva. It uses AEC Routemasters for private hire work, and was formed after Routemasters in London were withdrawn from normal service in December 2005.

History[edit]

Arriva London inherited four Routemaster operator services when it purchased Leaside Buses and South London Transport: routes 19, 38, 73 and 159. Routes 19 and 159 were replaced by one man double deckers and 38 and 73 by Mercedes-Benz Citaro articulated buses. Route 159 was the last London route to be converted on 9 December 2005, bringing 50 years of Routemaster operation to a close.

Following this, Arriva London collected some of the more significant Routemasters in their fleet, and set up the Heritage Fleet in early 2006.

Current operations[edit]

The Heritage Fleet currently offer their vehicles for private hire, such as events celebration and weddings. The buses can also be hired to attend other public events, and often the buses appear at bus events, such as Showbus and the London Bus Preservation Trust Cobham bus rally.

Fleet[edit]

The Heritage Fleet is made up of nine AEC Routemasters. As Arriva were the biggest operator of Routemasters before they were withdrawn from normal services, they operated some of the most significant Routemasters. These include;

  • RM5: This is the lowest numbered production Routemaster, although RM8 was actually built first.[38]
  • RM6: In 2002, this Routemaster was painted in a gold livery to celebrate the Queen's Golden Jubilee, the livery which it now carries.[39]
  • RML901: This was part of the first batch of 24 RMLs (Routemaster Lengthened) to enter service.[40]
  • RM1124: This was retained as it contains a Cummins Euro II engine, meaning it already meets emission standards to be set for London.[41]
  • RMC1453: This was the first production Green Line Routemaster Coach.[42]
  • RMC1464: This is an open top bus, so is popular for private hires.[43]
  • RM2217: The last production standard length Routemaster built. This bus operated the final regular Routemaster service in December 2005.[44]
  • RML2355: This is still in the condition as when it left service, but is awaiting restoration. It is unusual in retaining its original body and chassis after the Routemaster overhaul scheme.[45]
  • RML2360: This is being looked after for the London Transport Museum. It has been converted inside for exhibition use.[46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Arriva London Story Arriva London
  2. ^ History and growth Arriva
  3. ^ Leasing industry's Sir Tom Cowie dies Fleet News 2 February 2012
  4. ^ LRT allocates 10 bus routes Commercial Motor 25 October 1986 page 22
  5. ^ In Brief Commercial Motor 17 November 1988 page 16
  6. ^ London Country North East loses three routes Commercial Motor 25 February 1988 page 15
  7. ^ a b Companies House extract company no 2328559 Arriva London North Limited formerly Leaside Bus Company Limited
  8. ^ a b Companies House extract company no 2328467 Arriva London South Limited formerly South London Transport Limited
  9. ^ The Arriva London Story Arriva London 2012
  10. ^ Cowie buys British Bus for £282m Herald Scotland 1 August 1996
  11. ^ Cowie Group plc and British Bus Group Limited: A report on the merger situation Competition Commission 31 October 1996
  12. ^ Bamber Forsyth unites Cowie Design Week 23 October 1997
  13. ^ a b c Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  14. ^ a b Tender News Bus Talk (Go-Ahead London) issue 29 August 2014
  15. ^ a b c d e Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  16. ^ Bus tender results Route 106 Transport for London 19 July 2012
  17. ^ http://beta.tfl.gov.uk/modes/buses/new-routemasterfor
  18. ^ a b c Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  19. ^ "Another tendered route loss for Arriva London" Buses issue 716 November 2014 page 10
  20. ^ Grey Green plans Commercial Motor 8 August 1991 page 16
  21. ^ Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  22. ^ Opening of state-of-the-art garage at Edmonton Transport for London 23 May 2006
  23. ^ a b "Arriva London" Buses issue 703 page 66
  24. ^ Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  25. ^ a b c Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  26. ^ Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide. Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  27. ^ Tender News Bus Talk (Go-Ahead London) issue 28 June 2014
  28. ^ Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  29. ^ "Two south London routes to change hands" Buses issue 715 October 2014 page 18
  30. ^ Bus tender results Route 455 Transport for London 18 May 2006
  31. ^ Bus tender results Route 455 Transport for London 5 May 2011
  32. ^ Jobs axe fear as bus firm to close garage Surrey Mirror 22 July 2011
  33. ^ Bus tender results Route W11 Transport for London 21 July 2011
  34. ^ 21 July 2012 - All change Sullivan Buses
  35. ^ Bus tender results Route 628/688 Transport for London 12 October 2011
  36. ^ Bus tender results Route 653/683 Transport for London 19 July 2012
  37. ^ Carr, Ken (September 2014). The London Bus Guide (4 ed.). Boreham: Visions International Entertainment. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-9570058-6-0. 
  38. ^ "RM 5". The Heritage Fleet. 1959-06-06. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  39. ^ "RM 6". The Heritage Fleet. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  40. ^ "RML 901". The Heritage Fleet. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  41. ^ "RM 1124". The Heritage Fleet. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  42. ^ "RMC 1453". The Heritage Fleet. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  43. ^ "RMC 1464". The Heritage Fleet. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  44. ^ "RM 2217". The Heritage Fleet. 2005-12-08. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  45. ^ "RML 2355". The Heritage Fleet. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  46. ^ "RML 2360". The Heritage Fleet. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 

External links[edit]