Clint Eastwood at the 2012 Republican National Convention

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Man in coat and tie stands at a podium, looking towards a chair.
Clint Eastwood on stage with the now-iconic chair.
Date August 30, 2012 (2012-08-30)
Location Tampa Bay Times Forum, Tampa, Florida
Also known as 2012 Republican National Convention, final night
Participants Clint Eastwood
This article is part of a series on Clint Eastwood

On Thursday, August 30, 2012, American actor and director Clint Eastwood gave a speech at the Republican National Convention. Eastwood had endorsed Mitt Romney for the 2012 United States presidential election earlier that month. Eastwood spent much of his speech time on a largely improvised routine addressing an empty chair representing President Barack Obama. The speech, broadcast in a prime time slot, was viewed live by about 30 million Americans. It met with a wide array of responses and stirred discussion.

Background[edit]

Eastwood had a political background, as the non-partisan mayor of Carmel-by-the-Sea, California,[1] and serving on various state commissions on parks and the film industry.[2][3] He had (more quietly and casually) endorsed Republican candidate John McCain during the 2008 United States presidential election.[4] On August 3, 2012, Eastwood had formally endorsed former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney for the 2012 presidential election, speaking at a fundraiser for the candidate.[5][6]

The three broadcast networks each devoted one hour of coverage to the convention per night, during the prime 10:00 to 11:00 p.m. time slot.[1][7] In response to criticism that conventions are over-scripted, organizers did not disclose the identity of the first speaker who had been given the high profile speaking slot.[8] On August 30, CNN reported that Eastwood was the "mystery guest".[9]

Speech[edit]

Eastwood made an unannounced appearance at the convention, speaking at the top of the final hour. The speech was scheduled to last five minutes.[1][10] Eastwood spent much of his speech time on a largely improvised routine addressing an empty chair representing President Barack Obama. The speech lasted about 12 minutes, and was characterized by multiple news sources as "rambling".[1][10][11][12][13] In at least two instances, Eastwood implied the President had uttered profanities directed both at Romney and himself, saying "What do you want me to tell Romney? I can't tell him to do that, he can't do that to himself."[14][15]

Following his conversation with the empty chair, Eastwood turned his focus to the delegates and the audience at home, stating in part "But I'd just like to say something (...) that I think is very important. It is that, you, we, we own this country. (...) it's not politicians owning it; politicians are employees of ours (...) And whether you're Democrat or whether you're a Republican or whether you're Libertarian or whatever, you're the best. And we should not ever forget that. And when somebody does not do the job, we got to let 'em go." The speech ends with a reference to "Go ahead, make my day", spoken by Eastwood character "Dirty Harry" Callahan from the 1983 film Sudden Impact.[16]

Eastwood's speech was viewed live by 30.3 million Americans, across at least 11 television networks which were broadcasting coverage of the convention. (Those numbers do not count those watching on C-SPAN, whose audience is not measured.)[17]

Responses[edit]

External video
Eastwood speaking at the 2012 Republican National Convention. Retrieved September 1, 2012. (Transcript)

Eastwood's remarks were well-received within the convention hall, but responses were mixed outside the hall.[10][18][19][20]

Film critic Roger Ebert commented, "Clint, my hero, is coming across as sad and pathetic. He didn't need to do this to himself. It's unworthy of him",[21] and later elaborated that while he continues to revere Eastwood as an artist, he opined that Eastwood was "handed the wrong sheet music".[22] Breitbart.com editor-at-large John Nolte was more positive in his review, stating that the performance was "funnier, fresher, edgier, and braver than anything those comedy cowards Chris Rock, Jon Stewart or Stephen Colbert have done in 15 years."[23] Bill Maher, a comedian and talk show host who has been highly critical of Republicans and conservatives in general, praised Eastwood's performance and his decision to go off-script during a heavily scripted affair: "As a performer, as a stand-up comedian for 30 years who knows how hard it is to get laughs... he went up there... without a net, on a tightrope. There was no teleprompter. He did a bit with just an empty chair and killed."[24] Mark Steyn spoke particularly favorably of Eastwood's closing statement, referring to it as "some of the hardest lines of the convention."[25] Jon Stewart commented on the August 31 episode of The Daily Show that Eastwood's performance could be understood as a metaphor for the existence of "a President Obama that only Republicans can see", who bears "so little resemblance to the world and the President that I experience".[26]

Republican Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker described the speech as "that one moment, which I cringed about",[27][28] former Romney adviser Mike Murphy tweeted: "Note to file: Actors need a script,"[29] while Ann Romney commented to CBS This Morning that Eastwood is "a unique guy and he did a unique thing last night. We appreciated Clint's support. I didn't know it was coming."[30] The New York Times quoted unnamed Romney aides describing the Eastwood speech as "strange" and "weird".[1] One Romney aide described it as "theater of the absurd."[1] According to the Times, the Eastwood appearance was cleared by senior campaign leaders Russell Schriefer and Stuart Stevens, who drew up a rough set of talking points for Eastwood.[1] Staffers reported that unlike other speakers at the convention, there were no rehearsals for Eastwood's speech, nor did they require Eastwood to be on script.[1]

Staffers also reported that Eastwood's use of the chair was a last-minute decision by the actor himself.[1] Eastwood confirmed this in a September 4 interview with The Carmel Pine Cone: "There was a stool there, and some fella kept asking me if I wanted to sit down. When I saw the stool sitting there, it gave me the idea." Eastwood further elaborated that he purposely avoided preparing for the speech to make it appear unpolished and more appealing to the average citizen.[31]

During his speech, Eastwood said, "See, I never thought it was a good idea for attorneys to be president anyway," apparently referencing President Obama. Amy Argetsinger of the Washington Post and Joe Palazzolo of The Wall Street Journal both noted that Romney has a Juris Doctor;[32][33] as Palazzolo wrote, Romney "is a trained lawyer and a businessman. He earned both his J.D. and his MBA at Harvard University, in a dual-degree program."[33] Romney passed the Michigan bar exam, but has never practiced as an attorney, instead pursuing a career in management consulting.[34][35]

The incident led to the "Eastwooding" Internet meme spreading via Twitter whereby people would pose next to empty chairs, sometimes pointing at the chairs.[36][37][38][39] The episode was also lampooned in The Onion.[40] The model of chair, designed in 1992 by the Italian architect/designer Sergio Mian, was profiled as well.[41] Inspired by the Eastwood speech, a Texas man hanged an empty chair in effigy.[42]

The speech follows a long-standing American tradition of empty chair debating, dating back to at least 1924, as pioneered by Vice-Presidential nominee Burton K. Wheeler.[43] The style of the conversation was noticeably similar to the humorous one-sided conversations popularized by Bob Newhart in the 1960s; Newhart himself joked in a tweet: "I heard that Clint Eastwood was channeling me at the RNC. My lawyers and I are drafting our lawsuit."[44] Bloggers have suggested that Eastwood was attempting a form of Gestalt therapy either for himself or for the Republican Party generally.[45]

In a September 7, 2012, interview with his hometown newspaper, The Carmel Pine Cone, following his speech at the Republican Nation Convention, Eastwood said that "President Obama is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people," and "Romney and Ryan would do a much better job running the country, and that's what everybody needs to know. I may have irritated a lot of the lefties, but I was aiming for people in the middle."[46]

Following Obama's poor performance in the first general presidential debate of the 2012 cycle, Eastwood's empty chair symbol was revived. The New Yorker featured a caricature of Romney debating Eastwood's chair (drawn by Barry Blitt) for its October 15, 2012, edition.[47]

On November 7, 2012, the day after President Barack Obama won reelection, Daniel Day-Lewis brought a chair onstage at the 2012 BAFTA Britannia Awards and congratulated it. Day-Lewis added: "I love Clint Eastwood, this is no satirical comment on him or his politics...When I saw him talking to a chair in front of a roomful of strangers, I thought: "I've got to try that."[48]

Several months later, following the election, Eastwood revealed to CNBC anchor Becky Quick that his infamous "empty chair" skit had been inspired by a Neil Diamond song ("I Am... I Said") that had come over the radio in his Tampa hotel room and that included a lyric about an empty chair not hearing the singer's laments.[21]

The now-iconic chair itself was transported from Florida to the offices of Reince Priebus, the Chairman of the Republican National Committee.[49] While the chair is among many pieces of political memorabilia in Priebus' office, it is the first item he points out to reporters.[50]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barbaro, Michael; Shear, Michael D. (August 31, 2012). "Before Talk With a Chair, Clearance From the Top". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2012. "For all the finger-pointing about Clint Eastwood’s rambling conversation with an empty chair on Thursday night, the most bizarre, head-scratching 12 minutes in recent political convention history were set in motion by Mitt Romney himself and made possible by his aides, who had shrouded the actor’s appearance in secrecy." 
  2. ^ "'Terminator' fires Clint Eastwood, Shriver". USA Today. Associated Press. March 20, 2008. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Schwarzenegger to boost Hollywood". BBC News Online. April 16, 2004. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  4. ^ Aguilar, Lou (July 18, 2008). "Real Men Vote for McCain". National Review. Archived from the original on December 11, 2010. 
  5. ^ Peoples, Steve. "Presidential election: Clint Eastwood endorses Mitt Romney's bid". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Daunt, Tina (August 3, 2012). "Clint Eastwood Endorses Mitt Romney at Idaho Fundraiser". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  7. ^ Hinckley, David (August 30, 2012). "Paul Ryan’s RNC speech draws 17 million fewer viewers than previous GOP VP candidate Sarah Palin in 2008". New York Daily News. 
  8. ^ Molloy, Tim; Anderson, Kasia (August 29, 2012). "Clint Eastwood may be RNC mystery speaker". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  9. ^ Walsh, Deidre (August 30, 2012). "Solved: Eastwood is RNC 'mystery guest'". CNN. Retrieved September 1, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c Argetsinger, Amy; Rucker, Philip (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood shoots from the hip at GOP convention — and gets some blowback". Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2012. "His rambling style triggered snark about his health and his age." 
  11. ^ Cassata, Donna (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood brings awkward unscripted RNC performance (+video)". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 31, 2012. "Standing on the convention stage with an empty chair, Eastwood carried on a sometimes rambling conversation with an imaginary President Barack Obama." 
  12. ^ Rainey, James (August 31, 2012). "Ann Romney, others distancing campaign from Clint Eastwood's ramble". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 31, 2012. "Asked on ABC’s “Good Morning America” about Eastwood’s rambling, unscripted speech, the wife of the Republican presidential nominee allowed that she was “grateful for his support,” but quickly heaped much more effusive praise on Olympic athletes and fellow Mormons "that knew Mitt so well" who also spoke on behalf of her husband Thursday night." 
  13. ^ Murray, Sara (August 31, 2012). "Could Be Contenders; The Good, the Bad and the Chair". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 31, 2012. "Thursday night, the 82-year-old Mr. Eastwood treated convention delegates, and millions watching at home, to a rambling discussion with an empty chair meant to signify President Barack Obama." 
  14. ^ McNamara, Mary (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood and his imaginary non-friend at the convention". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 31, 2012. "What? What do you want me to tell Romney? I can't tell him to do that," he said at one point. "He can't do that to himself." 
  15. ^ Johnson, Luke (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood Speech: Movie Star Talks To An Empty Chair (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  16. ^ "Transcript: Clint Eastwood's Convention Remarks". NPR. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-09-13. 
  17. ^ de Moraes, Lisa (September 5, 2012). "What was the second most-watched TV program last week? Clint Eastwood & the Chair on Fox News Channel.". Washington Post. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  18. ^ Lavender, Paige (August 31, 2012). "Scott Walker: Clint Eastwood Speech Was One GOP Convention Moment 'I Cringed About'". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  19. ^ Zakarin, Jordan (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood's RNC Speech: 5 New Developments". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  20. ^ Rainey, James (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood didn't exactly make Team Romney's day". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  21. ^ a b McDevitt, Caitlin (August 30, 2012). "Roger Ebert: Eastwood speech was 'sad'". Politico. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  22. ^ Ebert, Roger (2013-08-21). "The man with his name". Roger Ebert's Journal. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  23. ^ Nolte, John (August 31, 2012). Media Strikes Back After Dirty Harry Dares To Mock Obama. Breitbart.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  24. ^ McDevitt, Caitlin (September 1, 2012). Bill Maher: Eastwood killed it. Politico. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
  25. ^ Steyn, Mark (September 1, 2012). Play Clinty for Me. National Review. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
  26. ^ Stewart, Jon (August 31, 2012). "August 31, 2012". The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. Comedy Central. http://www.thedailyshow.com/full-episodes/fri-august-31-2012-. See also: Berman, Craig (September 1, 2012). "Late-night talk shows can't get enough of mocking Clint Eastwood's empty chair". NBC News. Retrieved September 8, 2012. 
  27. ^ Sands, Geneva (August 31, 2012). "Gov. Walker: 'I cringed' at Clint Eastwood's speech". The Hill. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  28. ^ Paskin, Willa (August 30, 2012). "Clint Eastwood steals the RNC". Salon.com. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  29. ^ Lang, Derrick J. (August 31, 2012). "Trouble with the chair: Clint Eastwood mocked for GOP convention speech". National Post. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Ann Romney: Eastwood did "a unique thing"". CBS This Morning. August 31, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  31. ^ Mak, Tim (September 7, 2012). Eastwood explains the 'empty chair'. Politico. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
  32. ^ Argetsinger, Amy (August 30, 2012). "Clint Eastwood goes unscripted with punchy speech at Republican convention (video)". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  33. ^ a b Palazzolo, Joe (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood: Lawyers as President? Not a ‘Good Idea’". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 2, 2012. 
  34. ^ Hruby, Patrick (August 26, 2012). "To get a grasp on Mitt Romney, start with the lesson of the muffin". The Washington Times. Retrieved September 2, 2012. 
  35. ^ Kranish, Michael; Helman, Scott (2012). The Real Romney. New York: HarperCollins. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-06-212327-5. 
  36. ^ Reisinger, Don (August 31, 2012). "'Eastwooding' meme sweeps across Twitter". CNET. Retrieved September 1, 2012. 
  37. ^ Ngak, Chenda (August 31, 2012). "Eastwood's speech sparks Twitter trend, "Eastwooding" photo meme.". CBS News. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  38. ^ Ortiz, Erik (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood inspires 'Eastwooding': Social media users upload empty chair pics online". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  39. ^ Tsukayama, Hayley (August 31, 2012). "#Eastwooding is the Twitter meme of the day". Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  40. ^ "'You Did Great!' Terrified Personal Assistant Tells Clint Eastwood". The Onion. August 31, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  41. ^ Architectural Record Addressing Eastwood’s Infamous Chair
  42. ^ Gupta, Prachi (September 20, 2012). "Obama chair lynchings in Texas and Virginia". Salon. 
  43. ^ Schultz, Colin (August 31, 2012). "The Long History of Americans Debating Empty Chairs". Smithsonian.com. Retrieved September 3, 2012. 
  44. ^ Lang, Derrik J. (August 31, 2012). "Clint Eastwood mocked for convention chair bit". The Detroit News. 
  45. ^ Buck I, Pope (September 1, 2012). "Clint Eastwood: Gestalt Therapist". Daily Kos. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  46. ^ Miller, Paul. "Eastwood says his convention appearance was ‘mission accomplished’." (PDF). The Carmel Pine Cone. Retrieved September 7, 2012. 
  47. ^ Mouly, Francoise; Kaneko, Mina (October 5, 2012). Cover story: the first presidential debate. The New Yorker. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
  48. ^ "Daniel Day Lewis' "Eastwooding" BAFTA Acceptance Speech For Lincoln: ENTV". YouTube. 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  49. ^ Levy, Glen (January 25, 2013). "Where Did Clint Eastwood’s Empty Chair End Up?". Time. 
  50. ^ Preston, Mark; Jaconi, Michelle (January 23, 2013). "CNN's Gut Check for January 23, 2013". CNN.