|Unripe berries of Coffea canephora|
Pierre ex A.Froehner
Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora; syn. Coffea robusta) is a variety of coffee, which has its origins in central and western sub-Saharan Africa. It is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family. Though widely known as Coffea robusta, the plant is scientifically identified as Coffea canephora, which has two main varieties - Robusta and Nganda.
The plant has a shallow root system and grows as a robust tree or shrub to about 10 metres. It flowers irregularly, taking about 10–11 months for cherries to ripen, producing oval-shaped beans. The robusta plant has a greater crop yield than that of C. arabica, and contains more caffeine - 2.7% compared to arabica's 1.5%. As it is less susceptible to pests and disease, robusta needs much less herbicide and pesticide than arabica.
Native distribution 
Originating in upland forests in Ethiopia, C. canephora grows indigenously in Western and Central Africa. It was not recognized as a species of Coffea until the 19th century, about a hundred years after Coffea arabica.
Cultivation and use 
Approximately 20% of the coffee produced in the world is robusta. It is mostly grown in Vietnam, where French colonists introduced it in the late 19th century, though it is also grown in Africa and Brazil, where it is often called conilon. In recent years, Vietnam, which produces mostly robusta, has surpassed Brazil, India, and Indonesia to become the world's single largest exporter of robusta coffee. Brazil is still the biggest producer of coffee in the world, producing one-third of the world's coffee, though 80% of that is C. arabica.
Robusta is easier to care for and has a greater crop yield than the other major species of coffee, C. arabica, so is cheaper to produce. Roasted robusta beans produce a strong, full-bodied coffee with a distinctive earthy flavour, but usually with more bitterness than arabica due to its pyrazine content. Since arabica beans are believed to have smoother taste with less acidity and a richer flavour, they are often considered superior, while the harsher robusta beans are mostly used as a filler in lower-grade coffee blends. However, the powerful flavour can be desirable in a blend to give it perceived "strength" and "finish", noticeably in Italian coffee culture. Good-quality robusta beans are used in traditional Italian espresso blends, to provide a full-bodied taste and a better foam head (known as crema).
- J. Dagoon (2005). Agriculture & Fishery Technology Iv. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 58. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Mark Nesbitt (2005). The Cultural History of Plants. Taylor & Francis. p. 177. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Benoit Daviron; Stefano Ponte (2005). The Coffee Paradox: Global Markets, Commodity Trade and the Elusive Promise of Development. Zed Books. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-84277-457-1.
- Mark Nesbitt (2005). The Cultural History of Plants. Taylor & Francis. p. 176. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Coffee Plant: Arabica and Robusta - CoffeeResearch.org". coffeeresearch.org. 2007 [last update]. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- A. Rami Horowitz (2004). Insect pest management: field and protected crops. Springer. p. 41. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- Roseane M Santos (2009). An Unashamed Defense of Coffee. Xlibris Corporation. p. 269. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
- "EXPORTS BY EXPORTING COUNTRIES TO ALL DESTINATIONS: July 2011". International Coffee Organization. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- Miyanari, Walter (2008). Aloha Coffee Island. Savant Books & Publications. p. 7. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Andrew J. Taylor, Robert Linforth (2010). Food Flavour Technology. John Wiley and Sons. p. 68. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Wintgens, Jean Nicolas (2009). Lxbz7TG5wwAC&pg=PA799#v=onepage&q&f=false Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production: A Guidebook for Growers. Wiley-VCH. p. 799. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Miyanari, Walter (2008). Aloha Coffee Island. Savant Books & Publications. p. 6. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- The West Indies year book 1938. Thomas Skinner & Co. 1938. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- Reynolds, Richard (February 1, 2006). "Robusta's Rehab". CoffeeGeek. Coffee Geek. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- Robertson, Carol (2010). "The Little Book of Coffee Law". American Bar Association. p. 52. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Robusta coffee|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Robusta coffee|
- Comparison Chart of Robusta to Arabica
- Robusta Coffee in Vietnam
- Jan 2008 ICO break down of all Coffee exports
- Jan 2008 ICO break down of Green Coffee exports
- World Checklist of Rubiaceae