Color psychology

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The "rose of temperaments" (Temperamenten-Rose) compiled by Goethe and Schiller in 1798/9. The diagram matches twelve colours to human occupations or their character traits, grouped in the four temperaments:
choleric (red/orange/yellow): tyrants, heroes, adventurers;
sanguine (yellow/green/cyan) hedonists, lovers, poets;
phlegmatic (cyan/blue/violet): public speakers, historians, teachers;
melancholic (violet/magenta/red): philosophers, pedants, rulers.

Color psychology is the study of color as a determinant of human behavior. Examples include quantification of individual color preferences[1] and investigating the relationship between shirt color and match outcome in English football.[2] However, the interface between color and environmental stimuli is a highly complex interface and one which is open to the influence of a large number of factors. In addition, there are a number of key reasons why the principle of caveat emptor should prevail in regard to color psychology, especially in regard to information about colour psychology found in mainstream media and popular culture.[3]

Influence of colour on perception[edit]

Perceptions not obviously related to colour, such as the palatability of food, may in fact be partially determined by colour. Not only the colour of the food itself but also that of everything in the eater's field of vision can affect this. (Alcaide, J. et al., 2012). Josef Albers' role in the understanding of colour perception was through his research of how colours interact with each other. He also studied the optical illusions of colour and how different hues looked the same. This was during his tenure at Yale University.[4]

Placebo effect[edit]

The color of placebo pills is reported to be a factor in their effectiveness, with "hot-colored" pills working better as stimulants and "cool-colored" pills working better as depressants. This relationship is believed to be a consequence of the patient's expectations and not a direct effect of the color itself.[5] Consequently, these effects appear to be culture-dependent.[6]

Blue public lighting[edit]

In 2000, Glasgow installed blue street lighting in certain neighborhoods and subsequently reported the anecdotal finding of reduced crime in these areas. This report was picked up by several news outlets.[7][8] A railroad company in Japan installed blue lighting on its stations in October 2009 in an effort to reduce the number of suicide attempts,[9] although the effect of this technique has been questioned.[10]

Color preference and associations between color and mood[edit]

Color has long been used to create feelings of coziness or spaciousness. However, how people are affected by different color stimuli varies from person to person.

Blue is the top choice for 35% of Americans, followed by green (16%), purple (10%) and red (9%).[11]

A preference for blue and green may be due to a preference for certain habitats that were beneficial in the ancestral environment as explained in the evolutionary aesthetics article.[12]

There is evidence that color preference may depend on ambient temperature. People who are cold prefer warm colors like red and yellow while people who are hot prefer cool colors like blue and green.[1]

Some research has concluded that women and men respectively prefer "warm" and "cool" colors.[1]

A few studies have shown that cultural background has a strong influence on color preference. These studies have shown that people from the same region regardless of race will have the same color preferences. Also, one region may have different preferences than another region (i.e., a different country or a different area of the same country), regardless of race.[1]

Children's preferences for colors they find to be pleasant and comforting can be changed and can vary, while adult color preference is usually non-malleable.[1]

Some studies find that color can affect mood. However, these studies do not agree on precisely which moods are brought out by which colors.[1]

A study by psychologist Andrew J. Elliot tested to see if the color of a person's clothing could make them appear more sexually appealing. He found that to men, women dressed in the color red were significantly more likely to attract romantic attention than women in any other color. However, for women, the color of one's shirt made no difference in their level of attractiveness. [13]

Despite cross-cultural differences regarding what different colors meant there were cross-cultural similarities regarding what emotional states people associated with different colors in one study. For example, the color red was perceived as strong and active.[14]

Light, color, and surroundings[edit]

Light and color can influence how people perceive the area around them. Different light sources affect how the colors of walls and other objects are seen. Specific hues of colors seen under natural sunlight may vary when seen under the light from an incandescent (tungsten) light-bulb: lighter colors may appear to be more orange or "brownish" and darker colors may appear even darker.[15] Light and the color of an object can affect how one perceives its positioning. If light or shadow, or the color of the object, masks an object's true contour (outline of a figure) it can appear to be shaped differently from reality.[15] Objects under a uniform light-source will promote better impression of three-dimensional shape.[15] The color of an object may affect whether or not it seems to be in motion. In particular, the trajectories of objects under a light source whose intensity varies with space are more difficult to determine than identical objects under a uniform light source. This could possibly be interpreted as interference between motion and color perception, both of which are more difficult under variable lighting.[15]

Carl Jung is most prominently associated with the pioneering stages of color psychology. Jung was most interested in colors’ properties and meanings, as well as in art’s potential as a tool for psychotherapy. His studies in and writings on color symbolism cover a broad range of topics, from mandalas to the works of Picasso to the near-universal sovereignty of the color gold, the lattermost of which, according to Charles A. Riley II, “expresses ... the apex of spirituality, and intuition”.[16] In pursuing his studies of color usage and effects across cultures and time periods, as well as in examining his patients’ self-created mandalas, Jung attempted to unlock and develop a language, or code, the ciphers of which would be colors. He looked to alchemy to further his understanding of the secret language of color, finding the key to his research in alchemical transmutation. His work has historically informed the modern field of color psychology.

General model[edit]

The general model of color psychology relies on six basic principles:

  1. Color can carry specific meaning.
  2. Color meaning is either based in learned meaning or biologically innate meaning.
  3. The perception of a color causes evaluation automatically by the person perceiving.
  4. The evaluation process forces color motivated behavior.
  5. Color usually exerts its influence automatically.
  6. Color meaning and effect has to do with context as well.[1]

Uses in marketing[edit]

Since color is an important factor in the visual appearance of products as well as in brand recognition, color psychology has become important to marketing.[17]

Marketers must be aware of the application of color in different media (e.g. print vs. web), as well as the varying meanings and emotions that a particular audience can assign to color. Even though there are attempts to classify consumer response to different colors, everyone perceives color differently. The physiological and emotional effect of color in each person is influenced by several factors such as past experiences, culture, religion, natural environment, gender, race, and nationality. When making color decisions, it is important to determine the target audience in order to convey the right message. Color decisions can influence both direct messages and secondary brand values and attributes in any communication. Color should be carefully selected to align with the key message and emotions being conveyed in a piece.[18]

Research on the effects of color on product preference and marketing shows that product color could affect consumer preference and hence purchasing culture. Most results show that it is not a specific color that attracts all audiences, but that certain colors are deemed appropriate for certain products.[19]

Brand meaning[edit]

The Color Wheel

Color is a very influential source of information when people are making a purchasing decision.[20] Customers generally make an initial judgment on a product within 90 seconds of interaction with that product and about 62%-90% of that judgment is based on color.[20] People often see the logo of a brand or company as a representation of that company. Without prior experience to a logo, we begin to associate a brand with certain characteristics based on the primary logo color.[21]

Color mapping provides a means of identifying potential logo colors for new brands and ensuring brand differentiation within a visually cluttered marketplace (O'Connor, 2011).[22]

A study on logo color asked participants to rate how appropriate the logo color was for fictional companies based on the products each company produced. Participants were presented with fictional products in eight different colors and had to rate the appropriateness of the color for each product. This study showed a pattern of logo color appropriateness based on product function. If the product was considered functional, fulfills a need or solves a problem, then a functional color was seen as most appropriate. If the product was seen as sensory-social, conveys attitudes, status, or social approval, then a sensory-social colors were seen as more appropriate.[21] Companies should decide what types of products to produce and then choose a logo color that is connotative with their products’ functions.

Company Logos can portray meaning just through the use of color.[23] Color affects people's perceptions of a new or unknown company. Some companies such as Victoria's Secret and H&R Block used color to change their corporate image and create a new brand personality for a specific target audience.[23] Research done on the relationship between logo color and five personality traits had participants rate a computer made logo in different colors on scales relating to the dimensions of brand personality. Relationships were found between color and sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness. A follow up study tested the effects of perceived brand personality and purchasing intentions.[23] Participants were presented with a product and a summary of the preferred brand personality and had to rate the likelihood of purchasing a product based on packaging color. Purchasing intent was greater if the perceived personality matched the marketed product or service. In turn color affects perceived brand personality and brand personality affects purchasing intent.[23]

Another study consisted of 156 Students from an introductory marketing course. The end result concluded that those who were exposed to high value colors (those colors with a “whitish pigment”) in advertisements experienced more feelings of relaxation than those who were not. Therefore, high value colors cause consumers or viewers to like the brand more.[24]

Although color can be useful in marketing, its value and extent of use depends on how it is used and the audience it is used on.[25] The use of color will have different effects on different people, therefore experimental findings cannot be taken as universally true.

Specific color meaning[edit]

Different colors are perceived to mean different things. For example, tones of red lead to feelings of excitement while blue tones are often associated with feelings of relaxation. Both of these emotions are pleasant, so therefore, the colors themselves procure positive feelings in advertisements. The chart below gives perceived meanings of different colors in the United States.[citation needed]

Functional (F): fulfills a need or solves a problem[21]

Sensory-Social (S):conveys attitudes, status, or social approval[21]

Red Yellow Green Blue Pink Violet/Purple Brown Black White
Lust (S)[26] Jealousy (S)[26] Good Taste (F)[26] Masculine (S)[26] Sophistication (S)[23] Authority (S)[26] Ruggedness (S)[23] Grief (S)[26] Happiness (S)[26]
Negative Issues (F)[27] Competence (S)[23] Envy (S)[26] Competence (S)[23] Sincerity (S)[23] Sophistication (S)[23] Sophistication (S)[23] Sincerity (S)[23]
Excitement (S)[23] Happiness (S)[26] High quality (F)[26] Power (S)[26] Expensive (F)[26] Purity (S)[26]
Love (S)[26] Corporate (F)[26] Fear (S)[26]

Combining colors[edit]

Target Logo

Although some companies use a single color to represent their brand such as Target Corporation, many other companies use a combination of colors in their logo, such as McDonald's, and can be perceived in different ways than those colors independently. When asked to rate color pair preference of preselected pairs, people generally prefer color pairs with similar hues when the two colors are both in the foreground, however, greater contrast between the figure and the background is preferred.[28]

In contrast to a strong preference for similar color combinations, some people like to accent with a highly contrasting color.[29] A study on preference for color in Nike, Inc. sneakers, people generally combined colors near each other on the color wheel, such as blue and dark blue. However, fewer others preferred to have the Nike swoosh accentuated in a different, contrasting color. Most of the people also used a relatively small number of colors when designing their ideal athletic shoe. This finding has relevance for companies that produce multicolored merchandise. To appeal to consumer preferences, companies should consider minimizing the number of colors visible and use similar hues in a single product.[30]

Color name[edit]

Although different colors can be perceived in different ways, the name of those colors matters as well.[30][31] Many products and companies focus on producing a wide range of product colors to attract the largest population of consumers. For example cosmetics brands produce a rainbow for eye shadow and nail polish colors for every type of person. Even companies such as Apple Inc. and Dell make iPods and laptops with color personalization to attract buyers. But, color name, not only the actual color, can actually attract or repel buyers as well. When asked to rate either color swatches or products with generic color names, such as brown, or fancy color names, such as mocha, participants rated items with fancy names as significantly more likable than items with generic names.[30] In fact the same paint color swatch with two different names produced different rating levels. The same effect was found when participants rated the pleasantness of towels with fancy and generic names.[30] This shows a greater favorability for fancy names compared to generic names for exactly the same colors.

Fancy names are not only liked more, but cause the product to be liked more, hence increasing purchasing intent.[32] Jelly beans with atypical color names, such as razzmatazz, were more likely to be chosen than jelly beans with typical names such as lemon yellow. This could be due to greater interest in the atypical names and willingness to figure out why that name was given. Purchasing intent of custom sweatshirts from an online provider also showed preference for atypical names. Participants were asked to imagine buying sweatshirts and were provided with a variety of color options, some typical, some atypical. Colors that were atypical were selected more than colors that were typical, showing a preference to purchase items with atypical color names.[32] Those who chose atypical colors were also more content with their choice than those who chose typical color sweatshirts.

Attracting attention[edit]

Color is used as a means to attract consumer attention to a product that then influences buying behavior.[33] Consumers use color to identify for known brands or search for new alternatives. Variety seekers look for non-typical colors when selecting new brands. And attractive color packaging receives more consumer attention than unattractive color packaging, which can then influence buying behavior. A study that looked at visual color cues focused on predicted purchasing behavior for known and unknown brands.[33] Participants were shown the same product in four different colors and brands. The results showed that people picked packages based on colors that attracted their voluntary and involuntary attention. Associations made with that color such as ‘green fits menthol', also affected their decision. Based on these findings implications can be made on the best color choices for packages. New companies or new products could consider using dissimilar colors to attract attention to the brand, however, off brand companies could consider using similar colors to the leading brand to emphasize product similarity. If a company is changing the look of a product, but keeping the product the same, they consider keeping the same color scheme since people use color to identify and search for brands.[33] This can be seen in Crayola crayons, where the logo has changed many times since 1934, but the basic package colors, gold and green, have been kept throughout.

Attention is captured subconsciously before people can consciously attend to something.[34] Research looking at electroencephalography (EEGs) while people made decisions on color preference found brain activation when a favorite color is present before the participants consciously focused on it. When looking a various colors on a screen people focus on their favorite color, or the color stands out more, before they purposefully turn their attention to it. This implies that products can capture someone's attention based on color, before the person willingly looks at the product.[34]

Store and display color[edit]

Warm colored window display

Color is not only used in products to attract attention, but also in window displays and stores.[35] When people are exposed to different colored walls and images of window displays and store interiors they tend to be drawn to some colors and not to others. Findings showed that people were physically drawn to warm colored displays; however, they rated cool colored displays as more favorable. This implies that warm colored store displays are more appropriate for spontaneous and unplanned purchases, whereas cool colored displays and store entrances may be a better fit for purchases where a lot of planning and customer deliberation occurs. This is especially relevant in shopping malls were patrons could easily walk into a store that attracts their attention without previous planning.[35]

Other research has confirmed that store color, and not just the product, influences buying behavior.[31] When people are exposed to different store color scenarios and then surveyed on intended buying behavior store color, among various other factors, seems important for purchasing intentions. Particularly blue, a cool color, was rated as more favorable and produced higher purchasing intentions than orange, a warm color. However, all negative effects to orange were neutralized when orange store color was paired with soft lighting. This shows that store color and lighting actually interact.[31]

Lighting color could have a strong effect on perceived experience in stores and other situation. For example time seems to pass more slowly under red lights and time seems to pass quickly under blue light.[20] Casinos take full advantage of this phenomenon by using color to get people to spend more time and hence more money in their casino.[20]

Individual differences[edit]

Pink girls section of toy store

Gender[edit]

Children's toys are often categorized as either boys or girls toys solely based on color. In a study on color effects on perception, adult participants were shown blurred images of children’s toys where the only decipherable feature visible was the toy's color.[36] In general participants categorized the toys into girl and boy toys based on the visible color of the image. This can be seen in companies interested in marketing masculine toys, such as building sets, to girls. For example, Lego uses pink to specifically advertise some sets to girls rather than boys. The classification of 'girl' and 'boy' toys on the Disney Store website also uses color associations for each gender.[37] An analysis of the colors used showed that bold colored toys, such as red and black, were generally classified as 'boy only' toys and pastel colored toys, such as pink and purple, were classified as 'girl only' toys. Toys that were classified as both boy and girl toys took on 'boy only' toy colors. This again emphasizes the distinction in color use for children's toys.[37]

Gender differences in color associations can also be seen amongst adults.[38] Differences were noted for male and female participants, where the two genders did not agree on which color pairs they enjoyed the most when presented with a variety of colors.[36][39] Men and women also did not agree on which colors should be classified as masculine and feminine. This could imply that men and women generally prefer different colors when purchasing items. Men and women also misperceive what colors the opposite gender views as fitting for them.

Age[edit]

Children’s toys for younger age groups are often marketed based on color, however, as the age group increases color becomes less gender-stereotyped.[36] In general many toys become gender neutral and hence adopt gender-neutral colors. In the United States it is common to associate baby girls with pink and baby boys with blue. This difference in young children is a learned difference rather than an inborn one.[40] Research has looked at young children's, ages 7 months to 5 years, preference for small objects in different colors. The results showed that by the age of 2 – 2.5 years socially constructed gendered colors affects children’s color preference, where girls prefer pink and boys avoid pink, but show no preference for other colors.[40]

Slightly older children who have developed a sense of favorite color often tend to pick items that are in that color.[41] However, when their favorite color is not available for a desired item children choose colors that they think matches the product best. Children's preferences for chocolate bar wrappers showed that although one third of the children picked a wrapper of their favorite color, the remaining two thirds picked a wrapper they perceived as fitting the product best. For example most children thought that a white wrapper was most fitting for white chocolate and a black wrapper for most fitting for a dark chocolate bar and therefor chose those options for those two bars. This application can be seen in The Hershey Company chocolate bars where the company strategically has light wrappers for white chocolate and brown wrappers for milk chocolate, making the product easily identifiable and understandable.

Culture[edit]

Many cultural differences exist on perceived color personality, meaning, and preference. When deciding on brand and product logos, companies should take into account their target consumer, since cultural differences exist. A study looked at color preference in British and Chinese participants.[38] Each participant was presented with a total of 20 color swatches one at a time and had to rate the color on 10 different emotions. Results showed that British participants and Chinese participants differed on the like-dislike scale the most. Chinese participants tended to like colors that they self rated as clean, fresh, and modern, whereas British participants showed no such pattern. When evaluating purchasing intent, color preference affects buying behavior, where liked colors are more likely to be bought than disliked colors.[33] This implies that companies should consider choosing their target consumer first and then make product colors based on the targets color preferences.

Color and sports performance[edit]

In particular the color red has been found to influence sports performance. During the 2004 Summer Olympics the competitors in boxing, taekwondo, freestyle wrestling, and Greco-Roman wrestling were randomly given blue or red uniforms. A later study found that those wearing red won 55% of all the bouts which was a statistically significant increase over the expected 50%. The colors affected bouts where the competitors were closely matched in ability, where those wearing red won 60% of the bouts, but not bouts between more unevenly matched competitors. In England, since WWII, teams wearing red uniforms have averaged higher league positions and have had more league winners than teams using other colors. In cities with more than one team, the teams wearing red outperformed the teams wearing other colors. A study of the UEFA Euro 2004 found similar results. Another study found that those taking penalty kicks performed worst when the goalkeeper had a red uniform. More anecdotal is the historical dominance of the domestic honors by red-wearing teams such AFC Ajax, FC Bayern Munich, Liverpool F.C., and Manchester United F.C.. Videos of taekwondo bouts were manipulated in one study so that the red and blue colors of the protective gears were reversed. Both the original and the manipulated videos were shown to referees. The competitors wearing red were given higher scores despite the videos otherwise being identical. A study on experienced players of first-person shooters found that those assigned to wear red instead of blue won 55% of the matches.[14]

There are several different explanations for this effect. Red is used in stop signs and traffic lights which may associate the color with halting. Red is also perceived as a strong and active color which may influence both the person wearing it and others. An evolutionary psychology explanation is that red may signal health as opposed to anemic paleness, or indicate anger due to flushing instead of paleness due to fear. It has been argued that detecting flushing may have influenced the development of primate trichromate vision. Primate studies have found that some species evaluate rivals and possible mates depending on red color characteristics. Facial redness is associated with testosterone levels in humans, and male skin tends to be redder than female skin.[14]

Criticism[edit]

Inherent difficulties in properly controlling trials of color's effect on human beings mean that a subject's expectations and cultural bias cannot be ruled out. Moreover, much evidence is anecdotal (e.g. the blue street lighting case) or based on data that includes confounders (e.g. the shirt-color correlation).[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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