Comparison of relational database management systems

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The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of relational database management systems. Please see the individual products' articles for further information. Unless otherwise specified in footnotes, comparisons are based on the stable versions without any add-ons, extensions or external programs.

General information[edit]

Maintainer First public release date Latest stable version Latest release date Software license
4D (4th Dimension) 4D S.A.S.[1] 1984 v14.2 2014-07-10 Proprietary
ADABAS Software AG 1970 8.1 2013-06 Proprietary
Adaptive Server Enterprise Sybase 1987 15.7 Proprietary
Advantage Database Server (ADS) Sybase 1992 11.1 2012 Proprietary
Altibase Altibase Corp. 2000 6.1.3 2014-04-18 Proprietary
Apache Derby Apache 2004 10.10.2.0[2] 2014-04-15 Apache License
Clustrix Clustrix 2010 v5.2 2013-10-16 Proprietary
CUBRID NHN Corporation[3] 2008-11 9.2.0 2013-10-24 GPL v2 or later
Datacom CA, Inc. Early 70s[4] 14[5] 2012[6] Proprietary
DB2 IBM 1983 10.5 2013-04-23 Proprietary
Drizzle Brian Aker 2008 7.1.36 2012-05-23 GPL v2 and v3, with some BSD components
Empress Embedded Database Empress Software Inc[7] 1979 10.20 2010-03 Proprietary
EXASolution EXASOL AG 2004[8] 4.2.8 2014-04-22 Proprietary
Firebird Firebird project[9] 2000-07-25 2.5.2 2013-03-24 IPL[10] and IDPL[11]
HSQLDB HSQL Development Group 2001 2.3.1[12] 2013-10-08 BSD
H2 H2 Software 2005 1.3.171 2013-03-17 EPL and modified MPL
Informix Dynamic Server IBM 1981????1980 12.10.xC3 2014-03-14 Proprietary
Ingres Ingres Corp. 1974 Ingres Database 10 2010-10-12 GPL and Proprietary
InterBase Embarcadero 1984 InterBase XE 2010-09-21 Proprietary
Linter SQL RDBMS RELEX Group 1990 6.x 2013-08-26 Proprietary
LucidDB The Eigenbase Project[13] 2007-01 0.9.3 GPL v2
MariaDB MariaDB Community 2010-02-01 10.0.13[14] 2014-08-11 GPL v2 and LGPL for client-libraries
MaxDB SAP AG 2003-05 7.6 2008-01 Proprietary
Microsoft Access (JET) Microsoft 1992 15 (2013) 2012-10-02 Proprietary
Microsoft Visual Foxpro Microsoft 1984[15] 9 (2005) 2007-10-11[15] Proprietary
Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft 1989 2014 (12) 2014-3-18 Proprietary
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) Microsoft 2000 2011 (v4.0) Proprietary
MonetDB The MonetDB Developer Team 2004 11.17.13 2014-03 MonetDB License v1.1 (based on the MPL 1.1)[16]
mSQL Hughes Technologies 1994 3.9[17] 2011-02 Proprietary
MySQL Oracle Corporation 1995-11 5.6.20 2014-07-31 GPL v2 or Proprietary
MemSQL MemSQL 2012-06 1.8 (2012) 2012-12 Proprietary
Nexusdb Nexus Database Systems Pty Ltd[18] 2003-09 3.04 2010-05-08 Proprietary
HP NonStop SQL Hewlett-Packard 1987 SQL/MX 2.3 Proprietary
Omnis Studio TigerLogic Inc[19] 1982-07 4.3.1 Release 1no 2008-05 Proprietary
OpenBase SQL OpenBase International[20] 1991 11.0.0 Proprietary
OpenEdge Progress Software Corporation 1984 11.0 Proprietary
OpenLink Virtuoso OpenLink Software[21] 1998 7.x 2013-08-05 GPL v2 or Proprietary
Oracle Oracle Corporation 1979-11 12c Release 1 2013-06-25 Proprietary
Oracle Rdb Oracle Corporation 1984 7.3.1.1.1 2014-02-24[22] Proprietary
Paradox Corel Corporation[23] 1985 11 2003 Proprietary
Pervasive PSQL Pervasive Software 1982 v11 SP3 2013 Proprietary
Polyhedra DBMS ENEA AB 1993 8.7[24] 2013-03 Proprietary
PostgreSQL PostgreSQL Global Development Group[25] 1989-06 9.3.4[26] 2014-03-20 PostgreSQL Licence (a liberal Open Source license)[27]
R:Base R:BASE Technologies[28] 1982 9.5 Proprietary
RDM Raima Inc.[29] 1984 11.0 2012-06-29 Proprietary
RDM Server Raima Inc.[30] 1993 8.4 2012-10-31 Proprietary
SAP HANA SAP AG [31] 2010 1.0 Proprietary
ScimoreDB Scimore[32] 2005 3.0 2008-03-03 Proprietary
SmallSQL SmallSQL 2005-04-16 0.20 2008-12 LGPL
SQL Anywhere Sybase 1992 12.0 2010-07-09 Proprietary
SQLBase Unify Corp.[33] 1982 11.5 2008-11 Proprietary
SQLite D. Richard Hipp 2000-08-17 3.8.0.2 2013-09-03 [34] Public domain
Superbase Superbase 1984 Scientific (2004) Proprietary
Teradata Teradata 1984 14.10 Proprietary
UniData Rocket Software 1988 7.2.12 2011-10 Proprietary

Operating system support[edit]

The operating systems that the RDBMSes can run on.

Windows OS X Linux BSD UNIX AmigaOS Symbian z/OS iOS Android
4th Dimension Yes Yes No No No No No No No No
ADABAS Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes No No
Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes
Advantage Database Server Yes No Yes No No No No No No No
Altibase Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No
Apache Derby Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes ? No
Clustrix No No Yes No Yes No No No No No
CUBRID Yes Partial Yes No No No No No No No
Drizzle No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
DB2 Yes Yes (Express C) Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No
Empress Embedded Database Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes
EXASolution No No Yes No No No No No No No
Firebird Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Maybe No No
HSQLDB Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes ? ?
H2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes ? Yes
FileMaker Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No
Informix Dynamic Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Ingres Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Partial No No
InterBase Yes Yes Yes No Yes (Solaris) No No No No No
Linter SQL RDBMS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Under Linux on System z ? Yes
LucidDB Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No
MariaDB Yes Yes[35] Yes Yes Yes No No No ? ?
MaxDB Yes No Yes No Yes No No Maybe No No
Microsoft Access (JET) Yes No No No No No No No No No
Microsoft Visual Foxpro Yes No No No No No No No No No
Microsoft SQL Server Yes No No No No No No No No No
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) Yes No No No No No No No No No
MonetDB Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
MySQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes[36]
Omnis Studio Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No
OpenBase SQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
OpenEdge Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No
Oracle Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No No
Oracle Rdb No No No No No No No No No No
Pervasive PSQL Yes Yes (OEM only) Yes No No No No No No No
Polyhedra Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No
PostgreSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Under Linux on System z[37] No Yes
R:Base Yes No No No No No No No No No
RDM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
RDM Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
ScimoreDB Yes No No No No No No No No No
SmallSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No
SQL Anywhere Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No Yes
SQLBase Yes No Yes No No No No No No No
SQLite Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe Yes Yes
Superbase Yes No No No No Yes No No No No
Teradata Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No
UniData Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No
UniVerse Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No

Fundamental features[edit]

Information about what fundamental RDBMS features are implemented natively.

ACID Referential integrity Transactions Fine-grained locking Unicode Interface
4th Dimension Yes Yes Yes ? Yes GUI & SQL
ADABAS Yes No Yes ? Yes proprietary direct call & SQL (via 3rd party)
Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
Advantage Database Server Yes Yes Yes ? Yes4 API & SQL
Altibase Yes Yes Yes Yes (Row-level locking) Yes API & GUI & SQL
Apache Derby Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
Clustrix Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
CUBRID Yes Yes Yes ? Yes GUI & SQL
Drizzle Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
DB2 Yes Yes Yes Yes (Row-level locking)[38] Yes GUI & SQL
Empress Embedded Database Yes Yes Yes ? Yes API & SQL
EXASolution Yes Yes Yes ? Yes API & GUI & SQL
Firebird Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
HSQLDB Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
H2 Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
Informix Dynamic Server Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL and JSON
Ingres Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL & QUEL
InterBase Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
Linter SQL RDBMS Yes Yes Yes ? Yes GUI & SQL
LucidDB Yes No No ? Yes SQL
MariaDB Yes2 Partial3 Yes2 except for DDL[39] Yes (Row-level locking) Yes SQL
MaxDB Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
Microsoft Access (JET) Yes Yes Yes ? Yes GUI & SQL
Microsoft Visual FoxPro No Yes Yes ? No GUI & SQL
Microsoft SQL Server Yes Yes Yes Yes (Row-level locking)[40] Yes GUI & SQL
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) Yes Yes Yes ? Yes GUI & SQL
MonetDB Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
MySQL Yes2 Partial3 Yes2 except for DDL[39] Yes (Row-level locking)[41] Yes GUI 5 & SQL
OpenBase SQL Yes Yes Yes ? Yes GUI & SQL
Oracle Yes Yes Yes except for DDL[39] Yes (Row-level locking)[42] Yes API & GUI & SQL
Oracle Rdb Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Yes Yes ? Yes API & GUI & SQL
Pervasive PSQL Yes Yes Yes ? Yes6 API & GUI & SQL
Polyhedra DBMS Yes Yes Yes ? Yes API & SQL
PostgreSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes (Row-level locking)[43] Yes API & GUI & SQL
RDM Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL & API
RDM Server Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL & API
ScimoreDB Yes Yes Yes ? Partial SQL
SQL Anywhere Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
SQLBase Yes Yes Yes ? Yes API & GUI & SQL
SQLite Yes Yes Yes No (Database-level locking)[44] Optional[45] API & SQL
Teradata Yes Yes Yes ? Yes SQL
UniData Yes No Yes ? Yes Multiple
UniVerse Yes No Yes ? Yes Multiple
ACID Referential integrity Transactions Fine-grained locking Unicode Interface

Note (1): Currently only supports read uncommited transaction isolation. Version 1.9 adds serializable isolation and version 2.0 will be fully ACID compliant.

Note (2): MySQL provides ACID compliance through the default InnoDB storage engine.[46][47]

Note (3): "For other [than InnoDB] storage engines, MySQL Server parses and ignores the FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES syntax in CREATE TABLE statements. The CHECK clause is parsed but ignored by all storage engines."[48]

Note (4): Support for Unicode is new in version 10.0.

Note (5): MySQL provides GUI interface through MySQL Workbench.

Note (6): Pervasive PSQL provides UTF-8 storage.

Limits[edit]

Information about data size limits.

Max DB size Max table size Max row size Max columns per row Max Blob/Clob size Max CHAR size Max NUMBER size Min DATE value Max DATE value Max column name size
4th Dimension Limited  ?  ? 65,135 200 GB (2 GiB Unicode) 200 GB (2 GiB Unicode) 64 bits  ?  ?  ?
Advantage Database Server Unlimited 16 EiB 65,530 B 65,135 / (10+ AvgFieldNameLength) 4 GiB  ? 64 bits  ?  ? 128
Apache Derby Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited 1,012 (5,000 in views) 2,147,483,647 chars 254 (VARCHAR: 32,672) 64 bits 0001-01-01 9999-12-31 128
Clustrix Unlimited Unlimited 64 MB on Appliance, 4 MB on AWS  ? 64 MB 64 MB 64 MB 0001-01-01 9999-12-31 254
CUBRID 2 EB 2 EB Unlimited 6400 Unlimited 1 GB 64 bits 0001-01-01 9999-12-31 254
Drizzle Unlimited 64 TB 8 KB 1,000 4 GB (longtext, longblob) 64 KB (text) 64 bits 0001 9999 64
DB2 Unlimited 2 ZB 32,677 B 1,012 2 GB 32 KiB) 64 bits 0001-01-01 9999-12-31 128
Empress Embedded Database Unlimited 263-1 bytes 2 GB 32,767 2 GB 2 GB 64 bits 0000-01-01 9999-12-31 32
EXASolution Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited 10,000 N/A 2 MB 128 bits 0001-01-01 9999-12-31 256
FileMaker 8 TB 8 TB 8 TB 256,000,000 4 GB 10^9 characters 10^9 numbers w/ range 10^-400 to 10^400 0001-01-01 4000-12-31 100
Firebird Unlimited1 ~32 TB 65,536 B Depends on data types used 2 GB 32,767 B 64 bits 100 32768 31
HSQLDB 64 TB Unlimited8 Unlimited8 Unlimited8 64 TB7 Unlimited8 Unlimited8 0001-01-01 9999-12-31 128
H2 64 TB Unlimited8 Unlimited8 Unlimited8 64 TB7 Unlimited8 64 bits -99999999 99999999 Unlimited8
Max DB size Max table size Max row size Max columns per row Max Blob/Clob size Max CHAR size Max NUMBER size Min DATE value Max DATE value Max column name size
Informix Dynamic Server ~128 PB ~128 PB 32,765 bytes (exclusive of large objects) 32,765 4 TB 32,765 1032 01/01/000110 12/31/9999 128 bytes
Ingres Unlimited Unlimited 256 KB 1,024 2 GB 32 000 B 64 bits 0001 9999 256
InterBase Unlimited1 ~32 TB 65,536 B Depends on data types used 2 GB 32,767 B 64 bits 100 32768 31
Linter SQL RDBMS Unlimited 230 rows 64 KB (w/o BLOBs), 4 GB (BLOB) 250 4 GB 4 KB 64 bits 0001-01-01 9999-12-31 66
MariaDB 10 Unlimited MyISAM storage limits: 256 TB; Innodb storage limits: 64 TB; Aria storage limits: ??? 64 KB3 4,0964 4 GB (longtext, longblob) 64 KB (text) 64 bits 1000 9999 64
Microsoft Access (JET) 2 GB 2 GB 16 MB 255 64 KB (memo field), 1 GB ("OLE Object" field) 255 B (text field) 32 bits 0100 9999 64
Microsoft Visual Foxpro Unlimited 2 GB 65,500 B 255 2 GB 16 MB 32 bits 0001 9999 10
Microsoft SQL Server 524,272 TB (32 767 files * 16 TB max file size) 524,272 TB 8,060 bytes (Unlimited)6 30,000 2 GB 2 GB6 126 bits2 0001 9999 128
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) 4 GB 4 GB 8,060 bytes 1024 2 GB 4000 154 bits 0001 9999 128
MonetDB Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited 64 bits 0 9999-12-31  ?
MySQL 5 Unlimited MyISAM storage limits: 256 TB; Innodb storage limits: 64 TB 64 KB3 4,0964 4 GB (longtext, longblob) 64 KB (text) 64 bits 1000 9999 64
OpenLink Virtuoso 32 TB per instance (Unlimited via elastic cluster) DB size (or 32 TB) 4 KB 200 2 GB 2 GB 231 0 9999 100
Oracle Unlimited (4 GB * block size per tablespace) 4 GB * block size (with BIGFILE tablespace) 8 KB 1,000 128 TB 32,767 B11 126 bits −4712 9999 30
Max DB size Max table size Max row size Max columns per row Max Blob/Clob size Max CHAR size Max NUMBER size Min DATE value Max DATE value Max column name size
Pervasive PSQL 4 billion objects 256 GB 2 GB 1,536 2 GB 8,000 bytes 64 bits 01-01-0001 12-31-9999 128 bytes
Polyhedra Limited by available RAM, address space 232 rows Unlimited 65,536 4 GB (subject to RAM) 4 GB (subject to RAM) 32 bits 0001-01-01 8000-12-31 255
PostgreSQL Unlimited 32 TB 1.6 TB 250–1600 depending on type 1 GB (text, bytea)[49] - stored inline or 4 TB (stored in pg_largeobject)[50] 1 GB Unlimited −4,713 5,874,897 63
RDM Embedded Unlimited 248-1 rows 32 KB 1,000 4 GB char: 256, varchar: 4 KB 64 bits 0001-01-01 11758978-12-31 31
RDM Server Unlimited 264-1 rows 32 KB 32,768 Unlimited 32 KB 64 bits 0001-01-01 11758978-12-31 32
ScimoreDB Unlimited 16 EB 8,050 B 255 16 TB 8,000 B 64 bits  ?  ?  ?
SQL Anywhere 104 TB (13 files, each file up to 8 TB (32 KB pages)) Limited by file size Limited by file size 45,000 2 GB 2 GB 64 bits 0001-01-01 9999-12-31  ?
SQLite 128 TB (231 pages * 64 KB max page size) Limited by file size Limited by file size 32,767 2 GB 2 GB 64 bits No DATE type9 No DATE type9 Unlimited
Teradata Unlimited Unlimited 64 KB wo/lobs (64 GB w/lobs) 2,048 2 GB 10,000 64 bits  ? 9999-12-31 Select 80991231 (date); 30
UniVerse Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Max DB size Max table size Max row size Max columns per row Max Blob/Clob size Max CHAR size Max NUMBER size Min DATE value Max DATE value Max column name size

Note (1): Firebird 2.x maximum database size is effectively unlimited with the largest known database size >980 GB.[51] Firebird 1.5.x maximum database size: 32 TB.

Note (2): Limit is 1038 using DECIMAL datatype.[52]

Note (3): InnoDB is limited to 8,000 bytes (excluding VARBINARY, VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT columns).[53]

Note (4): InnoDB is limited to 1,000 columns.[53]

Note (6): Using VARCHAR (MAX) in SQL 2005 and later.[54]

Note (7): When using a page size of 32 KB, and when BLOB/CLOB data is stored in the database file.

Note (8): Java array size limit of 2,147,483,648 (231) objects per array applies. This limit applies to number of characters in names, rows per table, columns per table, and characters per CHAR/VARCHAR.

Note (9): Despite the lack of a date datatype, SQLite does include date and time functions,[55] which work for timestamps between 0000-01-01 00:00:00 and 5352-11-01 10:52:47.

Note (10): Informix DATETIME type has adjustable range from YEAR only through 1/10000th second. DATETIME date range is 0001-01-01 00:00:00.00000 through 9999-12-31 23:59:59.99999.

Note (11): Since version 12c. Earlier versions support up to 4000 B.

Tables and views[edit]

Information about what tables and views (other than basic ones) are supported natively.

Temporary table Materialized view
4th Dimension Yes No
ADABAS ? ?
Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes1 Yes - see precomputed result sets
Advantage Database Server Yes No (only common views)
Altibase Yes No (only common views)
Apache Derby Yes No
Clustrix Yes No
CUBRID No No
Drizzle Yes No4
DB2 Yes Yes
Empress Embedded Database Yes Yes
EXASolution Yes No
Firebird Yes No (only common views)
HSQLDB Yes No
H2 Yes No
Informix Dynamic Server Yes No2
Ingres Yes No
InterBase Yes No
Linter SQL RDBMS Yes Yes
LucidDB No No
MariaDB Yes No4
MaxDB Yes No
Microsoft Access (JET) No No
Microsoft Visual Foxpro Yes Yes
Microsoft SQL Server Yes Yes
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) Yes No
MonetDB Yes No
MySQL Yes No4
OpenBase SQL Yes Yes
Oracle Yes Yes
Oracle Rdb Yes Yes
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Yes
Pervasive PSQL Yes No
Polyhedra DBMS No No (only common views)
PostgreSQL Yes Yes5
RDM Embedded Yes No
RDM Server Yes No
SQL Anywhere Yes Yes
ScimoreDB No No
SQLite Yes No
Teradata Yes Yes
UniData Yes No
UniVerse Yes No

Note (1): Server provides tempdb, which can be used for public and private (for the session) temp tables.[56]

Note (2): Materialized views are not supported in Informix; the term is used in IBM’s documentation to refer to a temporary table created to run the view’s query when it is too complex, but one cannot for example define the way it is refreshed or build an index on it. The term is defined in the Informix Performance Guide.[57]

Note (4): Materialized views can be emulated using stored procedures and triggers.[58]

Note (5): Materialized views are now standard but can be emulated in versions prior to 9.3 with stored procedures and triggers using PL/pgSQL, PL/Perl, PL/Python, or other procedural languages.[59]

Indices[edit]

Information about what indices (other than basic B-/B+ tree indices) are supported natively.

R-/R+ tree Hash Expression Partial Reverse Bitmap GiST GIN Full-text Spatial FOT
4th Dimension ? Cluster ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? ?
ADABAS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Adaptive Server Enterprise No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes ? ?
Advantage Database Server No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes ? ?
Apache Derby No No No No No No No No No[60] ? ?
Clustrix No Yes No No No No No No No No ?
CUBRID No No Yes[61] Yes[61] Yes No No No No No No
Drizzle No No No No No No No No No ? ?
DB2 No ? Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes[62] ? ?
Empress Embedded Database Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No ? ?
EXASolution No Yes No No No No No No No ? ?
Firebird No No Yes No Yes 1 No No No No[63] ? ?
HSQLDB No No No No No No No No No ? ?
H2 No Yes No No No No No No Yes[64] Yes[65] ?
Informix Dynamic Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[66]
Ingres Yes Yes Ingres v10 No No Ingres v10 No No No ? ?
InterBase No No No No No No No No No ? ?
Linter SQL RDBMS10 No No No No No No No No Yes[67] No No
LucidDB No No No No No Yes No No No ? ?
MariaDB MyISAM tables only MEMORY, Cluster (NDB), InnoDB,5 tables only PERSISTENT virtual columns only [68] No No No No No MyISAM tables[69] and, since v10.0.5, InnoDB tables[70] MyISAM tables only[71] ?
MaxDB No No No No No No No No No ? ?
Microsoft Access (JET) No No No No No No No No No[72] ? ?
Microsoft Visual Foxpro No No Yes Yes Yes2 Yes No No No ? ?
Microsoft SQL Server ? Non/Cluster & fill factor Yes3 Yes4 No3 No No No Yes[73] Yes[74] ?
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) No No No No No No No No No[75] ? ?
MonetDB No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No
MySQL MyISAM tables only MEMORY, Cluster (NDB), InnoDB,5 tables only No[76] No No No No No MyISAM tables[69] and, since v5.6.4, InnoDB tables[77] MyISAM tables only[71] ?
Oracle Yes 11 Cluster Tables Yes Yes 6 Yes Yes No No Yes[78] Yes[79] ?
Oracle Rdb No Yes ? No No ? No No ? ? ?
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Cluster Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes (Commercial only) No
Pervasive PSQL No No No No No No No No No No No
Polyhedra DBMS No Yes No No No No No No No No ?
PostgreSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes7 Yes8 Yes Yes Yes[80] PostGIS[81] ?
RDM Embedded No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No
RDM Server No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
ScimoreDB No No No No No No No No Yes[82] ? ?
SQL Anywhere No No No No No No No No Yes ? ?
SQLite Yes[83] No No Yes[84] Yes No No No Yes[85] SpatiaLite[86] ?
Teradata No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No ?[87] ? ?
UniVerse Yes Yes Yes3 Yes3 Yes3 No No No ? Yes[88] ?
R-/R+ tree Hash Expression Partial Reverse Bitmap GiST GIN Full-text Spatial FOT

Note (1): The users need to use a function from freeAdhocUDF library or similar.[89]

Note (2): Can be implemented for most data types using expression-based indexes.

Note (3): Can be emulated by indexing a computed column[90] (doesn't easily update) or by using an "Indexed View"[91] (proper name not just any view works[92]).

Note (4): Can be implemented by using an indexed view.[93]

Note (5): InnoDB automatically generates adaptive hash index[94] entries as needed.

Note (6): Can be implemented using Function-based Indexes in Oracle 8i and higher, but the function needs to be used in the sql for the index to be used.

Note (7): A PostgreSQL functional index can be used to reverse the order of a field.

Note (8): PostgreSQL will likely support on-disk bitmap indexes in a future version. Version 8.2 supports a related technique known as "in-memory bitmap scans".

Note (10): B+ tree and full-text only for now.

Note (11): R-Tree indexing available in base edition with Locator but some functionality requires Personal Edition or Enterprise Edition with Spatial option.

Database capabilities[edit]

Union Intersect Except Inner joins Outer joins Inner selects Merge joins Blobs and Clobs Common Table Expressions Windowing Functions Parallel Query
4th Dimension Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes ? ? ?
ADABAS Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes
Advantage Database Server Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No ?
Altibase Yes Yes Yes, via MINUS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Apache Derby Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes No No ?
Clustrix Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
CUBRID Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes[61] ?
Drizzle Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No[95]
DB2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[96]
Empress Embedded Database Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
EXASolution Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Firebird Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
HSQLDB Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[97] Yes Yes No Yes[97]
H2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes experimental[98] No[99] ?
Informix Dynamic Server Yes Yes Yes, via MINUS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[100]
Ingres Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No ?
InterBase Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? Yes ? ? ?
Linter SQL RDBMS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
LucidDB Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No ? ? ?
MaxDB Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes No Yes ? ? ?
Microsoft Access (JET) Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No ?
Microsoft Visual Foxpro Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ?
Microsoft SQL Server Yes Yes (2005 and beyond) Yes (2005 and beyond) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[101] Yes[102]
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) Yes No No Yes Yes ? No Yes No No ?
MonetDB Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
MySQL Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No[103] No No[104]
OpenBase SQL No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ?
Oracle Yes Yes Yes, via MINUS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 1 Yes Yes[105]
Oracle Rdb Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
Pervasive PSQL Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? Yes No No No
Polyhedra DBMS Yes Yes Yes Yes No ? ? Yes ? ? ?
PostgreSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[106]
RDM Embedded No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
RDM Server Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
ScimoreDB Yes ? ? Yes LEFT only Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
SmallSQL ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
SQL Anywhere Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SQLite Yes Yes Yes Yes LEFT only Yes No Yes 3.8.3+[107] No No
Teradata Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
UniVerse Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No ?
Union Intersect Except Inner joins Outer joins Inner selects Merge joins Blobs and Clobs Common Table Expressions Windowing Functions Parallel Query

Note (1): Recursive CTEs introduced in 11gR2 supersedes similar construct called CONNECT BY.

Data types[edit]

Type system Integer Floating point Decimal String Binary Date/Time Boolean Other
4th Dimension Static UUID (16-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit), NUMERIC (64-bit) REAL, FLOAT REAL, FLOAT CLOB, TEXT, VARCHAR BIT, BIT VARYING, BLOB DURATION, INTERVAL, TIMESTAMP BOOLEAN PICTURE
Altibase[108] Static SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) REAL(32-bit), DOUBLE(64-bit) DECIMAL, NUMERIC, NUMBER, FLOAT CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, CLOB BLOB, BYTE, NIBBLE, BIT, VARBIT DATE GEOMETRY
Clustrix[109] Static TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), MEDIUMINT (24-bit), INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) FLOAT (32-bit), DOUBLE DECIMAL CHAR, BINARY, VARCHAR, VARBINARY, TEXT, TINYTEXT, MEDIUMTEXT, LONGTEXT TINYBLOB, BLOB, MEDIUMBLOB, LONGBLOB DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP, YEAR BIT(1), BOOLEAN ENUM, SET,
CUBRID[110] Static SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) FLOAT, REAL(32-bit), DOUBLE(64-bit) DECIMAL, NUMERIC CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, CLOB BLOB DATE, DATETIME, TIME, TIMESTAMP BIT MONETARY, BIT VARYING, SET, MULTISET, SEQUENCE, ENUM
Drizzle[111] Static INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) DOUBLE (aka REAL) (64-bit) DECIMAL BINARY, VARCHAR, VARBINARY, TEXT, BLOB DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP ENUM, SERIAL
Empress Embedded Database Static TINYINT, SQL_TINYINT, or INTEGER8; SMALLINT, SQL_SMALLINT, or INTEGER16; INTEGER, INT, SQL_INTEGER, or INTEGER32; BIGINT, SQL_BIGINT, or INTEGER64 REAL, SQL_REAL, or FLOAT32; DOUBLE PRECISION, SQL_DOUBLE, or FLOAT64; FLOAT, or SQL_FLOAT; EFLOAT DECIMAL, DEC, NUMERIC, SQL_DECIMAL, or SQL_NUMERIC; DOLLAR CHARACTER, ECHARACTER, CHARACTER VARYING, NATIONAL CHARACTER, NATIONAL CHARACTER VARYING, NLSCHARACTER, CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT, TEXT, NATIONAL CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT, NLSTEXT BINARY LARGE OBJECT or BLOB; BULK DATE, EDATE, TIME, ETIME, EPOCH_TIME, TIMESTAMP, MICROTIMESTAMP BOOLEAN SEQUENCE 32, SEQUENCE
EXASolution Static TINYINT, SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT, REAL, FLOAT, DOUBLE DECIMAL, DEC, NUMERIC, NUMBER CHAR, NCHAR, VARCHAR, VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR, NVARCHAR2, CLOB, NCLOB N/A DATE, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL BOOLEAN, BOOL GEOMETRY
HSQLDB[112] Static TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) DOUBLE (64-bit) DECIMAL, NUMERIC CHAR, VARCHAR, LONGVARCHAR, CLOB BINARY, VARBINARY, LONGVARBINARY, BLOB DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL BOOLEAN OTHER (object), BIT, BIT VARYING, ARRAY
Informix Dynamic Server[113] Static SMALLINT (16-bit), INT (32-bit), INT8 (64-bit proprietary), BIGINT (64-bit) SMALLFLOAT (32-bit), FLOAT (64-bit) DECIMAL (32 digits float/fixed), MONEY CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, LVARCHAR, CLOB, TEXT TEXT, BYTE, BLOB, CLOB DATE, DATETIME, INTERVAL BOOLEAN SET, LIST, MULTISET, ROW, TIMESERIES, SPATIAL, JSON, BSON, USER DEFINED TYPES
Ingres[114] Static TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) FLOAT4 (32-bit), FLOAT (64-bit) DECIMAL C, CHAR, VARCHAR, LONG VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, LONG NVARCHAR, TEXT BYTE, VARBYTE, LONG VARBYTE (BLOB) DATE, ANSIDATE, INGRESDATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL N/A MONEY, OBJECT_KEY, TABLE_KEY, USER-DEFINED DATA TYPES (via OME)
Linter SQL RDBMS Static SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) REAL(32-bit), DOUBLE(64-bit) DECIMAL, NUMERIC CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, BLOB BYTE, VARBYTE, BLOB DATE BOOLEAN GEOMETRY, EXTFILE
Microsoft SQL Server[115] Static TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT FLOAT, REAL NUMERIC, DECIMAL, SMALLMONEY, MONEY CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, NTEXT BINARY, VARBINARY, IMAGE, FILESTREAM DATE, DATETIMEOFFSET, DATETIME2, SMALLDATETIME, DATETIME, TIME BIT CURSOR, TIMESTAMP, HIERARCHYID, UNIQUEIDENTIFIER, SQL_VARIANT, XML, TABLE, Geometry, Geography
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)[116] Static TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT FLOAT, REAL NUMERIC, DECIMAL, MONEY NCHAR, NVARCHAR, NTEXT BINARY, VARBINARY, IMAGE DATETIME BIT TIMESTAMP, ROWVERSION, UNIQUEIDENTIFIER, IDENTITY, ROWGUIDCOL
MonetDB Static TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT FLOAT, REAL, DOUBLE NUMERIC, DECIMAL VARCHAR(n),CHAR(n),CLOB BLOB DATE, TIME, DATETIME, TIMESTAMP BIT TIME WITH TIME ZONE TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, DAY, MONTH, YEAR, INTERVAL
MySQL[109] Static TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), MEDIUMINT (24-bit), INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) FLOAT (32-bit), DOUBLE (aka REAL) (64-bit) DECIMAL CHAR, BINARY, VARCHAR, VARBINARY, TEXT, TINYTEXT, MEDIUMTEXT, LONGTEXT TINYBLOB, BLOB, MEDIUMBLOB, LONGBLOB DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP, YEAR BIT(1), BOOLEAN (aka BOOL) = synonym for TINYINT ENUM, SET, GIS data types (Geometry, Point, Curve, LineString, Surface, Polygon, GeometryCollection, MultiPoint, MultiCurve, MultiLineString, MultiSurface, MultiPolygon)
OpenLink Virtuoso[117] Static + Dynamic INT, INTEGER, SMALLINT REAL, DOUBLE PRECISION, FLOAT, FLOAT'('INTNUM')' DECIMAL, DECIMAL'('INTNUM')', DECIMAL'('INTNUM','INTNUM')', NUMERIC, NUMERIC'('INTNUM')', NUMERIC'('INTNUM','INTNUM')' CHARACTER, CHAR'('INTNUM')', VARCHAR, VARCHAR'('INTNUM')', NVARCHAR, NVARCHAR'('INTNUM')' BLOB TIMESTAMP, DATETIME, TIME, DATE n/a GEOMETRY, REFERENCE (URI), UDT (User Defined Type)
Oracle[118] Static + Dynamic (through ANYDATA) NUMBER BINARY_FLOAT, BINARY_DOUBLE NUMBER CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, NCLOB, NVARCHAR2, NCHAR, LONG (deprecated) BLOB, RAW, LONG RAW (deprecated), BFILE DATE, TIMESTAMP (with/without TIMEZONE), INTERVAL N/A SPATIAL, IMAGE, AUDIO, VIDEO, DICOM, XMLType
Pervasive PSQL[119] Static BIGINT, INTEGER, SMALLINT, TINYINT, UBIGINT, UINTEGER, USMALLINT, UTINYINT BFLOAT4, BFLOAT8, DOUBLE, FLOAT DECIMAL, NUMERIC, NUMERICSA, NUMERICSLB, NUMERICSLS, NUMERICSTB, NUMERICSTS CHAR, LONGVARCHAR, VARCHAR BINARY, LONGVARBINARY, VARBINARY DATE, DATETIME, TIME BIT CURRENCY, IDENTITY, SMALLIDENTITY, TIMESTAMP, UNIQUEIDENTIFIER
Polyhedra[120] Static INTEGER8 (8-bit), INTEGER(16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), INTEGER64 (64-bit) FLOAT32 (32-bit), FLOAT (aka REAL; 64-bit) N/A VARCHAR, LARGE VARCHAR (aka CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT) LARGE BINARY (aka BINARY LARGE OBJECT) DATETIME BOOLEAN N/A
PostgreSQL[121] Static SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit) REAL (32-bit), DOUBLE PRECISION (64-bit) DECIMAL, NUMERIC CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT BYTEA DATE, TIME (with/without TIMEZONE), TIMESTAMP (with/without TIMEZONE), INTERVAL BOOLEAN ENUM, POINT, LINE, LSEG, BOX, PATH, POLYGON, CIRCLE, CIDR, INET, MACADDR, BIT, UUID, XML, JSON, arrays, composites, ranges, custom
RDM Embedded[122] Static tinyint, smallint, integer, bigint real, float, double N/A char, varchar, wchar, varwchar, long varchar, long varwchar binary, varbinary, long varbinary date, time, timestamp bit N/A
RDM Server[123] Static tinyint, smallint, integer, bigint real, float, double decimal, numeric char, varchar, wchar, varwchar, long varchar, long varwchar binary, varbinary, long varbinary date, time, timestamp bit rowid
SQLite[124] Dynamic INTEGER (64-bit) REAL (aka FLOAT, DOUBLE) (64-bit) N/A TEXT (aka CHAR, CLOB) BLOB N/A N/A N/A
UniData Dynamic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
UniVerse Dynamic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Type system Integer Floating point Decimal String Binary Date/Time Boolean Other

Other objects[edit]

Information about what other objects are supported natively.

Data Domain Cursor Trigger Function 1 Procedure 1 External routine 1
4th Dimension Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
ADABAS ? Yes ? Yes? Yes? Yes
Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Advantage Database Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Altibase Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Apache Derby No Yes Yes Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 2
Clustrix No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
CUBRID Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 Yes
Drizzle Yes Yes Yes 4 Yes 4 Yes 4 Yes 4
Empress Embedded Database Yes via RANGE CHECK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
EXASolution Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
DB2 Yes via CHECK CONSTRAINT Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Firebird Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
HSQLDB Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
H2 Yes No Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes
Informix Dynamic Server Yes via CHECK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  5
Ingres Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
InterBase Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Linter SQL RDBMS No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
LucidDB No Yes No Yes 2 Yes 2 Yes 2
MaxDB Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Microsoft Access (JET) Yes No No No Yes, But single DML/DDL Operation Yes
Microsoft Visual Foxpro No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Microsoft SQL Server Yes (2000 and beyond) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) No Yes No No No No
MonetDB No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
MySQL No  3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
OpenBase SQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Oracle Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Oracle Rdb Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pervasive PSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Polyhedra DBMS No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
PostgreSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
RDM Embedded No Yes No No Yes Yes
RDM Server No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
ScimoreDB No No No No Yes Yes
SQL Anywhere Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SQLite No No Yes No No Yes
Teradata No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
UniData No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
UniVerse No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Data Domain Cursor Trigger Function 1 Procedure 1 External routine 1

Note (1): Both function and procedure refer to internal routines written in SQL and/or procedural language like PL/SQL. External routine refers to the one written in the host languages, such as C, Java, Cobol, etc. "Stored procedure" is a commonly used term for these routine types. However, its definition varies between different database vendors.

Note (2): In Derby, H2, LucidDB, and CUBRID, users code functions and procedures in Java.

Note (3): ENUM datatype exist. CHECK clause is parsed, but not enforced in runtime.

Note (4): In Drizzle the user codes functions and procedures in C++.

Note (5): Informix supports external functions written in Java, C, & C++.

Partitioning[edit]

Information about what partitioning methods are supported natively.

Range Hash Composite (Range+Hash) List Expression
4th Dimension ? ? ? ? ?
ADABAS ? ? ? ? ?
Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes Yes No Yes ?
Advantage Database Server No No No No ?
Altibase Yes Yes No Yes ?
Apache Derby No No No No ?
Clustrix Yes No No No No
CUBRID Yes Yes No Yes ?
IBM DB2 Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Empress Embedded Database No No No No ?
EXASolution No Yes No No No
Firebird No No No No ?
HSQLDB No No No No ?
H2 No No No No ?
Informix Dynamic Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ingres Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
InterBase No No No No ?
Linter SQL RDBMS No No No No ?
MaxDB No No No No ?
Microsoft Access (JET) No No No No ?
Microsoft Visual Foxpro No No No No ?
Microsoft SQL Server Yes No No No ?
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) No No No No ?
MonetDB No No No No No
MySQL Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
OpenBase SQL ? ? ? ? ?
Oracle Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Oracle Rdb Yes Yes ? ? ?
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pervasive PSQL No No No No No
Polyhedra DBMS No No No No No
PostgreSQL Yes1 Yes1 Yes1 Yes1 ?
RDM Embedded Yes2 Yes2 Yes2 No ?
RDM Server No No No No ?
ScimoreDB No Yes No No ?
SQL Anywhere No No No No ?
SQLite No No No No ?
Teradata Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
UniVerse Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Range Hash Composite (Range+Hash) List Expression

Note (1): PostgreSQL 8.1 provides partitioning support through check constraints. Range, List and Hash methods can be emulated with PL/pgSQL or other procedural languages.[125]

Note (2): RDM Embedded 10.1 requires the application programs to select the correct partition (using range, hash or composite techniques) when adding data, but the database union functionality allows all partitions to be read as a single database.[126]

Access control[edit]

Information about access control functionalities (work in progress).

Native network encryption1 Brute-force protection Enterprise directory compatibility Password complexity rules2 Patch access3 Run unprivileged4 Audit Resource limit Separation of duties (RBAC)5 Security Certification Label Based Access Control (LBAC)
4D Yes (with SSL) ? Yes ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes (optional; to pay) Yes Yes (optional ?) Yes Partial (need to register; depend on which product)[127] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (EAL4+ 1) ?
Advantage Database Server Yes No No No Yes Yes No No Yes ? ?
DB2 Yes ? Yes (LDAP, Kerberos…) Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (EAL4+6) ?
Empress Embedded Database ? ? No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No ?
EXASolution No No Yes (LDAP) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No ?
Firebird No Yes[128] Yes (Windows trusted authenification) No Partial (no security page)[129] Yes No No No7 ? ?
HSQLDB Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No ?
H2 Yes Yes ? No ? Yes ? Yes Yes No ?
Informix Dynamic Server Yes ? Yes10 ?10 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes
Linter SQL RDBMS Yes (with SSL) Yes Yes Yes (length only) No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
MariaDB Yes (SSL) No Yes (with 5.2, but not on Windows servers) No Partial (no security page) Yes ? ? ?8 No ?
Microsoft SQL Server Yes ? Yes (Microsoft Active Directory) Yes Yes Yes Yes (From 2008) Yes Yes Yes (EAL4+11) ?
Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database) No (not relevant, only file permissions) No (not relevant) No (not relevant) No (not relevant) Yes Yes (file access) Yes Yes No ? ?
MySQL Yes (SSL with 4.0) No Yes (with 5.5, but only in commercial edition) No Partial (no security page)[130] Yes ? ? ?8 No ?
OpenBase SQL Yes ? Yes (Open Directory, LDAP) No ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Yes Yes Yes (optional) Yes (optional) Yes Yes (optional) Yes (optional) Yes No ?
Oracle Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (EAL4+1) ?
Pervasive PSQL Yes ? No No Yes Yes Yes 12 No No No ?
Polyhedra DBMS Yes (with SSL. Optional) No No No No Yes Yes 13 Yes Yes 13 No ?
PostgreSQL Yes Yes (for 9.1) Yes (LDAP, Kerberos…9) Yes (as of 9.0 with passwordcheck module) Yes[131] Yes No Yes Yes Yes (EAL11) ?
RDM Embedded No No No No No Yes No No No No ?
RDM Server Yes No No No No Yes Yes No Yes No ?
SQL Anywhere Yes ? Yes (Kerberos) Yes ? Yes Yes No Yes Yes (EAL3+1 as Adaptive Server Anywhere) ?
SQLite No (not relevant, only file permissions) No (not relevant) No (not relevant) No (not relevant) Partial (no security page)[132] Yes (file access) Yes Yes No No ?
Native network encryption1 Brute-force protection Enterprise directory compatibility Password complexity rules2 Patch access3 Run unprivileged4 Audit Resource limit Separation of duties (RBAC)5 Security Certification Label Based Access Control (LBAC)

Note (1): Network traffic could be transmitted in a secure way (not clear-text, in general SSL encryption). Precise if option is default, included option or an extra modules to buy.

Note (2): Options are present to set a minimum size for password, respect complexity like presence of numbers or special characters.

Note (3): How do you get security updates? Is it free access, do you need a login or to pay? Is there easy access through a Web/FTP portal or RSS feed or only through offline access (mail CD-ROM, phone).

Note (4): Does database process run as root/administrator or unprivileged user? What is default configuration?

Note (5): Is there a separate user to manage special operation like backup (only dump/restore permissions), security officer (audit), administrator (add user/create database), etc.? Is it default or optional?

Note (6): Common Criteria certified product list.[133]

Note (7): FirebirdSQL seems to only have SYSDBA user and DB owner. There are no separate roles for backup operator and security administrator.

Note (8): User can define a dedicated backup user but nothing particular in default install.[134]

Note (9): Authentication methods.[135]

Note (10): Informix Dynamic Server supports PAM and other configurable authentication. By default uses OS authentication.

Note (11): Authentication methods.[136]

Note (12): With the use of Pervasive AuditMaster.

Note (13): User-based security is optional in Polyhedra, but when enabled can be enhanced to a role-based model with auditing.[137]

Databases vs schemas (terminology)[edit]

The SQL specification makes clear what an "SQL schema" is; however, different databases implement it incorrectly. To compound this confusion the functionality can, when incorrectly implemented, overlap with that of the parent-database. An SQL schema is simply a namespace within a database, things within this namespace are addressed using the member operator dot ".". This seems to be a universal amongst all of the implementations.

A true fully (database, schema, and table) qualified query is exemplified as such: SELECT * FROM database.schema.table

Now, the issue, both a schema and a database can be used to isolate one table, "foo" from another like named table "foo". The following is pseudo code:

  • SELECT * FROM db1.foo vs. SELECT * FROM db2.foo (no explicit schema between db and table)
  • SELECT * FROM [db1.]default.foo vs. SELECT * FROM [db1.]alternate.foo (no explicit db prefix)

The problem that arises is that former MySQL users will create multiple databases for one project. In this context, MySQL databases are analogous in function to Postgres-schemas, insomuch as Postgres lacks off-the-shelf cross-database functionality that MySQL has. Conversely, PostgreSQL has applied more of the specification implementing cross-table, cross-schema, and then left room for future cross-database functionality.

MySQL aliases schema with database behind the scenes, such that CREATE SCHEMA and CREATE DATABASE are analogs. It can therefore be said that MySQL has implemented cross-database functionality, skipped schema functionality entirely, and provided similar functionality into their implementation of a database. In summary, Postgres fully supports schemas but lacks some functionality MySQL has with databases, while MySQL does not even attempt to support true schemas.

Oracle has its own spin where creating a user is synonymous with creating a schema. Thus a database administrator can create a user called PROJECT and then create a table PROJECT.TABLE. Users can exist without schema objects, but an object is always associated with an owner (though that owner may not have privileges to connect to the database). With the Oracle 'shared-everything' RAC architecture, the same database can be opened by multiple servers concurrently. This is independent of replication, which can also be used, whereby the data is copied for use by different server. In the Oracle view, the 'database' is a set of files which contains the data while the 'instance' is a set of processes (and memory) through which a database is accessed.

Informix supports multiple databases in a server instance, like MySQL. It supports the CREATE SCHEMA syntax as a way to group DDL statements into a single unit creating all objects created as a part of the schema as a single owner. Informix supports a database mode called ANSI mode which supports creating objects with the same name but owned by different users.

The end result is confusion between the database factions. The Postgres and Oracle communities maintain that one database is all that is needed for one project, per the definition of database. MySQL and Informix proponents maintain that schemas have no legitimate purpose when the functionality can be achieved with databases. Postgres adheres to the SQL specification, in a more intuitive fashion (bottom-up), while MySQL’s pragmatic counterargument allows their users to get the job done while creating conceptual confusion.

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]