E. M. S. Namboodiripad

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E. M. S. Namboodiripad
E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg
1st Chief Minister of Kerala
In office
5 April 1957 – 31 July 1959
Preceded by office established
Succeeded by President`s rule
In office
6 March 1967 – 1 November 1969
Preceded by President`s rule
Succeeded by C. Achutha Menon
General Secretary, Communist Party of India (Marxist)
In office
April 8, 1978 – January 9, 1992
Preceded by P. Sundarayya
Succeeded by Harkishan Singh Surjeet
Personal details
Born (1909-06-13)13 June 1909
Perintalmanna, Madras Presidency, British India
Died 19 March 1998(1998-03-19) (aged 88)
Thiruvanthapuram, Kerala
Political party Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Communist Party of India (before 1964)
Spouse(s) Arya Antarjanam
Children Two sons, two daughters
Residence A house in Kerala's capital, Thiruvanthapuram, that the Communist party rented for him
Religion Atheism
Source Government of Kerala
EMS with Romanian President Nicolae Ceauşescu in 1979.

Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad (13 June 1909 – 19 March 1998), popularly EMS, was an Indian communist politician and theorist, who served as the first Chief Minister of Kerala state in 1957–59 and then again in 1967–69. As a member of the Communist Party of India (CPI), he became the first non-Indian National Congress chief minister in the Indian republic. In 1964, he led a faction of the CPI that broke away to form the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM).

As chief minister, Namboodiripad pioneered radical land and educational reforms in Kerala, which helped it become the country's leader in social indicators. It is largely due to his commitment and guidance that the CPM, of which he was Politburo member and general secretary for 14 years, has become such a domineering political force, playing a vital role in India's new era of coalition politics.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad was born on 13 June 1909, as the son of Parameswaran Namboodirippad, at Elamkulam, in Perintalmanna taluk of the present Malappuram district into an aristocratic upper-caste Brahmin family. In his early years, he was associated with V. T. Bhattathiripad, M. R. Bhattathiripad and many others in the fight against the casteism and conservatism that existed in the Namboothiri community. He became one of the office bearers of Valluvanadu Yogaskshema Sabha, an organisation of progressive Namboothiri youth. During his college days, he was deeply associated with the Indian National Congress and Indian independence movement.

He was a writer and author of several literary works and his book on the history of Kerala is notable.[2][3] He was well known for his stammer.[4] When asked if he always stammered, he would reply, "No, only when I speak."[5]

Socialism[edit]

In 1934, he was one of the founders of Congress Socialist Party, a socialist wing within the Indian National Congress, and elected as its All India Joint Secretary from 1934 to 1940. During this period, he was also elected to the Madras Legislative Assembly (1939).

He remained committed to socialist ideals, and his compassion towards the working class led him to join the Communist movement. The Indian government considered him to be one of the founders of the Communist Party of India (CPI) in Kerala, forcing him to go in hiding. During the 1962 Sino-Indian war, he was among leaders who aired China's view on the border issue. When the CPI split in 1964, Namboodiripad stood with the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). He served as a member of the Central Committee and the Politburo of the CPI(M) until his death in 1998. Namboodiripad became general secretary in 1977, a designation he held until 1992. A Marxist scholar, he influenced the development of Kerala, of whom he was the first Chief Minister.

Election to state government[edit]

A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957, making him the first communist leader in India to head a popularly elected government.[6][7] It was one of the earliest elected Communist governments, after Communist success in the 1945 elections in the Republic of San Marino (a city-state surrounded by Italy).[8][8][9][10][11]) It was also the first time for a regional party in India to win state elections. On 5 April 1957 he was appointed as the first chief minister of Kerala. His government introduced the Land Reform Ordinance and Education Bill. In 1959, the Central Government dismissed his government through the controversial Article 356 of the Indian Constitution following "The Liberation Struggle".

Indira Gandhi convinced Nehru, who was hesitant to dismiss a democratically elected government, to make such a decision.[12][13] Declassified Central Intelligence Agency documents show that the first Communist government concerned them and "preventing additional Keralas became an important argument for augmenting U.S. assistance to India".[14] According to the biography of former US Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker, "the election results rang alarm bells in Washington"[15][16]

He became the Chief Minister of Kerala for the second time in 1967 as the leader of a seven-party coalition including the Muslim League. He wooed the Muslim League by promising them a district of their own, which has been seen as a highly selfish move to make for a communist. This time his tenure lasted for two and a half years, and he created a separate district called 'Malappuram' during this term as per prior agreement. Soon after becoming Chief Minister again, on 31 January 1968 he inaugurated Asia's first mechanised coir factory called Floorco in Pozhikkara, Paravur.

Namboodiripad was the Leader of Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1960 to 1964 and again from 1970 to 1977. His vision of decentralisation of power and resources (People's Plan) and the Kerala Literacy Movement influenced Kerala society. He authored several books in English and Malayalam. Chintha Publication, Kerala has published all his books under the title, "E M S Sanchika". He also was well-known as a journalist.

Sino-Indian war and split in the Communist Party[edit]

During the 1962 Sino-Indian war, other parties portrayed left-wing parties as pro-China, since both were Communist. Namboodiripad stated that the left was focused on solving the border dispute through talks.[2]

Association with Progressive Movement for Arts and Letters[edit]

Namboodiripad, Kesari Balakrishna Pillai, Joseph Mundassery, M. P. Paul and K. Damodaran were architects of "Jeevat Sahitya Prastanam", renamed Purogamana Sahitya Prastanam (Progressive Association for Arts and Letters). Though the party considered Kesari one of the visionaries of the Progressive Movement for Arts and Letters in Kerala, serious differences of opinion emerged between full-time Communist Party activists and other personalities, namely Kesari and Mundassery. In this context, Namboodiripad famously accused Kesari of being a "Petit-Bourgeois intellectual", an appellation he retracted. Namboodiripad also acknowledged some of the earlier misconceptions of the Communist Party with respect to the Progressive Literature and Arts Movement. This debate is known as "Rupa Bhadrata Vivadam", an important milestone in the growth of Modern Malayalam Literature.

Death[edit]

The E.M.S. Memorial Co-operative Hospital in Perinthalmanna

Namboodiripad died on 19 March 1998. He was married to Arya Antharjanam and had two sons and two daughters.

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Kuldip (2 April 1998). "Obituary: E. M. S. Namboodiripad". The Independent. Retrieved June 2013. 
  2. ^ a b BHASKAR, B. R. P. (16 November 2004). "Book Review: Namboodiripad's writings". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Ramachandra Guha, India after Gandhi, p 294
  4. ^ K. M. Tampi (17 May 2001). "A colourful personality fades out from the Kerala scene". The Hindu. 
  5. ^ Smita Mitra and John Mary (14 March 2011). "Streaming Syllables". Outlook India. 
  6. ^ Olle Törnquist (1991). "Communists and democracy: Two Indian cases and one debate". Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars (Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars) 23 (2): 63–76. doi:10.1080/14672715.1991.10413152. ISSN 0007-4810. The first democratically elected communist-led government in India actually came to power in 1957 in the southwest-Indian state of Kerala. Two years later this government was undemocratically toppled-by the union government and the Congress-I party with Indira Gandhi in the forefront. But the communists were reelected and led several of the following state governments. 
  7. ^ Sarina Singh; Amy Karafin; Anirban Mahapatra (1 September 2009). South India. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-155-6. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  8. ^ a b K.G. Kumar (12 April 2007). "50 years of development". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  9. ^ Manali Desai (27 November 2006). State Formation and Radical Democracy in India. Taylor & Francis. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-203-96774-4. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 
  10. ^ Madan Gopal Chitkara; Baṃśī Rāma Śarmā (1 January 1997). Indian Republic: Issues and Perspective. APH Publishing. p. 134. ISBN 978-81-7024-836-1. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  11. ^ Alan James Mayne (1 January 1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  12. ^ Moynihan, Dangerous Place, 41
  13. ^ Godbole, Public Accountability and Transparency: The Imperatives of Good Governance, 84.
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Nair, Naveen (28 June 2007). "How CIA ousted Left govt in Kerala". IBN Live. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  16. ^ Schaffer, Ellsworth Bunker: Global Troubleshooter, Vietnam Hawk, 67

Further reading[edit]

Preceded by
(none)
Chief Minister of Kerala
1957–1959
Succeeded by
Pattom Thanupillai
Preceded by
R. Sankar
Chief Minister of Kerala
1967–1969
Succeeded by
C. Achutha Menon