Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Egyptian constitutional referendum, 2014
Results
Yes or no Votes Percentage
Yes check.svg Yes 19,985,389 98.13%
X mark.svg No 381,341 1.87%
Valid votes 20,366,730 98.8%
Invalid or blank votes 246,947 1.2%
Total votes 20,613,677 100.00%
Voter turnout 38.59%
Electorate 53,423,485
Results by Governorate
Egyptian constitutional referendum 2014.svg
  Yes
  No
Coat of arms of Egypt (Official).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Egypt
Constitution (history)
Political parties (former)

A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt on 14 and 15 January 2014[1] and with Egyptians abroad voting between 8 and 12 January.[2] The new constitution was approved by 98.1% of voters. Turnout was 38.6%.[3]

Background[edit]

Mohammad Morsi was removed from power during the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.[4] The timetable established by interim president Adly Mansour envisioned a rapid transition, which initially entailed amending the suspended 2012 constitution.[4]

The process of amending the 2012 constitution began with a committee of 10 legal experts.[5] The draft amendments by the committee of 10 many notable changes to the text of the 2012 constitution.[6] The committee of 10 completed their work on 20 August 2013.[7]

The second phase of the process included amendments by a committee of 50; those 50 people were announced on 1 September 2013.[8] Amr Moussa was chosen as the chairman of the committee of 50 on 8 September 2013.[9] The draft constitution was given to President Mansour on 3 December 2013.[10]

Campaign[edit]

Supporters[edit]

The Dignity Party backed the constitution.[11] The Free Egyptians Party supported it.[12] The Socialist Popular Alliance Party as well as the Socialist Party of Egypt also supported the constitution.[11] The Popular Current had said that it supported the constitution.[13] The Nour Party said it would support the constitution.[14] Tamarod started a campaign on 5 December 2013 in support of the constitution.[15] The Egyptian Trade Union Federation called on its supporters to vote for the constitution.[16] The National Salvation Front said that it would call for a yes vote on the constitution.[17] The Egyptian Social Democratic Party voted for the constitution.[18]

Opponents[edit]

Khaled Ali, a former presidential candidate, was opposed to the constitution; he stated that it was "inappropriate" for Egypt.[19] The Revolutionary Socialists also expressed their opposition to it.[20] The Road of the Revolution Front announced on 8 January 2014 that it would vote against the constitution.[21] The Freedom and Justice Party and the Islamic Bloc, which had won 65.3% of the vote in Egypt's parliamentary elections in 2011-2012, opposed the new Constitution and the referendum as being the fruits of an illegal military coup.[22]

Boycotts[edit]

The Anti-Coup Alliance, which includes the Muslim Brotherhood-linked Freedom and Justice Party, announced on 22 December 2013 that it would boycott the vote.[23] The Strong Egypt Party and the April 6 Youth Movement also indicated that they would boycott the vote.[24] The Strong Egypt Party was initially going to mobilize for a "no" vote,[25] but changed their stance after members of the party were arrested for having posters which supported the "no" campaign.[26]

According to the official results, turnout was 38.9%. Turnout in the constitutional referendum of 2012 had been 32.9%.[3]

Conduct[edit]

Tamarod,[27] the European Union[28] and 27,000 observers were expected to monitor the referendum; judges affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood were excluded from supervising polling stations.[29]

According to Human Rights Watch, 11 people were killed in the clashes on 14 January 2014.[30] However, according to the Health ministry, 8 people died in the first day of voting[30] and two people died in the second day of voting.[31]

In the weeks before the voting there were massive arrests of persons opposing the Constitution or the referendum.[32]

Results[edit]

Voter participation was about 38.6 percent according to Egyptian government figures that were challenged by the Muslim Brotherhood, which had called of a boycott because the vote was taking place after a military coup. There were almost 20 million total votes in favor. The vote was held with support for a "yes" vote by the Egyptian government and state media as well as a crackdown on those against it.[33]

For comparison, about 16.7 million voters participated in the vote approving the constitution drafted under Morsi. This represented a turnout of 32.9 percent despite a boycott of the vote by non-Islamist factions. Of those that participated in that election, 63.8 percent voted for the Morsi-backed constitution, or about 10.65 million "yes" votes.[33]

Choice Votes  %
Referendum passed Yes 19,985,389 98.13%
No 381,341 1.87%
Valid votes 20,366,730 98.8%
Invalid or blank votes 246,947 1.2%
Total votes 20,613,677 100.00%
Registered voters/turnout 53,423,485 38.6%
Source: Al Ahram

By governorate[edit]

Turnout rate by governorate for the Egyptian constitutional referendum of 14–15 January 2014.
Governorate Eligible voters Voter turnout Turnout % Total votes Valid votes Invalid votes "Yes" votes "Yes" % "No" votes "No" %
Cairo 6,674,865 2,688,743 40.3% 2,791,233 2,762,952 28,281 2,720,162 98.5% 42,790 1.5%
Giza 4,518,941 1,450,195 32.1% 1,507,416 1,488,662 18,754 1,459,201 98.0% 29,461 2.0%
Dakahlia 3,793,080 1,876,901 49.5% 1,891,617 1,874,597 17,020 1,850,535 98.7% 24,062 1.3%
Sharqia 3,681,587 1,666,493 45.3% 1,691,360 1,673,968 17,392 1,646,736 98.4% 27,232 1.6%
Alexandria 3,415,629 1,308,971 38.3% 1,353,632 1,340,449 13,183 1,319,454 98.4% 20,995 1.6%
Beheira 3,376,941 1,260,624 37.3% 1,276,980 1,260,503 16,477 1,234,019 97.9% 26,484 2.1%
Gharbia 3,020,674 1,574,173 52.1% 1,586,496 1,572,176 14,320 1,551,093 98.7% 21,083 1.3%
Minya 2,808,534 734,512 26.2% 740,233 723,193 17,040 698,621 96.6% 24,572 3.4%
Qalyubia 2,718,798 1,204,971 44.3% 1,231,032 1,217,220 13,812 1,198,011 98.4% 19,209 1.6%
Sohag 2,485,950 592,391 23.8% 600,503 591,496 9,007 574,797 97.2% 16,699 2.8%
Monufia 2,298,208 1,226,154 53.4% 1,242,219 1,228,811 13,408 1,212,268 98.7% 16,543 1.3%
Asyut 2,219,387 538,873 24.3% 547,539 536,532 11,007 515,571 96.1% 20,961 3.9%
Kafr el-Sheikh 1,935,985 817,904 42.2% 823,516 815,038 8,478 803,940 98.6% 11,098 1.4%
Qena 1,676,423 400,668 23.9% 410,770 405,064 5,706 395,439 97.6% 9,625 2.4%
Faiyum 1,628,192 385,601 23.7% 391,609 383,384 8,225 370,802 96.7% 12,582 3.3%
Beni Suef 1,506,498 490,670 32.6% 496,172 486,360 9,812 469,974 96.6% 16,386 3.4%
Aswan 891,699 251,588 28.2% 257,563 254,088 3,475 248,571 97.8% 5,517 2.2%
Damietta 891,241 408,617 45.8% 415,825 411,233 4,592 404,687 98.4% 6,546 1.6%
Ismailia 735,103 290,689 39.5% 299,606 295,671 3,935 289,863 98.0% 5,808 2.0%
Luxor 703,670 215,668 30.6% 220,606 218,203 2,403 214,510 98.3% 3,693 1.7%
Port Said 453,377 231,439 51.0% 239,772 237,188 2,584 233,672 98.5% 3,516 1.5%
Suez 396,466 136,658 34.5% 144,919 143,284 1,635 140,167 97.8% 3,117 2.2%
Red Sea 244,603 77,681 31.8% 108,147 106,758 1,389 103,858 97.3% 2,900 2.7%
North Sinai 223,533 69,217 31.0% 75,968 74,557 1,411 72,161 96.8% 2,396 3.2%
Matruh 224,385 36,445 16.2% 44,725 43,910 815 42,242 96.2% 1,668 3.8%
New Valley 147,525 51,923 35.2% 52,877 51,769 1,108 49,920 96.4% 1,849 3.6%
South Sinai 70,845 23,804 33.6% 64,301 63,123 1,178 60,651 96.1% 2,472 3.9%

Reactions[edit]

  •  Russia - President Vladimir Putin was the first president to congratulate Egyptians on the constitution as he asked the new Egyptian ambassador in Russia to convey the best wishes to the Egyptian leadership saying "We hope the Egyptian society will overcome current political and socio-economic difficulties and the country will return on the path of stability and growth."[34]
  •  UAE - Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan congratulated the Egyptian people saying: "The move is major milestone towards the roadmap for the future which will usher sisterly Egypt into the aspired stability and development."[35]
  •  Iraq - Nouri Al-Maliki congratulated the Egyptian people saying that the overwhelming support for the constitution shown in polls reflects the Egyptian people's strong will to reject violence and terrorism and strive for peace, stability and freedom"[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gregg Carlstrom (14 December 2013). "Egypt president sets date for referendum". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "Polls closed overseas Sunday". Mada Masr. 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Egyptians overwhelmingly back constitution - official results". Aswat Masriya. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Egypt's timetable for transition to elections". Associated Press. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  5. ^ "Mansour to form committee in charge of constitutional amendments". Egypt Independent. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  6. ^ "22 Key Points in Egypt's New Draft Constitution". Al Monitor. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "Amended draft of Egyptian constitution passed to president". Aswat Masriya. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  8. ^ "Members of constitutional committee of 50 announced". Egypt Independent. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  9. ^ "50-member constitutional committee chooses Amr Moussa as chairman". Egypt Independent. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  10. ^ "Mansour receives amended constitution". Daily News Egypt. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "Parties start campaigns to support new constitution". Egypt Independent. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  12. ^ "Egypt's Free Egyptians Party distributes Braille draft constitution at rally". Ahram Online. 9 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  13. ^ "Al-Tayar Al-Sha'aby calls for Yes vote in constitutional referendum, supports Sabahy for Presidency". Daily News Egypt. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  14. ^ "Nour Party not running for presidency : leading member". Egypt Independent. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  15. ^ "Tamarod launches campaign urging participation in constitution referendum". Egypt Independent. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Vote Yes to the constitution: ETUF". Daily News Egypt. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  17. ^ "Salvation Front calls for voting 'yes' to amendments". Egypt Independent. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  18. ^ "Egyptian Social Democratic Party will vote 'Yes' in constitution referendum". Ahram Online. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Khaled Ali says constitution not appropriate for Egypt". Egypt Independent. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  20. ^ "Revolutionary Socialists call for "no" vote on constitution". Aswat Masriya. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  21. ^ "Way of the Revolution Front to vote no to constitution". Ahram Online. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  22. ^ "Freedom and Justice Party: Declaration Unconstitutional, Null and Void". 
  23. ^ "Egypt's pro-Morsi coalition to boycott constitutional referendum". Ahram Online. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  24. ^ "Strong Egypt, April 6 boycott referendum". Egypt Independent. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  25. ^ "Strong Egypt Party members arrested after posting ‘no’ campaign material". Mada Masr. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  26. ^ "Strong Egypt Party to boycott the referendum". Ahram Online. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  27. ^ "Tamarod to oversee constitution referendum". Egypt Independent. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  28. ^ "EU monitors Constitution referendum". Egypt Independent. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  29. ^ "27,000 observers to monitor referendum". The Cairo Post. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  30. ^ a b "Death toll rises to 11 overnight following bloody afternoon". Daily News Egypt. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  31. ^ "Health Ministry: Two deaths, 8 injured on second day of referendum". Egypt Independent. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  32. ^ "Egypt: Activists Arrested for ‘No’ Campaign: Repression Intensifies Ahead of Constitutional Referendum". Human Rights Watch. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "Egypt constitution gets 98.1% 'yes' vote". The Associated Press. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  34. ^ "Putin congratulates Egyptians on constitution". 
  35. ^ "HH Sheikh Abdullah bin ZayedAl Nahyan congratulates Egyptian people on success of constitutional referendum". 
  36. ^ "Iraqi PM congratulates Egypt on new charter". 

External links[edit]