|12,000,000 – 13,000,000
(36.1% of the Australian population of partial English ancestry)
Other Protestant, agnostic
|Related ethnic groups|
|English, English American, English Canadian, English New Zealander, Danish Australian, Dutch Australian, German Australian, Norwegian Australian, Swedish Australian|
English Australians, also known as Anglo-Australians are Australians of English descent, are both the single largest ethnic group in Australia and the largest 'ancestry' identity in the Australia Census, and put together with "Australian" (which is in fact, an unknown number of English Australians) they make up more than half of the population.
In the 2011 census, 7.2 million or 36.1% of respondents identified as "English" or a combination including English, such as English-Australian. The census also documented 910,000 residents of Australia as being born in England.
Early Settlement and Colonisation
English settlement in Australia began with English naval Admiral and colonial administrator. Arthur Phillip was the first European colony on the Australian continent, and was the founder of the site which is now the city of Sydney.
The decision to send English convicts to Botany Bay was taken by the British Government on 18 August 1786, with the responsibility to organise and choose officials falling on then Home Secretary, Lord Sydney and his junior, Evan Nepean. Preparations to obtain ships, convicts, guards and provisions began soon after. At the time the five hulks in service held about 1300 men, and selected convicts, including women from county gaols were transferred to the hulk Dunkirk at Plymouth and the New Gaol in Southwark. Optimistically, it was hoped to be able to sail in October, but a series of postponements were made. In mid April 1787 the St James's Chronicle commented that “strange as it may appear, we are credibly informed of the Fact that the Transports for Botany Bay have not as yet sailed". [Gillen, p.xxiv]
An estimated 200,000 English emigrated to Australia after 1776. English settlers provided a steady and substantial influx throughout the nineteenth century. The first wave of increasing English began in the late 1850s and was sustained by unrest in the United Kingdom until it peaked in 1862 and declined slightly for nearly a decade. Most of these were small farmers and tenant farmers from depressed areas in rural counties in southern and western England and urban laborers who fled from the depressions and from the social and industrial changes of the late 1820s–1840s. While some English immigrants were drawn by dreams of creating model utopian societies in Australia, most others were attracted by the lure of new lands, textile factories, railroads, and the expansion of mining. A number of English settlers moved to the United States from Australia in the 1850s, when the California Gold Rush boomed; these included the so-called “Sydney Ducks” (see Australian Americans).
Notable English convicts transported to Australia
- James Blackburn – Famous for contribution to Australian architecture and civil engineering.
- William Bland – naval surgeon transported for killing a man in a duel; he prospered and was involved in philanthropy, and had a seat in the legislative assembly.
- William Buckley – famously escaped and lived with Aboriginal people for many years.
- John Cadman – had been a publican, as a convict became Superintendent of Boats in Sydney; Cadmans Cottage is a cottage granted to him.
- Daniel Cooper – successful merchant.
- Margaret Dawson – First Fleet, "founding mother".
- William Field (Australian pastoralist) – notable Tasmanian businessman and landowner.
- Francis Greenway – famous Australian architect.
- William Henry Groom – successful auctioneer and politician, served in the inaugural Australian Parliament.
- William Hutchinson – public servant and pastoralist.
- Mark Jeffrey – wrote famous autobiography.
- Henry Kable – First Fleet convict, arrived with wife and son (Susannah Holmes, also a convict, and Henry) filed 1st lawsuit in Australia, became wealthy businessman.
- Simeon Lord – pioneer merchant and magistrate in Australia.
- Nathaniel Lucas – one of first convicts on Norfolk Island, where he became Master carpenter, later farmed successfully, built windmills, and was Superintendent of carpenters in Sydney.
- Isaac Nichols – entrepreneur, first Postmaster.
- William Redfern – one of the few surgeon convicts.
- Mary Reibey – operated a fleet of ships.
- Henry Savery – Australia's first novelist; author of Quintus Servinton.
- Robert Sidaway – opened Australia's first theatre.
- William Sykes – historically interesting because he left a brief diary and a bundle of letters.
- John Tawell – served his sentence, became a prosperous chemist, returned to England after 15 years, and after some time murdered a mistress, for which he was hanged.
- Samuel Terry – wealthy merchant and philanthropist.
- James Hardy Vaux – author of Australia's first full length autobiography and dictionary.
- Mary Wade – Youngest female convict transported to Australia (11 years of age) who had 21 children and at the time of her death had over 300 living descendants.
- Joseph Wild – explorer.
- Solomon Wiseman – merchant and operated ferry on Hawkesbury River hence town name Wisemans Ferry.
English immigration after 1850
Until 1859, 2.2 million (73%) of the free settlers who immigrated were British.
Many more English people immigrated to Victoria by the gold rush of the 1850s. By 1854 there were 97,943 England-born people in Victoria. Immigration policies and assistance schemes helped maintain high levels of immigration from England. Of the 1 million immigrants who arrived between 1860 and 1900, just over half came from England.
When transportation ended, convicts made up 40 percent of Australia's English-speaking population.
Australians born in England or of English ancestry made up more than 50 percent of the population at the time of Federation (1901). From 1922 the Empire Settlement Act assisted thousands of migrants from England. After World War II, even as immigration from other countries expanded dramatically, English citizens had almost unrestricted entry into Australia. Arthur Calwell, Minister for Immigration, wanted nine out of ten new immigrants to be UK-born. The majority of England-born migrants received assisted passages until the scheme was abolished in 1982. In 2006 the English were still the largest group of overseas-born in Victoria, with over 3% of Victorians born in England.
In 1978 Australians born in England or Australians of predominantly English ancestry made up over 45 per cent of the population.
English ancestry was reported by 6.6 million people (46%) in 1986, and 6.4 million (37%) in 2001.
The United Kingdom continues to be a major source of permanent migrants to Australia. In 2005–06 the country was the largest source of migrants ahead of New Zealand, China and India. English people remain the largest group amongst those born abroad in Sydney.
The founding of Australia by English people is still evident in place names, buildings and street layouts, and that 80 percent of the population speak English as their mother tongue and the Low Church hegemony in the Anglican Diocese of Sydney, the biggest in the country. In Sydney at least 50 suburban names are derived directly from 20 English counties, of which the largest numbers are from Kent, Surrey, and London. Among the best known are Surry Hills, Croydon, Hornsby, Penrith, Chipping Norton, Brighton-le-Sands, Bexley, Canterbury, Ryde, Kensington, Epping, St Ives, Lewisham and Penshurst.
Prime Ministers of English descent
- Edmund Barton, 1st Prime Minister 1901–1903 (English parents.)
- Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister 1903–1904, 1905–08, 1909–10 (English parents.)
- Joseph Cook, 6th Prime Minister 1913–14 (Born in Silverdale, Staffordshire, England.)
- Earle Page, 11th Prime Minister 1939 (Father from London, England.)
- Harold Holt, 17th Prime Minister 1966–67
- John Gorton, 19th Prime Minister 1968–71 (English father.)
- Gough Whitlam, 21st Prime Minister 1972–75 (English descent.)
- John Howard, 25th Prime Minister 1996–2007
- Kevin Rudd, 26th Prime Minister 2007–10, 2013 (His 4th great-grandparents, convicts Thomas Rudd from London and Mary Cable from Essex, England.)
- Tony Abbott, 28th Prime Minister 2013- (Born in London, England )
- Australian Census tables
- The English in Sydney, Sydney Journal, 2008
- "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Australia 2011 census demographic breakdown table, Bloomberg.com".
- 2006 Census QuickStats : Australia. censusdata.abs.gov.au
- D. Richards 'Transported to New South Wales: medical convicts 1788–1850' British Medical Journal Vol 295, 19–26 December 1987, p. 1609
- HISTORICAL RECORDS REVEAL OZ ANCESTORS OF 16 MILLION BRITS
- "History of immigration from England, Immigration Museum, Melbourne, Australia".
- Ancestry.com Launches Largest Online Collection of Records Documenting Australia's Convicted 'Founding Fathers'
- James Jupp (1 October 2001). The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. Cambridge University Press. pp. 336–. ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- Dictionary of Sydney: The English
- The Australian encyclopaedia, Volume 4, Grolier Society of Australia, 1983, p. 35
- Australian Social Trends, 2003
- "Migration: permanent additions to Australia's population". 4102.0 – Australian Social Trends, 2007. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- Edmund Barton. Nma.gov.au. Retrieved on 2012-03-17.
- Australia's Prime Ministers. Primeministers.naa.gov.au (1902-03-18). Retrieved on 2012-03-17.
- Earle Christmas Grafton Page. Adbonline.anu.edu.au. Retrieved on 2012-03-17.
- Christopher Zinn Obituaries: Sir John Gorton. The Guardian. 21 May 2002
- . Retrieved on 2013-10-2013.