British diaspora

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British diaspora
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Total population
5,000,000-6,000,000[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
 Australia 1,072,000
 Spain 1,050,000
 United States 838,000
 Canada 614,000
 France 400,000
 Ireland 318,000
 New Zealand 250,000
 South Africa 222,000
 Germany 107,000
 Switzerland 72,000
 United Arab Emirates 72,000
 India 53,000
 China 47,000
 Bulgaria 18,000
Languages
British English, Cantonese, French, Spanish and language(s) of country of residence.
Religion
Mostly Christianity (or other denominations), minorities practice Islam, Buddhism, Atheism, and other religions.
Related ethnic groups
British people
A world map showing the distribution and concentration of Britons by country.[3]
Legend:

The British diaspora consists of British people and their descendants who emigrated from the present-day United Kingdom, or people who have acquired British Nationality through colonisation. The diaspora is concentrated in countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Hong Kong, as well as parts of the Caribbean and continental Europe, such as Spain. A 2006 publication from the Institute for Public Policy Research estimated 5.5 million British-born people lived outside of the United Kingdom.[3]

According to The Foreign and Commonwealth Office there are 13.1 million British nationals living abroad in 2004–05. These figures are taken from the consular annual returns from overseas posts. There is no requirement for UK citizens to register with British missions overseas and therefore these figures are based on the most reliable information that can be obtained e.g. from host government official statistics.[4]

After the Age of Discovery the various peoples of the British Isles, and especially the English, were among the earliest and by far the largest communities to emigrate out of Europe, and the British Empire's expansion during the first half of the 19th century saw an extraordinary dispersion of the British people, with particular concentrations in Australasia and North America.[5]

The British Empire was "built on waves of migration overseas by British people",[6] who left Great Britain, later the United Kingdom, and reached across the globe and permanently affected population structures in three continents.[5] As a result of the British colonisation of the Americas, what became the United States was "easily the greatest single destination of emigrant British", but in the Federation of Australia the British experienced a birth rate higher than anything seen before, resulting in the displacement of indigenous Australians.[5]

In colonies such as Southern Rhodesia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Jamaica, Barbados, British East Africa and the Cape Colony, permanently resident British communities were established and while never more than a numerical minority these Britons exercised a dominant influence upon the culture and politics of those lands.[6] In Australia, Canada and New Zealand people of British origin came to constitute the majority of the population contributing to these states becoming integral to the Anglosphere.[6]

The British emigrated not only of parts of the British Empire but they went in large numbers to settle in large numbers in Latin America, particularly the Southern Cone. Uruguay and Argentina have large British-descended populations, including a large Welsh population in Patagonia. More a half a million of Chileans have British ancestry and Chilean Culture had been anglicised in the 19th century.

The United Kingdom Census 1861 estimated the size of the overseas British to be around 2.5 million, but concluded that most of these were "not conventional settlers" but rather "travellers, merchants, professionals, and military personnel".[5] By 1890, there were over 1.5 million further British-born people living in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.[5]

The diaspora, maximally interpreted, contains tens of millions of people, including:

British people by country[edit]

The following table lists the estimated number of British people (defined as people who are British Subjects, such as British citizen, British National Overseas or British Overseas Citizen) living overseas by country:[3]

Rank Country British Residents Region
1 Hong Kong 3,750,000[7][8] Asia Pacific
2 Australia 1,300,000 Asia Pacific
3 Spain 1,050,000 Europe
4 USA 838,000 North America
5 Canada 603,000 North America
6 France 400,000 Europe
7 Ireland 291,000 Europe
8 New Zealand 215,000 Asia Pacific
9 South Africa 212,000 Africa
10 Germany 115,000 Europe
11 Cyprus 59,000 Mid East
12 Malaysia 57,000 Asia Pacific
13 UAE 55,000 Mid East
14 Pakistan 47,000 Asia
15 Singapore 45,000 Asia Pacific
16 Switzerland 45,000 Europe
17 Israel 44,000 Mid East
18 Netherlands 44,000 Europe
19 Thailand 41,000 Asia Pacific
20 Portugal 38,000 Europe
21 Turkey 32,000 Eur/Mid East
22 India 32,000 Asia
23 Kenya 29,000 Africa
24 Belgium 28,000 Europe
25 Barbados 27,000 Caribbean
26 Saudi Arabia 26,000 Mid East
27 Italy 26,000 Europe
28 Greece 26,000 Europe
29 Jamaica 26,000 Caribbean
30 Japan 23,000 Asia Pacific
31 Sweden 18,000 Europe
32 Nigeria 16,000 Africa
33 Norway 15,000 Europe
34 Egypt 14,000 Africa
35 Philippines 14,000 Asia Pacific
36 Trinidad and Tobago 11,000 Caribbean
37 Brazil 11,000 South America
38 Bahrain 11,000 Mid East
39 Gaza & West Bank 11,000 Mid East
40 Indonesia 11,000 Asia Pacific
41 Denmark 11,000 Europe
42 Bangladesh 9,200 Asia
43 Malta 9,000 Europe
44 Mexico 8,500 North America
45 Austria 8,500 Europe
46 Argentina 8,300 South America
47 Qatar 8,100 Mid East
48 Oman 7,800 Mid East
49 Malawi 7,400 Africa
50 Venezuela 7,200 South America
51 Jordan 7,200 Mid East
52 Kuwait 7,100 Mid East
53 Czech Republic 6,800 Europe
54 Brunei 6,400 Asia Pacific
55 Macao 6,300 Asia Pacific
56 Zimbabwe 6,100 Africa
57 Russia 6,100 Europe
58 Ghana 5,900 Africa
59 Zambia 5,800 Africa
60 Poland 5,600 Europe
61 Tanzania 5,500 Africa
62 Luxembourg 5,500 Europe
63 Chile 5,200 South America
64 Hungary 5,200 Europe
65 Botswana 5,000 Africa
66 Costa Rica 4,800 North America
67 Peru 4,600 South America
68 Romania 4,500 Europe
69 Sri Lanka 4,400 Asia
70 Bahamas 4,100 Caribbean
72 Vietnam 3,800 Asia Pacific
73 Colombia 3,600 South America
74 Libya 3,600 Africa
75 Gibraltar 3,600 Europe
76 Yemen 3,400 Mid East
77 South Korea 3,400 Asia Pacific
78 Iran 2,900 Mid East
79 Antigua/Barbuda 2,800 Caribbean
80 Finland 2,800 Europe
81 Nepal 2,700 Asia
82 Grenada 2,500 Caribbean
83 Uganda 2,500 Africa
84 Ecuador 2,400 South America
85 Morocco 2,400 Africa
86 Azerbaijan 2,400 Europe
87 Swaziland 2,300 Africa
88 Guyana 2,200 South America
89 Lebanon 2,200 Mid East
90 Syria 2,200 Mid East
91 Belize 2,000 North America
92 Sierra Leone 2,000 Africa
93 Iraq 2,000 Mid East
94 Guatemala 1,900 North America
95 Dominica 1,800 Caribbean
96 Neth Antilles 1,800 Caribbean
97 Seychelles 1,800 Africa
98 Namibia 1,700 Africa
99 Mauritania 1,600 Africa
100 Serbia-Montenegro 1,600 Europe
101 St Lucia 1,500 Caribbean
102 Gambia 1,500 Africa
103 Mozambique 1,400 Africa
104 Tunisia 1,400 Africa
105 St Vincent/Grenadines 1,300 Caribbean
106 Ethiopia 1,300 Africa
107 Sudan 1,300 Africa
108 Ivory Coast 1,200 Africa
109 Dominican Republic 1,100 Caribbean
110 Panama 1,000 North America
111 Br. Virgin Islands 1,000 Caribbean
112 Cambodia 1,000 Asia Pacific
113 Honduras 950 North America
114 Macedonia 950 Europe
115 Papua New Guinea 940 Asia Pacific
116 Iceland 940 Europe
117 Falklands 930 South America
118 Afghanistan 900 Asia
119 Ukraine 900 Europe
120 Croatia 890 Europe
121 St Kitts & Nevis 880 Caribbean
122 Bulgaria 800 Europe
123 Kazakhstan 770 Asia
124 Estonia 750 Europe
125 Mauritius 740 Africa
126 Slovakia 740 Europe
127 Uruguay 690 South America
128 Angola 650 Africa
129 Algeria 630 Africa
130 Bermuda 600 Caribbean
131 Bosnia-Herzegovina 540 Europe
132 Fiji 500 Asia Pacific
133 Bolivia 470 South America
134 Burma 460 Asia Pacific
135 Nicaragua 410 North America
136 El Salvador 390 North America
137 DR Congo 390 Africa
138 Latvia 370 Europe
139 Lesotho 350 Africa
140 Mongolia 340 Asia Pacific
141 Paraguay 330 South America
142 Slovenia 330 Europe
143 Monaco 320 Europe
144 Cameroon 300 Africa
145 Madagascar 300 Africa
146 Lithuania 290 Europe
147 Vanuatu 270 Asia Pacific
148 Anguilla 260 Caribbean
149 Senegal 220 Africa
150 Andorra 210 Europe
151 Tajikistan 200 Asia
152 Georgia 200 Europe
153 Tonga 190 Asia Pacific
154 Albania 190 Europe
155 Cuba 160 Caribbean
156 Montserrat 160 Caribbean
157 Uzbekistan 130 Asia
158 Cayman Islands 110 Caribbean
159 Djibouti 110 Africa
Greenland <100 North America
- Haiti <100 Caribbean
- Puerto Rico <100 Caribbean
- Turks & Caicos <100 Caribbean
- US Virgin Islands <100 Caribbean
- Surinam <100 South America
- Benin <100 Africa
- Burkina Faso <100 Africa
- Cape Verde <100 Africa
- Central African Republic <100 Africa
- Chad <100 Africa
- Congo <100 Africa
- Guinea <100 Africa
- Liberia <100 Africa
- Niger <100 Africa
- Rwanda <100 Africa
- Somalia <100 Africa
- St Helena <100 Africa
- Togo <100 Africa
- Bhutan <100 Asia
- Kyrgyzstan <100 Asia
- Maldives <100 Asia
- Turkmenistan <100 Asia
- Cook Islands <100 Asia Pacific
- French Polynesia <100 Asia Pacific
- Guam <100 Asia Pacific
- Kiribati <100 Asia Pacific
- New Caledonia <100 Asia Pacific
- Norfolk Island <100 Asia Pacific
- North Korea <100 Asia Pacific
- Samoa <100 Asia Pacific
- Solomon Islands <100 Asia Pacific
- Taiwan <100 Asia Pacific
- Tuvalu <100 Asia Pacific
- Armenia <100 Europe
- Belarus <100 Europe
- Faroe Islands <100 Europe
- Liechtenstein <100 Europe
- Moldova <100 Europe
- San Marino <100 Europe

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
Bibliography
  • Ember, Carol R.; Ember, Melvin; Skoggard, Ian A. (2004). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. 
  • Marshall, Peter James (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7.