|23rd Prime Minister of Australia
Elections: 1983, 1984, 1987, 1990
11 March 1983 – 20 December 1991
|Governor General||Sir Ninian Stephen
|Preceded by||Malcolm Fraser|
|Succeeded by||Paul Keating|
|Leader of the Labor Party|
3 February 1983 – 20 December 1991
|Preceded by||Bill Hayden|
|Succeeded by||Paul Keating|
|Leader of the Opposition|
3 February 1983 – 11 March 1983
|Preceded by||Bill Hayden|
|Succeeded by||Andrew Peacock|
|Treasurer of Australia|
3 June 1991 – 4 June 1991
|Preceded by||Paul Keating|
|Succeeded by||John Kerin|
|Member of the Australian Parliament
18 October 1980 – 20 February 1992
|Preceded by||Gordon Bryant|
|Succeeded by||Phil Cleary|
|Born||Robert James Lee Hawke
9 December 1929
Bordertown, South Australia, Australia
|Political party||Australian Labor Party|
|Spouse(s)||Hazel Masterson (1956–1995)
Blanche d'Alpuget (1995–present)
One died in infancy
|Alma mater||University of Western Australia
University College, Oxford
Australian National University
Robert James Lee "Bob" Hawke AC GCL (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian politician and trade unionist who was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia and the parliamentary leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) from 1983 to 1991. After a decade as President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions, he entered the House of Representatives as the Labor MP for Wills at the 1980 federal election. Three years later he led Labor to a landslide victory, and was sworn in as Prime Minister. He led Labor to victory at four federal elections: 1983, 1984, 1987 and 1990, thus making him the most successful Labor leader in history. Hawke was eventually replaced by Paul Keating in 1991. He is, to date, Labor's longest-serving Prime Minister and Australia's third-longest-serving Prime Minister.
Early life and education 
Hawke was born in Bordertown, South Australia. His father, Clem, was a Congregationalist minister, and his uncle, Albert Hawke, was Labor Premier of Western Australia between 1953 and 1959, and was also a close friend of Prime Minister John Curtin, who was in many ways Bob Hawke's role model. Hawke's mother, Ellie, had an almost messianic belief in her son's destiny and this contributed to his supreme self-confidence throughout his career. Both his parents were of Cornish origin and he himself has stated that his background is Cornish. This led the Cornish writer and historian A.L. Rowse to write, "Bob Hawke's characteristics are as Cornish as Australian. I know them well: the aggressive individualism, the egoism, the touchiness, the liability to resentment, even a touch of vindictiveness." While attending the 1952 World Christian Youth Conference, held in Kottayam in Southern India, Hawke was struck by "this enormous sense of irrelevance of religion to the needs of the people" and abandoned his Christian beliefs. By the time he entered politics he was a self-described agnostic. Hawke told Andrew Denton in 2008 that his father's Christian faith continued to influence his outlook however: "[My father] said if you believe in the fatherhood of God you must necessarily believe in the brotherhood of man, it follows necessarily and even though I left the church and was not religious, that truth remained with me."
Hawke was raised in Perth, attending Perth Modern School and completing Bachelor of Arts in Law and Economics at the University of Western Australia. At age 15, he boasted that he would one day become Prime Minister of Australia. He joined Labor in 1947, and successfully applied for a Rhodes Scholarship at the end of 1952. In 1953, Hawke went to the University of Oxford to commence a Bachelor of Arts at University College. He soon found he was covering much the same ground as his Bachelor's degree from Perth, and switched to a Bachelor of Letters, with a thesis on wage-fixing in Australia. The thesis was successfully presented in January 1956.
His academic achievements were complemented by setting a new world speed record for beer drinking; he downed 2 imperial pints (1.4 l) - equivalent to a 1⁄2yard of ale - from a sconce pot in 11 seconds as part of a college penalty. In his memoirs, Hawke suggested that this single feat may have contributed to his political success more than any other, by endearing him to a voting population with a strong beer culture.
In March 1956, Hawke married Hazel Masterson at Trinity Church, Perth, Western Australia. They would eventually have three children: Susan Pieters-Hawke (born 1957), Stephen (born 1959) and Roslyn (born 1960). Their fourth child, Robert Jr, died in his early infancy in 1963. In the same year, Hawke accepted a scholarship to undertake doctoral studies in the area of arbitration law in the law department of the Australian National University, Canberra. Soon after arrival at ANU, Hawke became the students' representative on the University Council.
In 1957, Hawke was recommended to ACTU President Albert Monk to become a research officer, replacing Harold Souter who had become ACTU Secretary. The recommendation was made by Hawke's mentor at ANU, H.P. Brown, who for a number of years had assisted the ACTU in national wage cases. Hawke decided to abandon his doctoral studies and accept the offer, moving to Melbourne.
ACTU President 
Not long after Hawke began work at the ACTU, he became responsible for the presentation of its annual case for higher wages to the national wages tribunal, the Conciliation and Arbitration Commission. He was first appointed as an ACTU advocate in 1959. The 1958 case, under advocate R.L Eggleston, had yielded only a five-shilling increase. The 1959 case found for a fifteen-shilling increase, and was regarded as a personal triumph for Hawke. He went on to attain such success and prominence in his role as an ACTU advocate that, in 1969, he was encouraged to run for ACTU President, despite the fact that he had never held elected office in a trade union.
He was elected ACTU President in 1969 on a modernising platform, by a narrow margin of 399 to 350, and with the support of the left of the union movement, including some associated with the Communist Party. He has credited Ray Gietzelt, General Secretary of the FMWU, as the single most significant union figure in helping him achieve this outcome.
Hawke declared publicly that "socialist is not a word I would use to describe myself" and his approach to government was pragmatic. He concerned himself with making improvements to workers' lives from within the traditional institutions of government, rather than to any ideological theory. He opposed the Vietnam War, but was a strong supporter of the US-Australian alliance, and also an emotional supporter of Israel. It was his commitment to the cause of Jewish Refuseniks that led to a planned assassination attempt on Hawke by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and its Australian operative Munif Mohammed Abou Rish.
In industrial matters, Hawke continued to demonstrate a preference for, and considerable skill at, negotiation, and was generally liked and respected by employers as well as the unions he advocated for. As early as 1972 speculation began that he would soon enter Parliament and run to become Labor's parliamentary leader. But while his career continued successfully, his heavy use of alcohol and his notorious womanising placed considerable strains on his family life.
In 1973 Hawke was elected Labor's Federal President. Two years later, when the Whitlam Government was controversially dismissed by the Governor-General, Hawke showed an initial keenness to enter Parliament at the ensuing election. Harry Jenkins, Sr., the member for Scullin, came under pressure to stand aside for Hawke, but he strongly resisted this push. Hawke then decided not to enter Parliament at that time, a decision he soon regretted. After Labor was defeated at the election, Whitlam initially offered the Labor leadership to Hawke, although it was not within Whitlam's power to decide who would succeed him. Hawke was, however, influential in averting national strike action. The strain of this period took its toll, and in 1979 he suffered a physical collapse.
This shock led Hawke to make a sustained and ultimately successful effort to conquer his alcoholism – John Curtin was his inspiration in this, as in other things. He was helped in this by his relationship with the writer Blanche d'Alpuget, who in 1982 published an admiring biography of Hawke. His popularity with the public was unaffected by this period, and polling suggested that he was a far more popular public figure than either Labor leader Bill Hayden or Liberal Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser.
Member of Parliament 
Hawke's first attempt to enter Parliament came during the 1963 federal election. He stood in the seat of Corio and managed to achieve a 3.1% swing against the national trend, but fell short of winning the seat. He was first elected to the House of Representatives at the 1980 federal election for Wills in Melbourne. Immediately upon his entry into Parliament, Hawke was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet by Labor leader Bill Hayden as Shadow Minister for Industrial Relations, Employment and Youth. With opinion polls indicating that, in contrast to Hayden, Hawke was "a certain election winner", Hayden called a leadership ballot for 16 July 1982. Hayden managed to defeat Hawke and remain Labor leader, but his five vote victory over the former ACTU President was not large enough to dispel doubts that he could lead the Labor to victory at a federal election.
Hayden's leadership was further questioned when Labor performed poorly in a by-election in December 1982 for the Victorian seat of Flinders, following the resignation of the former Liberal Minister Sir Phillip Lynch. Labor needed a swing of 5.5% to win the seat, but could only achieve 3%. This convinced many Labor MPs that only Hawke could lead Labor to victory at the upcoming election. Labor Party power-brokers such as Graham Richardson and Barrie Unsworth now lined up behind Hawke. More significantly, Hayden's staunch friend and political ally, Labor Senate Leader John Button, eventually became convinced that Hawke's chances of victory were greater than Hayden's. Button's defection was crucial in encouraging Hayden to resign as Labor leader less than two months after the lacklustre performance in Flinders. When Hayden announced his resignation on 3 February 1983, Hawke was named acting leader. On the same day, Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser called a snap election for 5 March 1983, hoping to capitalise on Labor's feuding. He believed at first that he had caught Labor before it could elect a replacement Leader, but was surprised to find out that Hayden had already resigned. Hawke was elected Leader of the Labor Party, and twenty-five days later Labor won on a 24-seat swing, ending seven years of Liberal rule. [Fraser resigned as Liberal leader and departed parliamentary life two months later.]
Prime Minister 
The inaugural days of the Hawke Government were distinctly different from those of the Whitlam Government. Rather than immediately initiating extensive reform programmes, Hawke announced that Fraser's pre-election concealment of the budget deficit meant that many of Labor's election commitments would have to be deferred. Hawke managed to persuade Labor MPs to divide the Government into two tiers, with only the most important ministers attending regular meetings of the Cabinet. Caucus still selected the full ministry, but allowed Hawke to select which ministers would comprise the 13-strong Cabinet. This was to avoid what Hawke viewed as the unwieldy nature of the 27-member Whitlam Cabinet. The caucus under Hawke also exhibited a much more formalised system of parliamentary factions, which significantly altered the dynamics of caucus operations.
Hawke used his authority within the Labor Party to carry out a substantial set of policy changes. Accounts from ministers indicate that while Hawke was not usually the driving force for economic reform, that impetus instead coming from Treasurer Paul Keating and Industry Minister John Button, he took on the role of achieving consensus and providing political guidance on what was electorally feasible and how best to sell it to the public, at which he was highly successful. Hawke proved to be incredibly popular with the Australian electorate, and continues to hold the highest ever AC Nielsen approval rating.
Hawke and Keating provided a study in contrasts: Hawke was a Rhodes Scholar; Keating left high school early. Hawke's enthusiasms were cigars, horse racing and all forms of sport; Keating preferred classical architecture, Mahler symphonies, and collecting English Regency and French Empire antiques. Hawke was consensus-driven; Keating revelled in aggressive debate. Hawke was a lapsed Protestant; Keating was a practising Catholic. Despite their differences, however, the two formed an effective political partnership.
According to political commentator Paul Kelly, "the most influential economic decisions of the 1980s were the floating of the Australian Dollar and the deregulation of the financial system". Although the Fraser Government had played a part in the process of financial deregulation by commissioning the Campbell Report, – published in 1981, opposition from Fraser himself stalled the deregulation process. When the Hawke Government implemented a comprehensive program of financial deregulation and reform, it "transformed economics and politics in Australia". The Australian economy became significantly more integrated with the global economy as a result. Both Hawke and Keating would claim the credit for being the driving force behind the Australian Dollar float.
Among other reforms, the Hawke Government dismantled the tariff system, privatised state sector industries, ended subsidisation of loss-making industries, and sold off the state-owned Commonwealth Bank of Australia. The tax system was reformed, with the introduction of fringe benefits tax and a capital gains tax, a reform strongly opposed by the Liberal Party at the time, but not one they reversed when they eventually returned to office. Partially offsetting these imposts upon the business community – the 'main loser' from the 1985 Tax Summit, according to Paul Kelly – was the introduction of full dividend imputation, a reform insisted upon by Keating. Funding for schools was considerably increased, while financial assistance was provided for students to enable them to stay at school longer. Considerable progress was also made in directing assistance "to the most disadvantaged recipients over the whole range of welfare benefits."
Hawke benefited greatly from the disarray into which the Liberal Party fell after the resignation of Malcolm Fraser. The Liberals were divided between supporters of the dour, socially conservative John Howard and the urbane Andrew Peacock. The arch-conservative Premier of Queensland, Joh Bjelke-Petersen, added to the Liberals' problems with his "Joh for Canberra" campaign in 1987, which proved highly damaging. Exploiting these divisions, Hawke led the Labor Party to comfortable election victories in a snap 1984 federal election and the 1987 federal election.
Hawke's time as Prime Minister saw considerable friction between himself and the grassroots of the Labor Party, who were unhappy at what they viewed as Hawke's iconoclasm and willingness to cooperate with business interests. All Labor Prime Ministers have at times engendered the hostility of the organisational wing of the party, but none more so than Hawke, who expressed his willingness to cull Labor's "sacred cows". The Socialist Left faction, as well as prominent Labor figure Barry Jones, offered severe criticism of a number of government decisions. He also received criticism for his 'confrontationalist style' in siding with the airlines in the 1989 Australian pilots' strike.
In spite of the criticisms levelled against the Hawke Government, it succeeded in enacting a wide range of social reforms during its time in office. Deflecting arguments that the Hawke Government had failed as a reform government, Neville Wran, John Dawkins, Bill Hayden, and Paul Keating made a number of speeches during the Eighties arguing that the Hawke Government had been a recognisably reformist government, drawing attention to Hawke's achievements as Prime Minister during his first five years in office. As well as the reintroduction of Medibank, under the name Medicare, these included a doubling of child care places, the introduction of occupational superannuation, a boost in school retention rates, a focus on young people's job skills, a doubling of subsidised home care services, the elimination of poverty traps in the welfare system, a 50% increase in public housing funds, an increase in the real value of the old-age pension, the development of a new youth support program, the re-introduction of six-monthly indexation of single adult unemployment benefits, and significant improvements in social security provisions. As pointed out by John Dawkins, the proportion of total government outlays allocated to families, the sick, single parents, widows, the handicapped, and veterans had been higher under the Hawke Government than under the Whitlam Government.
Another notable success for which Hawke's response is given considerable credit was Australia's public health campaign about AIDS. In the later years of the Hawke Government, Aboriginal affairs also saw considerable attention, with an investigation of the idea of a treaty between Aborigines and the Government, though this idea was overtaken by events, notably including the Mabo court decision.
The Hawke Government also made some notable environmental decisions. In its first months in office it stopped the construction of the Franklin Dam, on the Franklin River in Tasmania, responding to a groundswell of protest about the issue. In 1990, a looming tight election saw a tough political operator, Graham Richardson, appointed Environment Minister, whose task it was to attract second-preference votes from the Australian Democrats and other environmental parties. Richardson claimed this as a major factor in the government's narrow re-election at the 1990 federal election, Hawke's last triumph.
Richardson felt that the importance of his contribution to Labor's victory would automatically entitle him to the ministerial portfolio of his choice – Transport and Communications. He was shocked, however, at what he perceived as Hawke's ingratitude in allocating him Social Security instead. He vowed – in a telephone conversation with Peter Barron, a former Hawke political staffer – to do 'whatever it takes' to 'get' Hawke. He immediately transferred his allegiance to Keating and subsequently claimed credit for playing a vital role in Keating's campaign for the leadership as a numbers man.
The late 1980s recession and high interest rates saw the government in considerable electoral trouble. Although Keating was the main architect of the government's economic policies, he took advantage of Hawke's declining popularity to plan a leadership challenge. In 1988 Hawke had responded to pressure from Keating to step down by making a secret agreement (the so-called "Kirribilli agreement" or "Kirribilli accord") to resign in favour of Keating some time after winning the 1990 election. After Keating made a speech to the Federal Parliamentary Press Gallery that Hawke considered disloyal, Hawke indicated to Keating that he would renege on the agreement.
In June 1991, Keating responded by resigning from the Cabinet and challenging for the leadership. Hawke defeated Keating's leadership challenge, but he was thereafter seen as a wounded leader. Hawke swore himself in as Treasurer for one day while he decided between the rival claims of Ralph Willis and John Kerin to replace Keating. Hawke eventually chose Kerin, who proved to be unequal to the job.
Hawke's leadership was further damaged as a consequence of the new Liberal Leader, John Hewson, releasing Fightback!, a detailed proposal for sweeping economic change, including a goods and services tax and deep cuts to government spending and personal income tax in November 1991. Hawke's response to this challenge was judged to be ineffective, and a rattled Labor Party turned to Keating. At a second leadership challenge on 19 December 1991, Keating defeated Hawke by 56 votes to 51. Hawke briefly returned to the backbenches before resigning from Parliament on 20 February 1992, sparking a by-election which was won by independent Phil Cleary from a record field of 22 candidates.
Hawke had few regrets, although his bitterness towards Keating surfaced in his memoirs. Hawke now claims to have buried his differences and considers Keating a friend.
By July 1990, Hawke had overtaken Malcolm Fraser to become Australia's second-longest serving Prime Minister. This record has since been overtaken by John Howard, making Hawke Australia's third-longest serving Prime Minister. He remains to this day the Labor Party's longest-serving Prime Minister.
After leaving Parliament, Hawke entered the business world with considerable success. Hazel Hawke, who for the sake of the Labor cause had put up with his open relationship with biographer Blanche d'Alpuget while he was Prime Minister, divorced him, and shortly afterwards Hawke married d'Alpuget.
He had little to do with the Labor Party during Keating's time as Prime Minister, often criticising him publicly. After Keating's defeat and the election of the John Howard at the 1996 federal election, he became a close supporter of Opposition Leader Kim Beazley.
In the run up to the 2007 federal election, Hawke, then 78, made a considerable personal effort to support Labor's campaign, making speeches at a large number of campaign office openings across Australia. As well as campaigning against WorkChoices, Hawke also attacked John Howard's record as Treasurer, stating "it was the judgement of every economist and international financial institution that it was the restructuring reforms undertaken by my government with the full cooperation of the trade union movement which created the strength of the Australian economy today".
In 2009, Hawke helped establish the Centre for Muslim and Non-Muslim Understanding at the University of South Australia. Interfaith dialogue is an important issue for Hawke, who told the Adelaide Review that he is "convinced that one of the great potential dangers confronting the world is the lack of understanding in regard to the Muslim world. Fanatics have misrepresented what Islam is. They give a false impression of the essential nature of Islam."
In 2011 Hawke publicly supported NSW Premier Kristina Keneally in an election campaign, who was facing almost certain defeat to Liberal opposition leader Barry O'Farrell, describing her campaign as "gutsy".
On the 8th April 2013 Bob Hawke was noted in previously secret US embassy and consulate reports, incorporated in a new searchable database unveiled by WikiLeaks, as “Then ACTU president Bob Hawke was the embassy's most valued Labor contact, as he conferred regularly with embassy officers and the US consulate in Melbourne”.
In late 2008, he was made Grand Companion of the Order of Logohu, the highest Papua New Guinean honour available to non-Papua New Guinean citizens, entitling him to be referred to as "Chief". In a letter to Bob Hawke, Papua New Guinean Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare informed him that he was being honoured for his "support for Papua New Guinea [...] from the time you assisted in the development of our trade union movement, and basic workplace conditions, to the strong support you gave us during your term as Prime Minister of Australia".
In August 2009 Bob Hawke became just the third person to be awarded life membership of the Australian Labor Party.
- Honorary Fellow – University College, Oxford
- Honorary Doctor of Letters – University of Western Australia
- Honorary Doctor of Civil Law – Oxford University
- Honorary Doctor of Humanities – Rikkyo University
- other honorary doctoral degrees from Nanjing University, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of New South Wales, and the University of South Australia
- The University of South Australia named the Bob Hawke Prime Ministerial Library in his honour.
Television film 
A television film titled Hawke detailing his political career aired on the Ten Network in Australia on 18 July 2010, with Richard Roxburgh playing the title character. Rachael Blake and Felix Williamson portrayed Hazel Hawke and Paul Keating respectively. Patrick Brammall starred as then Deputy Prime Minister Kim Beazley.
See also 
- Hawke Government
- Hawke-Keating Government
- First Hawke Ministry
- Second Hawke Ministry
- Third Hawke Ministry
- Fourth Hawke Ministry
- Australian Labor Party leadership spill, June 1991
- Australian Labor Party leadership spill, December 1991
- The Accord
- Davidson, G., et al (1998), p. 302
- Rowse, A.L. The little land of Cornwall, 1986.
- Matthew Ricketson, The best Australian profiles, p. 30, 2004
- Sydney Cauveren. A.L. Rowse: a bibliophile's extensive bibliography, 2000
- "Elders Part 5: Bob Hawke". Elders with Andrew Denton. 11 January 2010. http://www.abc.net.au/tv/enoughrope/transcripts/s2301431.htm.
- Blanche d'Alpuget, Robert J. Hawke, 87
- "ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 176: Elders Part 5 - Bob Hawke (14/07/2008)". Abc.net.au. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- Iyer, Pico (14 March 1983). "Australia: Hawke Swoops into Power, Time/CNN, 14 March 1983". Time.com. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Hurst, J., (1983), p.18
- Hawke, Bob (1994), p.19
- Hawke, Bob (1994), p.24
- Hurst, J., (1983), p.20
- Hawke, Bob (1994), p.28
- Bob Hawke (1994). The Hawke Memoirs. Heinemann. p. 28. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- "Media Man Australia: The Online Home of Greg Tingle, Journalist & TV Presenter". Mediaman.com.au. 3 December 2003. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Hurst, J., (1983), p.25
- Hurst, J., (1983), p.26
- Hurst (1983), p.27
- Hurst (1983), p.31
- Hurst, J., (1983), p.78
- United Voice, SMH Obituary
- "Terrorists plotted Hawke assassination: ASIO". Melbourne: Theage.com.au. 31 December 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Davidson, G., et al (1998), p. 303
- Obituary "Labor stalwart who would not stand aside for Bob Hawke", The Age, 6 August 2004, p.9
- Hawke (1994), p.70
- Hurst, J., (1983), p.198
- [dead link]
- Hurst, J., (1983), p. 262
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.24
- Hurst, J., (1983), p. 269
- Hurst, J., (1983), p. 270
- Hurst, J., (1983), p. 273
- Hurst, J., (1983), p. 275
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.57
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.30
- "The biggest hammering in history". Sydney Morning Herald. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- Edwards, J.,(1996), p.44
- Edwards, J.,(1996), p.6, p.48
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.76
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.78
- Edwards, J.,(1996), pp.216–217
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.665
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.672
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.175
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.174
- Ross McMullin, The Light on the Hill: The Australian Labor Party 1891-1991
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.544
- "Achievements of the Federal Labor Government - 1983-1986". Pandora.nla.gov.au. 23 August 2006. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- [dead link]
- Whitlam, Wran and the Labor tradition: Labor history essays, volume two By Gough Whitlam, Australian Labor Party, New South Wales Branch
- "Wran/1986 The Great Tradition-Labor Reform from Curtin to Hawke". John.curtin.edu.au. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- For discussion see William Bowtell, Australia's Response to HIV/AIDS 1982–2005, Lowy Institute for International Policy, May 2005
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.528
- Richardson, G., (1994), pp. 276–277
- Richardson, G., (1994), p.281
- Richardson, G., (1994), p.282
- Richardson, G., (1994), p.311
- Kelly, P., (1992), p.454
- Hawke (1994), p.501. This was the speech in which Keating described himself as the 'Placido Domingo' of Australian politics.
- Edwards, J., (1996), p.435
- Kelly, P., (1992), pp.649–651
- Kelly, P., (1992), pp.609–614
- Edwards, J.,(1996), p.441
- "National Archive of Australia – Australia's Prime Ministers". Primeministers.naa.gov.au. 20 February 1992. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Hawke and Keating bury the hatchet – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. 13 July 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "How the British came, saw and helped Rudd – National –". Melbourne: Theage.com.au. 16 December 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- 1994 Year in Review – Australia Encyclopædia Britannica online
- "Hawke queries record of man who 'buggered' the economy". Melbourne: The Age. 24 October 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Ward, Amanda (December 2009). "World peace and a republic". Adelaide Review (358). pp. 6–7. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- ABC, News (24 March 2011). "Hawke praises Keneally's 'gutsy' Campaign". ABC News. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- "It's an Honour". Government of Australia. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- "Former Australian Prime Minister Named PNG Chief", Solomon Times, 8 January 2009
- "ALP life membership for Bob Hawke". News.com.au. 1 August 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "The Bob Hawke Prime Ministerial Library". UniSA. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- "Bob Hawke biography". UniSA. Retrieved 15 December 2007.
- "Hawke(2010)". IMDb. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- Anson, Stan (1991). Hawke: An Emotional Life. Macphee Gribble. ISBN 0-86914-279-8, 0869141961 Check
- Blewett, Neal (2000), 'Robert James Lee Hawke,' in Michelle Grattan (ed.), Australian Prime Ministers, New Holland, Sydney, New South Wales, pages 380-407. ISBN 1-86436-756-3
- Bramston, Troy and Ryan, Susan (2003). The Hawke Government : A Critical Retrospective. Pluto. ISBN 1-86403-264-2.
- d'Alpuget, Blanche (1982). Robert J Hawke. Schwartz. ISBN 0-86753-001-4.
- Davidson, Graham; Hirst, John; MacIntyre, Stuart (1998). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553597-9.
- Edwards, John (1996). Keating, The Inside Story. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026601-1.
- Hawke, Bob (1994). The Hawke Memoirs. Heinemann. ISBN 0-85561-502-8.
- Hurst, John (1983). Hawke PM. Angus & Robertson. ISBN 0-207-14806-6.
- Jaensch, Dean (1989). The Hawke-Keating Hijack. Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-04-370192-2.
- Kelly, Paul (1992). The End of Certainty: The story of the 1980s. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86373-227-6.
- Mills, Stephen (1993). The Hawke Years. Viking. ISBN 0-670-84563-9.
- Richardson, Graham (1994). Whatever It Takes. Bantam. ISBN 1-86359-332-2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bob Hawke|
- Hawke Swoops into Power – Time 14 March 1983
- Robert Hawke – Australia's Prime Ministers / National Archives of Australia
- Bob Hawke Prime Ministerial Centre
- Player profile: Bob Hawke from CricketArchive
- Video of Hawke campaigning for McKew in Bennellong in late 2007
- Video of Hawke campaigning for an Australian republic
- Video of Norman Gunston, Gough Whitlam, Bill Hayden and Bob Hawke at 'The Dismissal'
|Leader of the Opposition
|Prime Minister of Australia
|Treasurer of Australia
|Parliament of Australia|
|Member for Wills
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Labor Party
|President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions