Enrofloxacin

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Enrofloxacin
Enrofloxacin Structural Formulae.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Pregnancy cat.
Legal status
Routes Oral, subcutaneous injection, topical (ear drops)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 80% in dogs, 65-75% in sheep [1]
Metabolism Renal and non-renal[2]
Half-life 4–5 hours in dogs, 6 hours in cats, 1.5 - 4.5 hours in sheep.
Excretion Bile (70%); Renal (30%)[3]
Identifiers
CAS number 93106-60-6 YesY
ATCvet code QJ01MA90
PubChem CID 71188
ChemSpider 64326 YesY
UNII 3DX3XEK1BN YesY
KEGG D02473 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:35720 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL15511 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C19H22FN3O3 
Mol. mass 359.4
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic sold by the Bayer Corporation under the trade name Baytril. Enrofloxacin is currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of individual pets and domestic animals in the United States. In September 2005, the FDA withdrew approval of Baytril for use in water to treat flocks of poultry, as this practice was noted to promote the evolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of the bacterium Campylobacter, a human pathogen.[4] Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin are widely used in the treatment of human disease.

It is a bactericidal agent. The bactericidal activity of enrofloxacin is concentration-dependent, with susceptible bacteria cell death occurring within 20–30 minutes of exposure. Enrofloxacin has demonstrated a significant post-antibiotic effect for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and is active in both stationary and growth phases of bacterial replication.

Activity and Susceptibility Data[edit]

Enrofloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial agent from the class of the fluoroquinolone carboxylic acid derivatives. It has antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Its mechanism of action is not thoroughly understood, but it is believed to act by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase (a type-II topoisomerase), thereby preventing DNA supercoiling and DNA synthesis. It is effective against:

Variable activity against:

Ineffective against:


The following data represents minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges for a few medically significant bacterial pathogens:

  • Escherichia coli - 0.004 µg/mL - 512 µg/mL
  • Staphylococcus aureus - 0.0925 µg/mL - 64 µg/mL
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa - 0.05 µg/mL [5]

Contraindications/precautions[edit]

Usage in poultry.

Adverse effects/warnings[edit]

Enrofloxacin was banned for poultry use in 2005 [6]

Baytril should not be used in rapidly growing animals (for example dogs under 12 months - 18 months in large breeds, or kittens under 8 weeks) as it causes abnormalities in the development of articular cartilage.[citation needed]

Overdosage/acute toxicity[edit]

It is unlikely that an acute overdose of either compound would result in symptoms more serious than either anorexia or vomiting, but the adverse effects noted above could occur. Dogs receiving 10 times the labeled dosage rate of enrofloxacin for at least 14 days developed only vomiting and anorexia. Death did occur in some dogs when fed 25 times the labeled rate for 11 days, however.

  • Oral LD50: greater than 5000 mg/kg
  • Dermal LD50: greater than 2000 mg/kg
  • Inhalation LD50: greater than 3547 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure)
  • Eye effects: irritant; reversible in less than 7 days. In cats, it can produce sudden onset blindness when administered by injection, as

Degradation[edit]

The brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum can degrade the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin using hydroxyl radicals. [7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Plumb DC. Enrofloxacin. Veterinary Drug Handbook, fifth edition.
  2. ^ Plumb DC. Enrofloxacin. Veterinary Drug Handbook, fifth edition.
  3. ^ http://www.animalhealth.bayer.com/5175.0.html
  4. ^ http://www.fda.gov/cvm/FQWithdrawal.html FDA statement on withdrawal of Baytril for use in poultry
  5. ^ http://antibiotics.toku-e.com/antimicrobial_588_1.html
  6. ^ Washington Post, April 30, 2005 FDA Calls Efforts For Bayer Illegal Lawmakers' Help for Drug Firm Tests Limits Dan Morgan and Marc Kaufman
  7. ^ Wetzstein HG; Schmeer N; Karl W. "Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum striatum: identification of metabolites". Applied Environmental Biology 63: 4272-81.