Fairchild F-27

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F-27 / FH-227
Fairchild-Hil FH.227B PP-BUH Congonhas 06.05.72 edited-2.jpg
A Fairchild Hiller FH-227B of VARIG at Congonhas Airport Sao Paulo in 1972
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Fairchild Hiller
First flight November 24, 1955
Introduction 1958
Status Most retired
Number built 128 (F-27)
78 (FH-227)
Developed from Fokker F27

The Fairchild F-27 and Fairchild Hiller FH-227 were versions of the Fokker F27 Friendship twin-engined turboprop passenger aircraft manufactured under license by Fairchild Hiller in the United States. The Fairchild F-27 (written with a dash) was similar to the standard Fokker F27, while the FH-227 was an independently developed stretched version.

Design and development[edit]

Fairchild F-27J of Air South in 1974, showing the shorter fuselage of this version.

The Fokker F27 began life as a 1950 design study known as the P275, a 32 seater powered by two Rolls-Royce Dart turboprops. With the aid of Dutch government funding, the P275 evolved into the F27, which first flew on November 24, 1955. The first prototype was powered by Dart 507s and would have seated 28. To correct a slight tail-heaviness and to allow for more seats, the second prototype (which first flew in January 1957) had a 3-foot-longer (0.91 m) fuselage, which would allow seating for 32.

A Fairchild Hiller FH-227B "The City of Glen Falls" of the defunct Mohawk Airlines circa 1970

By this stage Fokker had signed an agreement that would see Fairchild build Friendships in the USA as the F-27. The first aircraft of either manufacturer to enter service was in fact a Fairchild-built F-27, with West Coast Airlines in September 1958. Other Fairchild F-27 operators in the U.S. included Air West, Allegheny Airlines, Aloha Airlines, Bonanza Air Lines, Hughes Airwest, Pacific Air Lines, Piedmont Airlines, and Wien Air Alaska. U.S. operators of the Fairchild Hiller FH-227 included Delta Air Lines, Mohawk Airlines, Northeast Airlines, Ozark Air Lines and Piedmont Airlines.

Fairchild F-27s differed from the initial Fokker F27 Mk 100s in having basic seating for 40, heavier external skinning, a lengthened nose capable of housing a weather radar, and additional fuel capacity. They also incorporated a passenger airstair door in the rear of the aircraft, operated by a flight attendant, which eliminated the need for separate stairs on the ground.

Developments were the F-27A with more powerful engines and the F-27B Combi version. The F-27B Combi passenger/freight version was operated in Alaska by Northern Consolidated Airlines and Wien Air Alaska.

Fairchild independently developed the stretched FH-227, which appeared almost two years earlier than Fokker's similar F27 Mk 500. The FH-227 featured a 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) stretch over standard length F27/F-27s, taking standard seating to 56, with a larger cargo area between the cockpit and the passenger cabin.

Production[edit]

The FH-227D that crashed in the Andes in 1972 as Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya Flight 571.

In addition to the 581 F27s built by Fokker, 128 F-27s and 78 FH-227s were built. In February 2010, only one Fairchild FH-227 aircraft, FH-227E serial number 501 belonging to the Myanmar Air Force, remained in active service.[citation needed]

Former Operators[edit]

(Source:Roach & Eastwood)

 Algeria
 Argentina
 Brazil
 France
  • Air Melanesie (F-27)
  • Air Polynesie (F-27)
 Turkey
USA

Notable accidents[edit]

Of the 78 FH-227's built, 23 crashed.[1]

  • On March 10, 1967 West Coast Airlines Flight 720 crashed with four fatalities and no survivors near Klamath Falls, Oregon. The Fairchild F-27 was bound for Medford, Oregon from Klamath falls, and crashed due to ice accumulation on the aircraft.
  • On 10 August 1968, Piedmont Airlines Flight 230 was on an ILS localizer-only approach to Charleston-Kanawha County Airport (CRW) runway 23 when it struck trees 360 feet from the runway threshold. The aircraft continued and struck up-sloping terrain short of the runway in a nose down attitude. The aircraft continued up the hill and onto the airport, coming to rest 6 feet beyond the threshold and 50 feet from the right edge of the runway. A layer of dense fog was obscuring the runway threshold and about half of the approach lights. Visual conditions existed outside the fog area. All three crew members and thirty-two of the thirty-four passengers perished. The National Transportation Safety Board blamed the accident on an "unrecognized loss of altitude orientation during the final portion of an approach into shallow, dense fog." The disorientation was caused by a rapid reduction in the ground guidance segment available to the pilot at a point beyond which a go-around could be successfully effected.[2]
  • On December 2, 1968 Wien Consolidated Airlines F-27B, N4905B, encountered severe to extreme turbulence near Pedro Bay, Alaska, resulting in separation of right wing and loss of all 39 on board. Pre-existing fatigue cracks contributed to wing failure. (NTSB DCA69A0006)
  • On 14 March 1970 a Paraense Fairchild Hiller FH-227B registration PP-BUF operating flight 903 from São Luiz to Belém-Val de Cans, while on final approach to land at Belém, crashed into Guajará Bay. Of the 40 passengers and crew, 3 survived.[3][4]
  • On July 23, 1973, Ozark Air Lines Flight 809 was operated by one of the company's Fairchild-Hiller FH-227's, registration N4215. The flight was scheduled to go from Nashville, Tennessee to St. Louis, Missouri, with 4 intermediate stops. The segments to Clarksville, Paducah, Cape Girardeau, and Marion proceeded normally. Crashed in storm downdraft on final approach to St. Louis. 38 fatalities, 6 survivors.
  • On August 8, 1975, Wien Air Alaska F-27B, N4904, crashed into mountain on approach in bad weather at Gamble, Alaska, killing 10 and seriously injuring 20. (NTSB DCA76AZ004)
  • On 29 March 1979, Québecair Flight 255, a Fairchild F-27, crashed after take-off killing 17 and injuring 7.
  • On 24 January 1980, a Burma Air Force FH-227 crashed due to engine failure shortly after take-off, killing all but one of the 44 people on board. One person on the ground was injured.
  • On 9 December 1982, an Aeronor Chile F-27A was operating as Flight 304 on a scheduled domestic service from Santiago to La Serena, Chile. On final approach to La Serena's La Florida Airport the aircraft stalled and crashed, bursting into flames on impact. All 42 passengers and four crew on board died.[7]
  • On 4 March 1988, a TAT European Airlines FH-227B operating a scheduled service from Nancy to Paris Orly as TAT Flight 230 crashed near Fontainebleau, France, killing all 23 occupants. An electrical malfunction during the start of the aircraft's descent had resulted in a sudden loss of control.[8]
  • On 25 January 1993, a TABA Fairchild Hiller FH-227 registration PT-LCS operating a cargo flight from Belém-Val de Cans to Altamira crashed into the jungle near Altamira during night-time approach procedures. The crew of 3 died.[11]
  • On 28 November 1995, a TABA Fairchild Hiller FH-227 registration PP-BUJ operating a cargo flight from Belém-Val de Cans to Santarém crashed on its second attempt to approach Santarém. The crew of 2 and 1 of the 2 occupants died.[12]

Specifications (FH-227E)[edit]

Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1969-70[13]

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two (pilot & co-pilot)
  • Capacity: 52 seats at 79 cm (31 in) pitch, or a maximum of 56
  • Payload: 11,200 lb (5,080 kg)
  • Length: 83 ft 8 in (25.50 m)
  • Wingspan: 95 ft 2 in (29.00 m)
  • Height: 27 ft 7 in (8.41 m)
  • Wing area: 754 ft² (70.0 m²)
  • Empty weight: 22,923 lb (10,398 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 43,500 lb (19,730 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Dart RDa.7 Mk 532-7L turboprops, 2,300 ehp (1,715 kW) each

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Surviving the Andes Plane Crash (2010) Gary Orlando FH-227 historian
  2. ^ http://libraryonline.erau.edu/online-full-text/ntsb/aircraft-accident-reports/AAR69-06.pdf
  3. ^ "Accident description PP-BUF". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  4. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "O fim da Paraense". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 267–268. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  5. ^ "Accident description PT-LBV". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  6. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Aru traiçoeiro". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 327–331. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  7. ^ Aviation Safety Network CC-CJE accident synopsis retrieved 2010-06-23
  8. ^ Aviation-safety.net F-GCPS accident description.
  9. ^ "Accident description PT-ICA". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  10. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Nevoeiro na reta final". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 361–363. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  11. ^ "Accident description PT-LCS". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  12. ^ "Accident description PP-BUJ". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  13. ^ Taylor 1969, pp.321-322.
Bibliography
  • Roach, J.R. and Eastwood A.B., Turboprop Airliner Production List. The Aviation Hobby Shop. 1998. ISBN 0-907178-69-3.
  • Taylor, John W.R.(ed.) Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1969-70. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1969.

External links[edit]

Media related to Fairchild F-27 at Wikimedia Commons