Varig

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For the use of the brand Varig after 2007, see Gol Transportes Aéreos.
VARIG – Viação Aérea Rio-Grandense S.A.
Logo of Varig until 2007
IATA
RG
ICAO
VRG
Callsign
VARIG
Founded 7 May 1927 (1927-05-07)
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Ceased operations 2006
Hubs Rio de Janeiro-Galeão
Frequent-flyer program Smiles (until 20 July 2006)
Alliance former member of Star Alliance
Subsidiaries
Company slogan Estrela brasileira no céu azul, iluminando de Norte a Sul (English: A Brazilian star on the blue sky, illuminating from North to South) (1967)[1]
Headquarters Porto Alegre
Rio de Janeiro
Key people

VARIG (acronym for Viação Aérea RIo-Grandense) was the first airline founded in Brazil, in 1927. From 1965 until 1990 it was Brazil's leading and almost only international airline. In 2005, Varig went into judicial reorganisation, and in 2006 it was split into two companies informally known as "old" Varig - heir to the original airline and now defunct, and "new" Varig - a new company presently fully integrated into Gol Airlines.

History[edit]

Formation and Early Years (1927–1943)[edit]

Sociedade Anônima Empresa de Viação Aérea Rio-Grandense – VARIG was the first national airline established in Brazil. It was founded on 7 May 1927 in Porto Alegre,[2] by Otto Ernst Meyer-Labastille,[2] a German aviator decorated in the World War I, who immigrated to Brazil in 1921 and noticed how necessary air transportation was for a large country like Brazil. Varig was an off-spring of the German trade company and airline Condor Syndikat, thus sharing the same origin as Syndicato Condor, later renamed Serviços Aéreos Cruzeiro do Sul. Condor Syndikat gave the initial operational and financial support and for a short time Varig and the sister-company Syndicato Condor operated in partnership.

The first aircraft of VARIG was a ten-passenger Dornier Do J Wal flying boat, transferred from the assets of Condor Syndikat. This aircraft, named Atlântico, was also the first aircraft registered in Brazil as P-BAAA. Operations started on 22 June 1927 with a flight from Porto Alegre to Rio Grande via Pelotas. Varig inherited the route rights from Condor Syndikat which since 22 February 1927 had operated the service.[3]

de Havilland Dragon Rapide PP-VAN exhibited at the MUSAL

VARIG slowly but consistently in spite of difficulties added aircraft and destinations to its network initially focusing on the state of Rio Grande do Sul. On 5 August 1942 Varig began its first international route from Porto Alegre to Montevideo using its de Havilland DH 89 Dragon Rapide.[4]

On 1941, as the United States declared war against the Axis and joined the Allies in the conflict, aviation supplies became scarce, particularly in terms of petrol and replacement parts. Because it used mostly German equipment and had a German Manager-Director (President), Varig faced particular difficulties. For this reason, Varig's first Manager-Director Otto Ernst Meyer resigned on 24 December 1941 and shareholders decided that the next Manager-Director would be a Brazilian-born. Érico de Assis Brasil was chosen but he died on an aircraft accident shortly after. It was in 1943 that Varig's first employee, Ruben Martin Berta, a descendant of Hungarian and German grandparents, was chosen as Manager-Director and thus would remain until his death in 1966.[5]

Expansion (1943–1966)[edit]

Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions
Year Traffic
1950 66
1955 248
1960 603
1965 1586
1969 2504
1975 5826
1980 8104
1985 10072
1995 20877
2000 26286
Source:ICAO Digest of Statistics 1950-55, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960-2000

One of the first decisions of Ruben Berta was to pursue an expansion plan and to unify the fleet around only one type of aircraft. The chosen one was the Lockheed L-10 Electra. Another ground-breaking suggestion was made on 29 October 1945 when, based on social ideas found on the Papal Encyclicals Rerum Novarum and Quadragesimo Anno and on Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract, Berta proposed and the assembly approved the transfer 50% of Varig's shares to a not-for-profit foundation belonging to the employees. The aim of the foundation was to provide health, financial, social and recreational benefits to its employees. Decades later this foundation would be called Fundação Ruben Berta.[6]

A Douglas DC-3 displayed in Rio de Janeiro

In 1946, with the addition of Douglas DC-3 and later the Curtiss C-46 to its fleet, Varig was able to greatly increase its network by adding cities in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro, facing fierce competition with Real Transportes Aéreos, and SAVAG. On 29 February 1952, Varig bought Aero Geral, a small airline with concessions to fly from Natal until Santos. With this purchase Varig greatly enlarged its operations in Brazil, extending services beyond Rio de Janeiro until Natal along the Brazilian coast and was thus better prepared to compete with Panair do Brasil and Cruzeiro do Sul. In 1949 the Brazilian government granted to Varig the concession to fly to the United States, since the original airline which had the concession, Cruzeiro do Sul, was unable to operate the services. The inaugural flight between Rio de Janeiro-Galeão and New York-Kennedy (then known as Idlewild) was on 2 August 1955. The services were operated by three new Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellations. On 30 May 1953 flights to Buenos Aires using Curtiss C-46s started. In January 1956 Varig served 55 cities in Brazil and four abroad, being the second Brazilian airline in terms of passengers transported.[7]

In 1954, sensing the need for more modern aircraft, new Convair 240s were purchased. The addition of the Lockheed Super Constellation and the Convair 240 provoked a deep change of mentality in the culture of Varig, with the introduction of a more cosmopolitan corporate image that would remain until 1996.[8]

On 6 July 1959 Varig, Cruzeiro do Sul and VASP initiated the air shuttle services between Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont and São Paulo-Congonhas airports, the first of its kind in the world. The three companies coordinated schedules and operations, and shared revenue. The service was a response to the competition imposed by Real Transportes Aéreos. The idea, baptized as Air bridge (Portuguese: Ponte Aérea), inspired on the Berlin Airlift was so successful that it was abandoned only in 1999.[9] Flights operated on an hourly basis initially by Convair 240 (Varig), Convair 340 (Cruzeiro) and Saab 90 Scandia (VASP). In a few months the shuttle service led by Varig won the battle against Real, which was bought by Varig in 1961. Sadia Transportes Aéreos joined the service in 1968. Between 1975 and 1992 it was operated exclusively by Varig's Lockheed L-188 Electra which for the sake of neutrality did not have the Varig name on the fuselage.

On 19 December 1959 Varig started to fly their new 35-seat Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle I between Brazil and New York-Idlewild, stopping at Belem, Trinidad and Nassau; on 2 July 1960, the Caravelles were replaced by the Boeing 707-441, which could fly from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to New York-Idlewild non-stop. The Caravelles were switched to operate trunk routes within Brazil and to Buenos Aires-Ezeiza and Montevideo.[10]

Between May and August 1961, after a lengthy battle for the Brazilian market, Varig gradually took over the Consortium Real-Aerovias-Nacional, which was in serious economic difficulty. This purchase not only made Varig the largest airline in South America but also granted rights to other cities in Latin America, Miami, the West Coast of the United States and to Japan.[11]

European services started on 10 February 1965. Varig had been lobbying for European concessions for more than ten years, but after the sudden shutdown of Panair do Brasil by the Brazilian military government Varig was granted rights previously held by Panair and was ordered to immediately operate all scheduled services, including Panair's flight scheduled to depart that very night from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to Recife, Lisbon, Paris-Orly and Frankfurt.[12][13]

Varig also inherited Panair's two Douglas DC-8-33 and the agreement with TAP-Transportes Aéreos Portugueses to operate the Voo da amizade (English: Friendship Flight) between São Paulo-Congonhas, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão and Lisbon, with stops in Recife and Sal, now using Varig's Lockheed L-188 Electra. Originally started on November 30, 1960 by Panair and TAP, only Brazilian and Portuguese citizens or foreigners with permanent residence in Brazil or Portugal were entitled to the purchase of tickets for these flights, which were extremely popular due to their low fares. Those flights operated until 1967.

On 14 December 1966, Rubem Berta died of a heart attack. The following day the administrative board elected Erik Oswaldo Kastrup de Carvalho, Berta's right-hand and former Panair employee, as Varig's fourth Director-President.

Consolidation (1966–2000)[edit]

The 1973 oil crisis brought to Varig the need to replace its older generation aircraft with newer ones. For international flights the chosen type was the Douglas DC-10, which had its first flight with Varig on 1 July 1974 and this aircraft had the range to serve European destinations including Paris without a refuelling stop en route. In the domestic arena gradually the Boeing 737-200 became the work-horse.[14]

Still as a consequence of the 1973 oil crisis which caused many difficulties to airlines, on 20 May 1975 Varig acquired a controlling interest in Cruzeiro do Sul, which was in a particularly delicate economic situation. Cruzeiro do Sul was fully integrated into VARIG on 1 January 1993.[15]

On 11 November 1975 the Brazilian Federal Government created the Brazilian Integrated System of Regional Air Transportation and divided the country in five different regions, for which five newly created regional airlines received a concession to operate air services. Rio-Sul Serviços Aéreos Regionais S/A was the fourth of those regional airlines to be made operational and it was established by Varig in partnership with Top Táxi Aéreo, Bradesco Bank, and Atlântica-Boavista Insurance. Its services started on 8 September 1976 and its operational area comprised roughly the Southern and parts of the Southeast regions of Brazil.[16] Soon Rio-Sul was operating as Varig's feeder-airline.

In February 1979 Carvalho left the Presidency of Varig due to serious illness being succeeded by Harry Schuetz for a short time, by Hélio Smidt, Berta's nephew, in 1980 and by Rubel Thomas in 1990.

The 1980s were marked by a modernization of the fleet, growth in the number of destinations and increasing financial problems originated in high inflation and in a foreign currency crisis. Furthermore with the end of the military régime and the return to democracy in 1985, Varig lost its intimate connection with the ruling powers. In 1990, with a gradual deregulation promoted by the Federal Government, VASP and Transbrasil were authorized to fly to international destinations, breaking an almost-monopoly held by Varig since 1965 (Cruzeiro do Sul was the only exception). More international carriers were also authorized to fly to Brazil, greatly increasing competition.[17] Slowly Varig began to lose its financial health, aggravated by the early 1990s world recession and administration problems. In 1988, a few years after the inauguration of São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, Varig decided to move its operational hub from Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo.

An “old Varig” Boeing 767-200ER departs Lisbon Portela Airport in 1995.

In June 1995, Varig bought 49% of the shares of Pluna Uruguayan Airlines.

In an attempt to solve its increasing problems, Carlos Willy Engels became president in 1995 and in 1996 he was succeeded by Fernando Abs da Cruz Souza Pinto, who would be the last president of the consolidation phase in the history of the company. He developed an ambitious project to bring financial and operational health back to the company.[18] The two most visible milestones of this project were the new corporate image launched on October 15, 1996 - the first change since 1955 - and the membership of Varig on Star Alliance, as of 22 October 1997. Varig was its sixth member airline, and first to join after it was launched only 5 months earlier.[19]

In spite of some success in the re-organization of the company, Pinto did not have full support of Ruben Berta Foundation, the controller of Varig and, as a consequence, he left the Presidency of Varig on 28 January 2000.[20] That same year he became the CEO of TAP Portugal and successfully re-organized that airline. Pinto was succeeded by Ozires Silva, former president of the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer Embraer.

Decline and Final Split (2000–2006)[edit]

The administration of Ozires Silva, which lasted for only 2.5 years, started with major restructuring in the company, aiming at making Ruben Berta Foundation more powerful and the President-Director weaker. Also, on 28 January 2000, all cargo operations were united under a new airline named VarigLog. Even so, the airline presented at the end of the year, for the first time in its history Exposed Net Assets of BRL148.6 million - that is, the amount of debits was greater than the amount of credits and assets. One year later, it would reach BRL523 million.[21]

An "old" Varig Boeing 767-300ER on short finals to Frankfurt Airport in 2004.

In 2001 Varig saw the birth of a new competitor in the Brazilian market: Gol Airlines and increasing competition of VASP and Transbrasil fighting for survival by dumping fares. Furthermore, for the first time since 1961, Varig lost the first place in the domestic market share in terms of passengers/km for TAM Airlines. Later in the year, the September 11 attacks further increased operational and economic difficulties of Varig.

In 2002 Ruben Berta Foundation merged the administration of Varig and its subsidiary Rio Sul Serviços Aéreos Regionais (which included the brand Nordeste Linhas Aéreas Regionais). The three brands were used separately with Rio-Sul and Nordeste providing feeder services to Varig.

Year-long discussions to merge Varig with TAM Airlines ended unsuccessfully in 2004 and the same year Varig fell to third place in the Brazilian domestic market share, behind TAM and Gol.[22]

As of May 2005, VARIG fleet comprised 87 aircraft (76 passenger, 11 cargo), with an average age of 13.2 years; 83 of them had operating leases, while the remaining four had finance leases. As of June 2005, VARIG had a negative net worth of approximately US$ 2.5 billion, with balance sheet debt of US$ 2.8 billion and off-balance-sheet debt of US$ 2.0 billion.[citation needed]

VARIG applied to the Commercial Bankruptcy and Reorganization Court in Rio de Janeiro on 17 June 2005,[23][24] for the commencement of "judicial reorganization" proceedings pursuant to the New Bankruptcy and Restructuring Law of Brazil (Law 11.101).[25] The request was granted on 22 June 2005.[26] VARIG continued to provide services despite its financial troubles.[22][27]

An "old" Varig MD-11 on short final to Charles de Gaulle Airport in 2004.

In order to raise funds, the Bankruptcy and Reorganization Court decided to sell two of Varig's subsidiaries:

After two unsuccessful attempts to auction the airline as a whole, the bankruptcy court decided to split the airline in two different judicial entities, informally known as "old" Varig and "new" Varig:

  • The first portion, formally called Nordeste Linhas Aéreas S/A and informally known as "old" Varig, comprised the brand Nordeste, one aircraft, debts, liabilities, legal disputes, various assets, concessions and properties of the original Varig. Since "old" Varig, could not use the name Varig anymore, the company used the brand-name Nordeste for a while and in 2008 it began using the name Flex Linhas Aéreas.[29]
  • The second portion, formally called VRG Linhas Aéreas and informally known as "new" Varig, is a brand new airline which comprises the brands Varig and Rio-Sul, Varig's route rights, all aircraft but one and the Smiles mileage program. "New" Varig was auctioned on 14 July 2006 to Volo do Brasil (owner of VarigLog) and legal procedures finalized on 20 July 2006;[29][30][31]

"Old" Varig[edit]

Since 23 October 2007, the former Viação Aérea Rio-Grandense S/A was judicially known as Nordeste Linhas Aéreas S/A, and operated under the brand-name Flex Linhas Aéreas.[32] On August 18, 2009, the National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil renewed the authorization of Flex to operate non-regular passenger, cargo and postal services.[33] Therefore, Flex operated flights on behalf of other airlines, as contracted.

Between 17 June 2005 and 2 September 2009, "old Varig" remained in Recovery Order in the 1st Business Court of Rio de Janeiro, under the leadership of Judges Luiz Roberto Ayoub and Miguel Dau. After the bankruptcy protection was lifted, the administration of the airline could have returned to its original owner, Fundação Ruben Berta, which still owed 87% of the shares of Varig.[34] However, Fundação Ruben Berta preferred to keep a judicial administrator.[35]

In September 2006 "old" Varig sold its participation in PLUNA (49% of the shares) to the Uruguayan Government.

On 31 January 2007, Varig Brazilian Airlines ("old" Varig) was suspended from membership in Star Alliance for not fulfilling membership pre-requisites,[36][37] and on 19 October 2008, the IATA code RG and the callsign Varig officially ceased to exist.[38]

As a result of accumulated debts, on 20 August 2010, at the request of the airline administrator, the 1st Business Court of Rio de Janeiro declared Flex bankrupt and initiated the process of liquidation.[39][40] However, on September 10, the bankruptcy process was suspended at the request of Ruben Berta Foundation and the company returned in practical terms to recovery order status until the validity of the bankruptcy is judged.[41]

Further information: Flex Linhas Aéreas

"New" Varig[edit]

A "new" Varig Boeing 737-700 at Galeão Airport in 2010.

VRG Linhas Aéreas S/A is today fully integrated with Gol Airlines.

On 21 July 2006, the "new" Varig canceled all its flights, except for Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo shuttle service, which remained being operated in an agreement with "old" Varig. On 28 July 2006, "new" Varig announced that it would cut 60% of its staff.

Between September and November 2006, "new" Varig announced its intentions to gradually resume some international and domestic flights.[42] On December 14, 2006, the National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil issued the final certificate to "new" Varig, making it fully operational.[43] Soon after the certificate was granted, orders for 16 aircraft were announced, to bring the fleet to 31 aircraft and the operational agreement with "old" Varig expired.

Before and after relaunch in December 2006, "new Varig" struggled greatly to find a strategic partners, due to lack of credibility, affecting aircraft contracts, network and personnel inherited from "old" Varig. "New" Varig was facing monthly losses as high as US$20 million, and MattlinPatterson was unwilling to invest more money in the company, putting "new" Varig in extreme economic difficulties.[44]

On 28 March 2007, Gol Airlines purchased "new Varig" (VRG Linhas Aéreas) for US$ 320 million,[45][46][47] and announced that VRG Linhas Aéreas, the operator of the brand VARIG, would continue to operate under its original name. The transaction was completed on 9 April 2007.[48]

The new owner radically restructured the fleet, the network, eliminated the First Class cabin from the aircraft, and gradually transformed the brand Varig into the arm of Gol Group specialized in international scheduled and charter medium and long-haul destinations. On 23 October 2007 Varig's new corporate image was unveiled, stressing the orange colour of Gol.[49][50]

On 29 September 2008 Gol was merged into VRG Linhas Aéreas and thus VRG Linhas Aéreas became an airline with two different brands: Varig and Gol.[51] As a consequence, on mid-April 2009, Varig's booking systems were integrated into Gol's and the Smiles frequent flyer program was reformulated to include Gol. In June 2009, "new" Varig ceased to operate its own flights and started to use Gol's flight numbers.[52]

From 2006 to 2009 "new" Varig was obliged by contract to purchase a minimum of 140 hours/month of services from "old" Varig. Therefore, some of VRG Linhas Aéreas flights operated with Gol flight numbers are actually flown with chartered aircraft from Flex Linhas Aéreas.[53]

Further information: Gol Transportes Aéreos

Destinations[edit]

Main article: Varig destinations

Fleet[edit]

The fleet list below is related to "old" VARIG and based on the standard published Varig history.[54]

One of the DC-8-33 inherited from Panair do Brasil
A Boeing 737-200 in 1977
A Boeing 747-300
VARIG FLEET
Aircraft Total Years of operation Notes
Dornier Do J Wal 1 1927–1930 First aircraft registered in Brazil
Dornier Merkur 1 1928–1930
Morane-Saulnier 130 1 1930–1931
Klemm L-25 2 1930–1937
Nieuport-Delage 641 1 1931
Junkers A-50 Junior 3 1931–1944
Junkers F.13 ke 2 1932–1948
Messerschmitt Bf-108 Taifun 1 1936
Messersschmitt M-20B 1 1937–1948
Junkers Ju-52/3m 1 1938–1942
Focke-Wulf Fw 58C Weihe 1 1940–1941
de Havilland DH 89 Dragon Rapide 1 1942
CANT Z.1012 1 1942
Fiat G.2 1 1942–1945
Lockheed L-10 A/E Electra 11 1943–1955
Douglas DC-3/C-47 47 1946–1971
Noorduyn C-64 Norseman 1 1947–1950
Curtiss C-46/Super C-46 Commando 29 1948–1970
Convair 240 13 1954–1969
Lockheed L-1049G/H Super Constellation 10 1955–1967
Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle I (III) 3 1959–1979
Boeing 707-441 3 1960–1979
Convair 340/440 15 1961–1967
Douglas DC-6B 5 1961–1968
Lockheed L-118 A/C Electra 15 1962–1992
Convair 990A 3 1963–1971 Received from Aerovias Brasil
Douglas DC-8-33 2 1965–1975 Received from Panair do Brasil
Hawker Siddeley HS 748 (Avro) 11 1966–1976
Boeing 707-320/320C 17 1966–1990
Beechcraft 99 Airliner 1 1968
Fairchild Hiller FH-227B 4 1970–1975
Boeing 727-100 11 1970–2006
McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 16 1974–2006
Boeing 737-200 20 1975–2003
Airbus A300-B4-203 4 1980–1990
Boeing 747-200 4 1981–1996
Boeing 747-300/300 Combi 5 1985–2000
Boeing 767-200/200ER 9 1986–2004, 2008 Some operated for "new" Varig
Boeing 737-300 48 1987–2009 1 to Flex Linhas Aéreas
Some operated for "new" Varig
Boeing 767-300ER 16 1989–2008 Some operated for "new" Varig
Boeing 747-400 3 1991–1994
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 26 1991–2007 Some operated for "new" Varig
Boeing 737-400 8 2000–2006
Boeing 737-700 10 2001–2006
Boeing 737-800 2 2001–2006
Boeing 777-200ER 8 2001–2006
Boeing 737-500 25 2003–2006
Boeing 757-200 4 2004–2006

Airline Affinity Program[edit]

Smiles was Varig's Frequent-flyer program until July 20, 2006. Points could be used for services from Varig, its subsidiaries, and its Star Alliance partners including flights, upgrades, holidays, hotel stays and car rentals. Smiles was part of the "new Varig" package bought by Gol Airlines. All miles were honored and eventually Smiles became Gol's own Frequent Flyer program.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

As of January 2012, Aviation Safety Network reports 39 accidents or incidents for Varig since August 1949 (1949-08).[55]

Major accidents involving fatalities[edit]

Incidents[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Lobato, Elvira; Lage, Janaina (23 April 2006). "Viés estatal-sindicalista afunda Varig" [Problems between Government and Work Unions sinks Varig]. Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese) (Folha Online). Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Veja a cronologia da crise da Varig" [Varig's Crisis Chronology]. Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese) (Folha Online). 8 June 2006. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Instituto Histórico-Cultural da Aeronáutica (1990). História Geral da Aeronáutica Brasileira: de 1921 às vésperas da criação do Ministério da Aeronáutica (in Portuguese) 2. Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia and Instituto Histórico-Cultural da Aeronáutica. pp. 202–210. 
  4. ^ Instituto Histórico-Cultural da Aeronáutica (1990). História Geral da Aeronáutica Brasileira: de 1921 às vésperas da criação do Ministério da Aeronáutica (in Portuguese) 2. Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia and Instituto Histórico-Cultural da Aeronáutica. pp. 383–384. 
  5. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 44–50. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  6. ^ Instituto Histórico-Cultural da Aeronáutica (1991). História Geral da Aeronáutica Brasileira: da criação do Ministério da Aeronáutica ao final da Segunda Guerra Mundial (in Portuguese) 3. Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro: Villa Rica Editoras Reunidas. pp. 293–296. 
  7. ^ Instituto Histórico-Cultural da Aeronáutica (2005). História Geral da Aeronáutica Brasileira: de janeiro de 1946 a janeiro de 1956 após o término da Segunda Guerra Mundial até a posse do Dr. Juscelino Kubitschek como Presidente da República (in Portuguese) 4. Rio de Janeiro: GR3 Comunicação & Design. pp. 350–351. 
  8. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 76–78. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  9. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  10. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 90–94. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  11. ^ Pereira, Aldo (1987). Breve História da Aviação Comercial Brasileira (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Europa. pp. 61–63. 
  12. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 116–122. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  13. ^ Sasaki, Daniel Leb (2005). Pouso forçado: a história por trás da destruição da Panair do Brasil pelo regime militar (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Record. pp. 23–61. ISBN 85-01-06830-6. 
  14. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 156–158. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  15. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 160–166. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  16. ^ Garófalo, Gílson de Lima (1982). O Mercado Brasileiro de Transporte Aéreo Regional (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas. pp. 103–107, 125–128. 
  17. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 192–194. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  18. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 216–218. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  19. ^ "Star Alliance: A Chronological History". Star Alliance. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  20. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. pp. 224–226. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  21. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. p. 228. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  22. ^ a b Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. p. 244. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  23. ^ Flint, Perry (21 June 2005). "TAP ends investment talks with Varig after carrier files for bankruptcy". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  24. ^ "Varig files for bankruptcy in Brazil and US". MercoPress. 20 June 2005. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  25. ^ "Lei n˚11.101, de 9 de fevereiro de 2005" (in Portuguese). Presidência da República: Casa Civil. 9 February 2005. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  26. ^ Gandra, Alana (22 June 2005). "Justiça autoriza plano de recuperação da Varig" (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. Retrieved 30 July 2010. [dead link]
  27. ^ "Lat. Aviation news.". MercoPress. 6 April 2006. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. 
  28. ^ Buyck, Cathy (7 November 2005). "TAP Portugal takes control of Varig subsidiaries". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  29. ^ a b Grabois, Ana Paula (20 July 2006). "Oficializada venda da Varig para VarigLog pelo preço de R$52,334 milhões" (in Portuguese). Valor Online. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  30. ^ "Brazil's Varig Sold in Auction to Former Cargo Unit". MercoPress. 21 July 2006. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. 
  31. ^ Beting, Gianfranco; Beting, Joelmir (2009). Varig: Eterna Pioneira (in Portuguese). Porto Alegre and São Paulo: EDIPUCRS and Beting Books. p. 252. ISBN 978-85-7430-901-9. 
  32. ^ Rosas, Rafael (22 October 2007). "Em recuperação judicial, "velha" Varig pode voltar a voar em dezembro, agora com o nome de Flex" (in Portuguese). Valor Online. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
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