First-person shooter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from First Person Shooter)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the video game genre. For other uses, see First-person shooter (disambiguation).
A screenshot of Doom, one of the breakthrough games of the genre, displaying the typical perspective of a first-person shooter.
Part of a series on
Action games
Kasteroids.svg

First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered on gun and projectile weapon-based combat through a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist, and in some cases, the antagonist. The first-person shooter shares common traits with other shooter games, which in turn fall under the heading action game. From the genre's inception, advanced 3D or pseudo-3D graphics have challenged hardware development, and multiplayer gaming has been integral.

The first-person shooter has since been traced as far back as Maze War, development of which began in 1973, and 1974's Spasim. The genre coalesced with 1992's Wolfenstein 3D, which has been credited with creating the genre proper and the basic archetype upon which subsequent titles were based. One such title, and the progenitor of the genre's wider mainstream acceptance and popularity was Doom, released the following year and perhaps the most influential first-person shooter. 1998's Half-Life - along with its 2004 sequel Half-Life 2 - enhanced the narrative and puzzle elements.[1][2] GoldenEye 007 (1997) was a first landmark first-person shooter for home consoles, with the Halo series heightening the console's commercial and critical appeal as a platform for first-person shooter titles. In the 21st century, the first-person shooter is the most commercially viable video game genre, as well as being the genre that has taken more market share of any other genre in the gaming industry.

Definition[edit]

First-person shooters are a type of three-dimensional shooter game,[3] featuring a first-person point of view with which the player sees the action through the eyes of the player character. They are unlike third-person shooters, in which the player can see (usually from behind) the character they are controlling. The primary design element is combat, mainly involving firearms.[4]

They are also often categorized as being distinct from light gun shooters, a similar genre with a first-person perspective which use light gun peripherals, in contrast to first-person shooters which use conventional input devices for movement.[5] A more important key difference is that first-person light-gun shooters like Virtua Cop often feature "on-rails" movement, whereas first-person shooters like Doom give the player more freedom to roam.

The first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre in itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn a subgenre of the wider action game genre.[6] Following the release of the influential Doom in 1993, games in this style were commonly termed "Doom clones";[7][8] in time this term has largely been replaced by "first-person shooter".[8] Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has been credited with inventing the genre, but critics have since identified similar though less advanced games developed as far back as 1973.[4] There is sometimes disagreement regarding exactly what design elements constitute a first-person shooter, for example, Deus Ex or Bioshock are sometimes considered first-person shooters, but may also be considered role-playing video games as they borrow from this genre extensively.[9] Some commentators may extend the definition to include combat flight simulators where the cockpit or vehicle takes place of the hands and weapons, as opposed to characters on foot.[1][4]

Game design[edit]

Like most shooter games, first-person shooters involve an avatar, one or more ranged weapons, and a varying number of enemies.[6] Because they take place in a 3D environment, these games tend to be somewhat more realistic than 2D shooter games, and have more accurate representations of gravity, lighting, sound and collisions.[3] First-person shooters played on personal computers are most often controlled with a combination of a keyboard and mouse. This system has been claimed as superior to that found in console games,[10][11] which frequently use two analog sticks: one used for running and sidestepping, the other for looking and aiming.[12] It is common to display the character's hands and weaponry in the main view, with a head up display showing health, ammunition and location details. Often, it is possible to overlay a map of the surrounding area.[13]

Combat and power-ups[edit]

First-person shooters often focus on action gameplay, with fast-paced and bloody firefights, though some place a greater emphasis on narrative, problem-solving and logic puzzles.[14] In addition to shooting, melee combat may also be used extensively. In some games, melee weapons are especially powerful, a reward for the risk the player must take in maneuvering his character into close proximity to the enemy.[15] In other situations, a melee weapon may be less effective, but necessary as a last resort.[16] "Tactical shooters" are more realistic, and require teamwork and strategy to succeed;[12] the player often commands a squad of characters, which may be controlled by the game or by human teammates.[17]

First-person shooters typically give players a choice of weapons, which have a large impact on how the player will play the game.[3] Some game designs have realistic models of actual existing or historical weapons, incorporating their rate of fire, magazine size, ammunition amount, recoil and accuracy. Other first-person shooter games may incorporate imaginative variations of weapons, including future prototypes, "alien technology" scenario defined weaponry, and/or utilizing a wide array of projectiles, from industrial labor tools to laser, energy, plasma, rocket and grenade launchers or crossbows. These many variations may also be applied to the tossing animations of grenades, rocks, spears and the such. Also more unconventional modes of destruction may be employed from the viewable users hands such as flames, electricity, telekinesis or other supernatural constructions. However, designers often allow characters to carry varying multiples of weapons with little to no reduction in speed or mobility, or perhaps more realistically, a pistol or smaller device and a long rifle or even limiting the player to only one weapon at a time. There are often options to trade up, upgrade or swap out in most games. Thus, the standards of realism varies between design elements.[18] The protagonist can generally be healed and re-armed by means of items such as first aid kits, simply by walking over them.[19] Some games allow players to accumulate experience points similar to those found in role-playing games, which can unlock new weapons and abilities.[20]

Level design[edit]

First-person shooters may be structurally composed of levels, or use the technique of a continuous narrative in which the game never leaves the first-person perspective.[1] Others feature large sandbox environments, which are not divided into levels and can be explored freely.[21] In first-person shooters, protagonists interact with the environment to varying degrees, from basics such as using doors, to problem solving puzzles based on a variety of interactive objects.[1] In some games, the player can damage the environment, also to varying degrees: one common device is the use of barrels containing explosive material which the player can shoot, destroying them and harming nearby enemies.[19] Other games feature environments which are extensively destructible, allowing for additional visual effects.[22] The game world will often make use of science fiction, historic (particularly World War II) or modern military themes, with such antagonists as aliens, monsters, terrorists and soldiers of various types.[23] Games feature multiple difficulty settings; in harder modes, enemies are tougher, more aggressive and do more damage, and power-ups are limited. In easier modes, the player can succeed through reaction times alone; on more difficult settings, it is often necessary to memorize the levels through trial and error.[24]

Multiplayer[edit]

Later first-person shooters utilize the internet for multiplayer features, but local area networks were more commonly used in early games.

First-person shooters may feature a multiplayer mode, taking place on specialized levels. Some games are designed specifically for multiplayer gaming, and have very limited single player modes in which the player competes against game-controlled characters termed "bots".[25] Massively multiplayer online first-person shooters allow thousands of players to compete at once in a persistent world.[26] Large scale multiplayer games allow multiple squads, with leaders issuing commands and a commander controlling the team's overall strategy.[25] Multiplayer games have a variety of different styles of match.

The classic types are the deathmatch (there is also a team-based version) in which players score points by killing other players' characters; and capture the flag, in which teams attempt to penetrate the opposing base, capture a flag and return it to their own base whilst preventing the other team from doing the same. Other game modes may involve attempting to capture enemy bases or areas of the map, attempting to take hold of an object for as long as possible while evading other players, or deathmatch variations involving limited lives or in which players fight over a particularly potent power-up. These match types may also be customizable, allowing the players to vary weapons, health and power-ups found on the map, as well as victory criteria.[27] Games may allow players to choose between various classes, each with its own strengths, weaknesses, equipment and roles within a team.[16]

History[edit]

Origins: 1970s to late 1980s[edit]

Before the popularity of first-person shooters, the first-person viewpoint was used in vehicle simulation games such as Battlezone.

The earliest two documented first-person shooter video games are Maze War and Spasim. Maze War features on-foot gameplay that evokes modern first-person shooter games. Development of the game began in 1973 and its exact date of completion is unknown. Spasim had a documented debut at the University of Illinois in 1974. The game was a rudimentary space flight simulator, which featured a first-person perspective.[4] They were distinct from modern first-person shooters, involving simple tile-based movement where the player could only move from square to square and turn in 90-degree increments.[28] Spasim led to more detailed combat flight simulators and eventually to a tank simulator, developed for the U.S. army, in the later 1970s. These games were not available to consumers, however, and it was not until 1980 that a tank video game, Battlezone, was released in arcades. A version of the game was released in 1983 for home computers and became the first successful mass-market game featuring a first-person viewpoint and wireframe 3D graphics,[29] presented using a vector graphics display.[30]

Early first-person shooters: 1987–1992[edit]

MIDI Maze, an early first-person shooter released in 1987 for the Atari ST,[31] featured maze-based gameplay and character designs similar to Pac-Man, but displayed in a first-person perspective.[32][33] Later ported to various systems - including the Game Boy and Super NES - under the title Faceball 2000,[34] it featured the first network multiplayer deathmatches, using a MIDI interface.[33] It was a relatively minor game, but despite the inconvenience of connecting numerous machines together, its multiplayer mode gained a cult following: 1UP.com called it the "first multi-player 3D shooter on a mainstream system" and the first "major LAN action game".[34]

Id Software's Hovertank 3D pioneered ray casting technology in 1991 to enable faster gameplay than 1980s vehicle simulators;[29] and a later advance, texture mapping, was introduced with Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss, a 1992 action role-playing game by Looking Glass Technologies that featured a first-person viewpoint and an advanced graphics engine. When shown a demo of Ultima Underworld the year before, id developer John Carmack remarked that he "could write a faster texture mapper",[35] and would feel motivated by Looking Glass's example to do the same in Catacomb 3-D (which was released in late 1991).[29] Catacomb 3-D also introduced the display of the protagonist's hand and weapon (in this case, magical spells) on the screen, whereas previously aspects of the player's avatar were not visible.[29] The experience of developing Ultima Underworld would make it possible for Looking Glass to create the Thief and System Shock series years later.[35]

Rise in popularity: 1992–1995[edit]

Although it was not the earliest shooter game with a first-person perspective, Wolfenstein 3D is often credited with establishing the first-person shooter genre.

Wolfenstein 3D (created by id Software and released in 1992) was an instant success and has been credited with inventing the first-person shooter genre proper.[1][4][36] It built on the ray casting technology pioneered in earlier games to create a revolutionary template for shooter game design, which first-person shooters are still based upon today.[1][4][14] Despite its violent themes, Wolfenstein largely escaped the controversy generated by the later Doom, although it was banned in Germany due to the use of Nazi iconography;[37] and the Nintendo version replaced the enemy attack dogs with giant rats.[38] Apogee Software, the publisher of Wolfenstein 3D, followed up its success with Blake Stone: Aliens of Gold in 1993. The game was initially well received but sales rapidly declined in the wake of the success of id's Doom, released a week later.[39]

Doom, released as shareware in 1993,[14] refined Wolfenstein 3D's template by adding improved textures, variations in height (such as stairs the players character could climb) and effects such as flickering lights and patches of total darkness, creating a more believable 3D environment than Wolfenstein 3D's more monotonous and simplistic levels.[40] Doom allowed competitive matches between multiple players, termed "deathmatches", and the game was responsible for the word's subsequent entry into the video gaming lexicon.[40] The game became so popular that its multiplayer features began to cause problems for companies whose networks were used to play the game.[14][40]

Doom has been considered the most important first-person shooter ever made: it was highly influential not only on subsequent shooter games but on video gaming in general,[40] and has been available on almost every video gaming system since.[14] Multiplayer gaming, which is now integral to the first-person shooter genre, was first achieved successfully on a large scale with Doom.[1][40] While its combination of gory violence, dark humor and hellish imagery garnered acclaim from critics,[40][41] these attributes also generated criticism from religious groups, with other commentators labelling the game a "murder simulator."[42] There was further controversy when it emerged that the perpetrators of the Columbine High School massacre were fans of the game; the families of several victims later unsuccessfully attempted to sue numerous video game companies - among them id Software - which the families claimed inspired the massacre.[37]

In 1994, Raven Software released Heretic, which modified the Doom engine to enable vertical aiming and gibs. On the Macintosh, Bungie's release, in the same year, of Marathon, and its subsequent sequels, set the standard for first-person shooters on that platform. Marathon pioneered or was an early adopter of several new features such as freelook, dual-wielded and dual-function weapons, versatile multiplayer modes (such as King of the Hill, Kill the Man with the Ball, and cooperative play), friendly NPCs, and a strong emphasis on storytelling in addition to the action.[43] Star Wars: Dark Forces was released in 1995 after LucasArts decided Star Wars would make appropriate material for a game in the style of Doom. However, Star Wars: Dark Forces added several technical features that Doom lacked, such as the ability to crouch or look up and down,[7][14][44] Apogee's Duke Nukem 3D, released in 1996, was "the last of the great, sprite-based shooters"[14] winning acclaim for its humor based around stylised machismo as well as its gameplay. However, some found the game's (and later the whole series') treatment of women to be derogatory and tasteless.[14][37][45]

Advances in 3D graphics: 1995–1999[edit]

In 1994, Exact released Geograph Seal for the Japanese Sharp X68000 home computer. An obscure import title as far as the Western market was concerned, it was nonetheless "a fully 3D polygonal first-person shooter" with innovative platform game mechanics and "free-roaming" outdoor environments. The following year, Exact released its successor for the PlayStation console, Jumping Flash!, which placed more emphasis on its platform elements.[46] Descent (released by Parallax Software in 1995), a game in which the player pilots a spacecraft around caves and factory ducts, was a truly three-dimensional first-person shooter. It abandoned sprites and ray casting in favour of polygons and six degrees of freedom.[1][14]

Shortly after the release of Duke Nukem 3D in 1996, id Software released the much anticipated Quake. Like Doom, Quake was influential and genre-defining, featuring fast-paced, gory gameplay, but used 3D polygons instead of sprites. It was centered around online gaming and featured multiple match types still found in first-person shooter games today. It was the first FPS game to have a following of player clans (although the concept had existed previously in MechWarrior 2 (Netmech) with its Battletech lore as well as amongst MUD players), and would inspire popular LAN parties such as QuakeCon.[47] The game's popularity and use of 3D polygonal graphics also helped to expand the growing market for video card hardware;[1][14][48] and the additional support and encouragement for game modifications attracted players who wanted to tinker with the game and create their own modules.[47]

Based on the James Bond film, Rare's GoldenEye 007 was released in 1997, and as of 2004 it was the best-selling Nintendo 64 game in the United States.[49] It was the first landmark console first-person shooter and was highly acclaimed for its atmospheric single-player levels and well designed multiplayer maps. It featured a sniper rifle, the ability to perform head-shots, and the incorporation of stealth elements;[1][14][50][51] as well as Virtua Cop-inspired features such as reloading, position-dependent hit reaction animations, penalties for killing innocents, and an aiming system allowing players to aim at a precise spot on the screen.[49]

Though not the first of its kind, 1998's Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six started a popular trend of tactical first-person shooters. It featured a team-based, realistic design and themes based around counter-terrorism, requiring missions to be planned before execution and in it, a single hit was sometimes enough to kill a character.[17][52] Medal of Honor, released in 1999, started a long running proliferation of first-person shooters set during World War II.[14]

Half-Life featured in-game scripted sequences rather than cut-scenes.

Valve's Half-Life was released in 1998, based upon Quake's graphics technology.[53] Initially met with only mild anticipation, it went on to become an unprecedented commercial success.[14][54] While previous first-person shooters had focused on visceral gameplay with comparatively weak plots, Half-Life had a strong narrative; the game featured no cut scenes but remained in the first-person perspective at all times. It featured innovations such as non-enemy characters (featured somewhat earlier in titles such as Strife)[55] but did not employ power-ups in the traditional sense.[1] Half-Life was praised for its artificial intelligence, selection of weapons and attention to detail and "has since been recognized as one of the greatest games of all time" according to GameSpot. Its sequel Half-Life 2 (released in 2004), was less influential though "arguably a more impressive game".[56]

Starsiege: Tribes, also released in 1998, was a multiplayer online shooter allowing more than 32 players in a single match. It featured team-based gameplay with a variety of specialized roles, and an unusual jet pack feature. The game was highly popular and later imitated by games such as the Battlefield series.[1][2] Id's Quake III Arena and Epic's Unreal Tournament, both released in 1999, were popular for their frenetic and accessible online multiplayer modes; both featured very limited single player gameplay.[14] Counter-Strike was also released in 1999, a Half-Life modification with a counter-terrorism theme. The game and later version Counter-Strike: Source (2004) went on to become by far the most popular multiplayer first-person shooter and computer game modification ever, with over 90,000 players competing online at any one time during its peak.[14][53]

Online wars and return of the console: 2000–2006[edit]

At the E3 game show in 1999, Bungie unveiled a real-time strategy game called Halo; at the following E3, an overhauled third-person shooter version was displayed. Later in 2000 Bungie was bought by Microsoft, and Halo was revamped and released as a first-person shooter, one of the launch titles for the Xbox console. It was a runaway critical and commercial success, and is considered a premier console first-person shooter. It featured narrative and storyline reminiscent of Bungie's earlier Marathon series but now told largely through in-game dialog and cut scenes. It also received acclaim for its characters, both the protagonist, Master Chief and its alien antagonists. The sequel, Halo 2 (2004), brought the popularity of online-gaming to the console market through the medium of Xbox Live, on which it was the most played game for almost two years.[14]

Deus Ex, released by Ion Storm in 2000, featured a levelling system similar to that found in role-playing games; it also had multiple narratives depending on how the player completed missions and won acclaim for its serious, artistic style.[14] The Resident Evil games Survivor in 2000 and Dead Aim in 2003 attempted to combine the light gun and first-person shooter genres along with survival horror elements.[57] Metroid Prime, released in 2002 for the Nintendo GameCube, a highly praised console first-person shooter, incorporated action adventure elements such as jumping puzzles and built on the Metroid series of 2D side-scrolling platform-adventures.[14] Taking a "massive stride forward for first-person games", the game emphasised its adventure elements rather than shooting and was credited by journalist Chris Kohler with "breaking the genre free from the clutches of Doom".[58]

World War II Online, released in 2001, featured a persistent and "massively multiplayer environment", although IGN said that "the full realization of that environment is probably still a few years away."[59] Battlefield 1942, another World War II shooter released in 2002, featured large scale battles incorporating aircraft, naval vessels, land vehicles and infantry combat.[14] In 2003, PlanetSide allowed hundreds of players at once to compete in a persistent world,[60] and was also promoted as the "world's first massively multiplayer online first person shooter."[26] Doom 3, released in 2004, placed a greater emphasis on horror and frightening the player than previous games in the series and was a critically acclaimed best seller,[61][62] though some commentators felt it lacked gameplay substance and innovation, putting too much emphasis on impressive graphics.[9] In 2005, a film based on Doom featured a sequence that emulated the viewpoint and action of the first-person shooter, but was critically derided as deliberately unintelligent and gratuitously violent.[63]

In 2005, F.E.A.R. was acclaimed[64] for successfully combining first-person shooter gameplay with a Japanese horror atmosphere.[65] Later in 2007, Irrational Games' BioShock would be acclaimed by some commentators as the best game of that year for its innovation in artistry, narrative and design,[66][67][68] with some calling it the "spiritual successor" to Looking Glass's earlier System Shock.[69][70]

Finally, the Crytek games Far Cry (2004) and Crysis (2007) as well as Ubisoft's Far Cry 2 (2008) would break new ground in terms of graphics and large, open-ended level design,[14][71] whereas Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare (2007), Resistance: Fall of Man (2006) and its sequel Resistance 2 (2008) presented increasingly refined linear levels and narratives,[72] with the fast pace and linearity of the Call of Duty games bearing a resemblance to rail shooters.[73][74] In 2006, GamaSutra reported the first-person shooter as one of the biggest and fastest growing video game genres in terms of revenue for publishers.[75]

2007–present[edit]

In 2010, researchers at Leiden University showed that playing first-person shooter video games is associated with superior mental flexibility. Compared to non-players, players of such games were found to require a significantly shorter reaction time while switching between complex tasks, possibly because they are required to develop a more responsive mindset to rapidly react to fast-moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to shift back and forth between different sub-duties.[76] The use of motion detecting game controllers – particularly the Wii's – "promised to make FPS controls more approachable and precise with an interface as simple as literally pointing to aim" and thus "dramatically reshape the first-person shooter." However, technical difficulties pertinent to functions other than aiming – such as maneuvering or reloading – prevented their widespread use among first-person shooters.[77] The Pointman user interface combines a motion-sensitive gamepad, head tracker and sliding foot pedals to increase the precision and level of control over one's avatar[78] in military first-person shooter games.

Films[edit]

The first film entirely shot like a first-person game is FPS - First Person Shooter from German director Andreas Tom. FPS had its international premiere at the 10th anniversary of the fright nights festival in Vienna, Austria.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cifaldi, Frank, The Gamasutra Quantum Leap Awards: First-Person Shooters, GamaSutra, September 1, 2006, Accessed February 16, 2009
  2. ^ a b IGN's Top 100 Games, IGN, July 25, 2005, Accessed February 19, 2009
  3. ^ a b c Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2006). Fundamentals of Game Design. Prentice Hall. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Garmon, Jay, Geek Trivia: First shots fired, TechRepublic, May 24, 2005, Accessed February 16, 2009
  5. ^ Casamassina, Matt, Controller Concepts: Gun Games, IGN, Sept 26, 2005, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  6. ^ a b Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design. New Riders Publishing. pp. 290–296. 
  7. ^ a b Turner, Benjamin & Bowen, Kevin, Bringin' in the DOOM Clones, GameSpy, December 11, 2003, Accessed February 19, 2009
  8. ^ a b Doom, Encyclopædia Britannica, Accessed February 25, 2009
  9. ^ a b Perry, Douglass C., BioShock: Ken Levine Talks First-Person Shooters, IGN, September 15, 2006, Accessed February 25, 2009
  10. ^ Beradini, Cesar A., Play Halo on Xbox with a Keyboard & Mouse, Team Xbox, October 4, 2004, Accessed February 23, 2009
  11. ^ Schiesel, Seth, Balletic Finesse Amid the Science-Fiction Carnage, The New York Times, March 2, 2009, Accessed March 7, 2009
  12. ^ a b Treit, Ryan, Novice Guides: First Person Shooter, Xbox.com, Accessed February 23, 2009
  13. ^ Lahti, Martti, "As We Become Machines: Corporealized Pleasures in Video Games", Wolf, Mark J. P. & Perron, Bernard (eds.), The Video Game Theory Reader, Routledge, p. 161
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Hasselberger, Cheese, Guide to FPS, UGO, Accessed February 16, 2009
  15. ^ Hong, Tim, Shoot to Thrill: Bio-Sensory Reactions to 3D Shooting Games, GamaSutra, December 2, 2008, Accessed February 23, 2009
  16. ^ a b Quake Wars Guide, IGN, Accessed March 10, 2009
  17. ^ a b Dunkin, Alan, Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six Review, GameSpot, September 9, 1998, Accessed February 19, 2009
  18. ^ Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2006). Fundamentals of Game Design. Prentice Hall. 
  19. ^ a b Staff, The Wednesday 10: First-Person Shooter Cliches, IGN, February 11, 2009, Accessed February 23, 2009
  20. ^ Staff, The Art Of FPS Multiplayer Design, Game Informer, May 3, 2008, Accessed February 24, 2009 Archived May 25, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Biessener, Adam, S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl, Game Informer, Accessed February 23, 2009 Archived April 1, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Reed, Kristan, Black, EuroGamer, June 2, 2005, Accessed February 23, 2009
  23. ^ FPS Field Guide: A Look At Common Enemies, GameInformer, May 6, 2008, Accessed February 23, 2009 Archived July 31, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Boutros, Daniel, Difficulty is Difficult: Designing for Hard Modes in Games, GamaSutra, September 16, 2008, Accessed March 10, 2009
  25. ^ a b Kosak, Dave, Battlefield 2 (PC), GameSpy, June 17, 2005, Accessed February 23, 2009
  26. ^ a b The Worlds First MMOFPS is nearly complete, IGN, May 5, 2003, Accessed February 23, 2009
  27. ^ Halo Guide, IGN, Accessed March 10, 2009
  28. ^ Malcolm Ryan, IE2009: Proceedings of the 6th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, ISBN 1-4503-0010-3, retrieved 2011-04-20 
  29. ^ a b c d Shahrani, Sam, Educational Feature: A History and Analysis of Level Design in 3D Computer Games - Pt. 1, GamaSutra, April 26, 2006, Accessed March 7, 2009
  30. ^ Battlezone at the Killer List of Videogames
  31. ^ MIDI Maze: Atari ST, IGN, Accessed September 2, 2012
  32. ^ "25 years of Pac-Man". MeriStation. July 4, 2005. Retrieved 2011-05-06.  (Translation)
  33. ^ a b "Gaming's Most Important Evolutions". GamesRadar. October 8, 2010. p. 5. Retrieved 2011-04-27. 
  34. ^ a b Parish, Jeremy, The Essential 50: Faceball 2000, 1UP, Accessed April 24, 2009
  35. ^ a b Mallinson, Paul (April 16, 2002). "Games that changed the world: Ultima Underworld". ComputerAndVideoGames.com. Retrieved 2010-10-08. 
  36. ^ Andy Slaven (2002), Video Game Bible, 1985-2002, Trafford Publishing, p. 53, ISBN 1-55369-731-6, retrieved 2011-05-06 
  37. ^ a b c When Two Tribes Go to War: A History of Video Game Controversy, GameSpot, Accessed February 24, 2009
  38. ^ Kushner, David, Nintendo Grows Up and Goes for the Gross-Out, The New York Times, May 10, 2001, Accessed February 24, 2009[dead link]
  39. ^ Guifoil, John, The Old Shoebox: Download Blake Stone: Aliens of Gold, Blast, August 1, 2008, Accessed February 16, 2009
  40. ^ a b c d e f Shoemaker, Brad, The Greatest Games of All Time: Doom, GameSpot, Accessed February 18, 2009
  41. ^ Perry, Douglass C., Doom Review, IGN, October 3, 2006, Accessed February 24, 2009
  42. ^ Silverman, Ben, Controversial Games, Yahoo! Games, September 17, 2007, Accessed February 24, 2009
  43. ^ Szczepaniak, John, From '94 to Infinity: Before Halo, The Escapist, May 16, 2006, Accessed June 1, 2011
  44. ^ A Brief History of Star War Games, Part 1, Tom's Hardware, May 20, 2007, Accessed February 19, 2009
  45. ^ Soete, Tim, Duke Nukem 3D Review, GameSpot, May 1, 1996, Accessed February 19, 2009
  46. ^ Fahs, Travis, Geograph Seal (X68000), The Next Level, November 25, 2006, Accessed September 3, 2012
  47. ^ a b King, Brad; Borland, John M. (2003). Dungeons and Dreamers: The Rise of Computer Game Culture from Geek to Chic. McGraw-Hill/Osborne. pp. 111–125. ISBN 0-07-222888-1. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  48. ^ Ward, Trent C., Quake Review, GameSpot, June 22, 1996, Accessed February 19, 2009
  49. ^ a b Martin Hollis (2004-09-02). "The Making of GoldenEye 007". Zoonami. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  50. ^ Gerstmann, Jeff, GoldenEye 007 Review, GameSpot, August 19, 1997, Accessed February 19, 2009
  51. ^ Berghammer, Billy, A Rare Look at Rare, 1UP, Accessed February 19, 2009
  52. ^ Game Collector: This Means War!, GameSpot, September 7, 2001, Accessed February 19, 2009
  53. ^ a b King, Brad; Borland, John M. (2003). Dungeons and Dreamers: The Rise of Computer Game Culture from Geek to Chic. McGraw-Hill/Osborne. p. 211. ISBN 0-07-222888-1. Retrieved 2010-09-25. 
  54. ^ Ocampo, Jason, Half-Life 10th Anniversary, IGN, November 19, 2008, Accessed February 19, 2009
  55. ^ Strife Review, GameSpot, June 27, 1996
  56. ^ The Greatest Games of All Time: Half-Life, GameSpot, May 18, 2007, Accessed February 19, 2009
  57. ^ Davis, Ryan (November 15, 2007). "Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles Review". GameSpot. Retrieved 2011-05-07. 
  58. ^ Kohler, Chris, The 15 Most Influential Games of the Decade, Wired December 24, 2009, Accessed September 10, 2011
  59. ^ Butts, Steve, World War II Online, IGN, August 6, 2001, Accessed March 11, 2010
  60. ^ Bramwell, Tom, Sign-up for PlanetSide beta, EuroGamer, November 4, 2002, Accessed March 10, 2010
  61. ^ Doom 3 (PC), GameSpy, Accessed March 9, 2009
  62. ^ Fahey, Rob, UK Charts: Doom 3 scores first 2004 No.1 for PC platform, EuroGamer, August 17, 2004, Accessed March 9, 2009
  63. ^ Lyttle, John, John Lyttle - Shoot 'em up, New Statesman, December 5, 2005, Accessed March 7, 2009
  64. ^ Clara Barraza (2008-09-01). "The Evolution of the Survival Horror Genre". IGN. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  65. ^ "Music to your F.E.A.R.s". GameSpot. 2005-10-04. Retrieved 2006-10-04. 
  66. ^ Fitzpatrick, Paul, "Bioshock", PlayStation Official Magazine UK, December 2008 (issue 25), pp. 90-91
  67. ^ Cowen, Nick, The top 10 video games of 2007, The Telegraph, December 6, 2007, Accessed March 8, 2009
  68. ^ Hoggins, Tom, Why videogamers are artists at heart, The Telegraph, November 10, 2008, Accessed March 8, 2009
  69. ^ Kuo, Li C. (2006-05-10). "GameSpy: BioShock Preview". Gamespy. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  70. ^ "IGN BioShock Interview". IGN. 2004-10-04. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  71. ^ Hurley, Leon, "Far Cry 2", PlayStation Official Magazine UK, December 2008 (issue 25), pp. 98-100
  72. ^ Ditum, Nathan, "Resistance 2", PlayStation Official Magazine UK, December 2008 (issue 25), pp. 79-82
  73. ^ "Call of Duty: Black Ops Review". Game Rant. 2010-11-11. Retrieved 2010-11-27. "it becomes a little disappointing when you’re forced to sit there and watch scripted walkthroughs of story moments. Going to the Pentagon is something that should be pretty exciting, but it’s essentially a rail-shooter without the shooting." 
  74. ^ Robert Howarth (November 8, 2007). "Call of Duty 4 First Impressions". Voodoo Extreme. IGN. Retrieved 2011-05-07. 
  75. ^ Cifaldi, Frank, Analysts: FPS 'Most Attractive' Genre for Publishers, GamaSutra, February 21, 2006, Accessed February 23, 2009
  76. ^ Colzato LS, van Leeuwen PJA, van den Wildenberg WPM and Hommel B (2010-04-21). "DOOM'd to switch: superior cognitive flexibility in players of first person shooter games". Frontiers in Psychology. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  77. ^ Thomsen, Michael (March 30, 2010). "Point and Shoot: Lessons In Wii FPS Control". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2011-05-05. 
  78. ^ Templeman, J.; Denbrook, P. (2012). "Enhancing Realism in Desktop Interfaces for Dismounted Infantry Simulation". Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC).