Food irradiation is the process of treating food with a specific dosage of ionizing radiation. This treatment slows or halts spoilage by retarding enzymic action or destroying microorganisms and it can also inactivate foodborne pathogenic organisms (reducing the risk of food borne illness). Further applications include sprout inhibition, delay of ripening, increase of juice yield, and improvement of re-hydration. Irradiation is also used to prevent the spread of invasive insect species that could be associated with fresh produce (e.g. fruit fly pests).
Ionizing radiation affects cells and microorganisms by damaging their DNA beyond its ability to repair, breaking down cell membranes and interrupting enzymic pathways. Organisms can no longer successfully continue the process of cell division. The major effect of irradiation is to generate short-lived and transient radicals (e.g. the hydroxy radical, the hydrogen atom and solvated electrons) that in turn damage DNA and intercellular structures. The target organism ceases all processes related to maturation or reproduction. At high enough doses the target organism does not survive. Irradiated food does not become radioactive, as the particles that transmit radiation are not themselves radioactive. Still there is some controversy in the application of irradiation possibly due to it being confused with radioactive contamination and an imputed association with the nuclear industry, and also perhaps because people think that chemical changes will be different than the chemical changes due to heating food (as ionizing radiation produces a higher energy transfer per collision than conventional radiant heat). However, research has found that most, if not all, of the substances formed in irradiated food are also found in food that has been subjected to other processing treatments and are not exclusively formed by irradiation. Furthermore, the quantities in which they occur in irradiated food are not significantly higher than those being formed in heat treatments.
Food irradiation is currently permitted by over 50 countries, and the volume of food treated is estimated to exceed 500,000 metric tons annually worldwide; however, the extent of clearances is varying significantly, from a single food category(dried herbs, spices and vegetable seasoningss) in Austria, Germany, and many other countries of the European Union to any food in Brazil.
Irradiation is a more general term of the exposure of materials to radiation to achieve a technical goal (in this context "ionizing radiation" is implied). As such it is also used on non-food items, such as medical devices, plastics, tubes for gas pipelines, hoses for floor heating, shrink-foils for food packaging, automobile parts, wires and cables (isolation), tires, and even gemstones.
Processing of food by ionizing radiation 
By irradiating food, depending on the dose, some or all of the microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, or insects present are destroyed or rendered incapable of reproduction. Hence pathogenic organisms can be inactivated, reducing the risk of food borne illness, and spoilage organisms can also be severely affected, thereby prolonging the shelf-life of the food. Some foods, e.g., herbs and spices, are irradiated at sufficient doses (five kilograys or more) to reduce the microbial counts by several orders of magnitude; such ingredients do not carry over spoilage or pathogen microorganisms into the final product. It has also been shown that irradiation can delay the ripening of fruits or the sprouting of vegetables.
Some foods, particularly fruits and vegetables, are not available for sale on the global market unless treated to prolong shelf life for transportation. This may include radiation processing. This application has not yet been exploited. In contrast, irradiation to eliminate insect pests to fulfill quarantine requirements is gaining commercial significance.
Food irradiation is sometimes referred to as "cold pasteurization" or "electronic pasteurization" because ionizing the food does not heat the food to high temperatures during the process, as in heat-pasteurization (at a typical dose of 10 kGy, food that is physically equivalent to water would warm by about 2.5 °C). The treatment of solid food by ionizing radiation can provide an effect similar to heat pasteurization of liquids, such as milk. The use of the term "cold pasteurization" to describe irradiated foods is controversial, because pasteurization and irradiation are fundamentally different processes, although the intended end results can in some cases be similar.
Electron irradiation 
Electron irradiation uses electrons accelerated in an electric field to a velocity close to the speed of light. Electrons are particulate radiation and, as any other particulate radiation, have a limited range in matter. For this reason, electrons do not penetrate the product beyond a few centimeters, depending on product density. However, electron facilties (like gamma and x-ray facilities) rely on substantial concrete shields to protect workers and the environment from radiation exposure.
Gamma irradiation 
Gamma radiation is radiation of photons in the gamma part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The radiation is obtained through the use of radioisotopes, generally cobalt-60 but caesium-137 can also be used as a source. Cobalt-60 is bred from cobalt-59 using neutron irradiation in specifically designed nuclear reactors. Caesium-137 is recovered during the processing of spent nuclear fuel. Because this technology – except for military applications – is not commercially available, insufficient quantities of it are available on the global isotope markets for use in large scale, commercial irradiators. Presently, caesium-137 is used only in small hospital units to treat blood before transfusion to prevent Graft-versus-host disease.
Food irradiation using cobalt-60 is the preferred method by most processors, because the deeper penetration enables administering treatment to entire industrial pallets or totes, reducing the need for material handling. A pallet or tote is typically exposed for several minutes to hours depending on dose. Radioactive material must be monitored and carefully stored to shield workers and the environment from its gamma rays. During operation this is achieved by substantial concrete shields. With most designs the radioisotope can be lowered into a water-filled source storage pool to allow maintenance personnel to enter the radiation shield. In this mode the water in the pool absorbs the radiation. Other uncommonly used designs feature dry storage by providing movable shields that reduce radiation levels in areas of the irradiation chamber.
One variant of gamma irradiators keeps the cobalt-60 under water at all times and lowers the product to be irradiated under water in hermetic bells. No further shielding is required for such designs.
X-ray irradiation 
Similar to gamma radiation, X-rays are photon radiation of a wide energy spectrum and an alternative to isotope based irradiation systems. X-rays are generated by colliding accelerated electrons with a dense material (target) such as tantalum or tungsten in a process known as bremsstrahlung-conversion. X-ray irradiators are scalable and have deep penetration comparable to Co-60, with the added benefit that the electronic source stops radiating when switched off. They also permit dose uniformity, but these systems generally have low energetic efficiency during the conversion of electron energy to photon radiation requiring much more electrical energy than other systems. Like most other types of facilities, X-ray systems rely on concrete shields to protect the environment and workers from radiation.
Nominal X-ray energy is usually limited to 5 MeV; the USA has provisions for up to 7.5 MeV, which increases conversion efficiency. Another development is the availability of electron accelerators with extremely high power output, up to 1,000 kW beam. At a conversion efficiency of up to 12%, the X-ray power may reach (including filtering and other losses) 100 kW; this power would be equivalent to a gamma facility with Co-60 of about 6.5 MCi.
The safety of irradiation facilities is regulated by the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency and monitored by the different national Nuclear Regulatory Commissions. The incidents that have occurred in the past are documented by the agency and thoroughly analyzed to determine root cause and improvement potential. Such improvements are then mandated to retrofit existing facilities and future design.
Care must be taken not to expose the operators and the environment to radiation or radioactive contamination. Interlocks and safeguards are mandated to minimize this risk. Nevertheless there have been radiation related deaths and injury amongst workers of such facilities, many of them caused by the operators themselves overriding the interlocks. "Ordinary" occupational safety regulations also apply to radiation processing facilities; the radiation aspects are typically excluded and supervised by special authorities.
An incident in Decatur, Georgia where water soluble caesium-137 leaked into the source storage pool requiring NRC intervention has led to near elimination of this radioisotope; it has been replaced by the more costly, non-water soluble cobalt-60.
National and international regulations on the levels and types of energy used to irradiate food generally set standards that prevent the possibility of inducing radioactivity in treated foods, and, hence, excluding the risk to workers and the environment.
The cost of food irradiation is influenced by dose requirements, the food's tolerance of radiation, handling conditions, i.e., packaging and stacking requirements, construction costs, financing arrangements, and other variables particular to the situation. Irradiation is a capital-intensive technology requiring a substantial initial investment, ranging from $1 million to $5 million. In the case of large research or contract irradiation facilities, major capital costs include a radiation source (cobalt-60), hardware (irradiator, totes and conveyors, control systems, and other auxiliary equipment), land (1 to 1.5 acres), radiation shield, and warehouse. Operating costs include salaries (for fixed and variable labor), utilities, maintenance, taxes/insurance, cobalt-60 replenishment, general utilities, and miscellaneous operating costs.
Treatment costs vary as a function of dose and facility usage. Low dose applications such as disinfestation of fruit range between US$0.01/lbs and US$0.08/lbs while higher dose applications can cost as much as US$0.20/lbs.
Opponents of food irradiation sometimes state that large-scale irradiation would increase processing, transportation, and handling times for fruits and vegetables thus contributing to a negative ecological balance compared to locally grown foods.
"Dose" (short for radiation absorbed dose) is the physical quantity governing the radiation processing of food, relating to the beneficial effects to be achieved. It is measured in the SI unit known as the gray (Gy). One gray of radiation is equal to 1 joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of food material. In radiation processing of foods, the doses are generally measured in kilograys (kGy, 1,000 Gy).
The measurement of radiation dose is referred to as dosimetry and involves exposing dosimeters jointly with the treated food item. Dosimeters are small components attached to the irradiated product made of materials that, when exposed to ionizing radiation, change specific, measurable physical attributes to a degree that can be correlated to the dose received. Modern dosimeters are made of a range of materials, such as alanine pellets, perspex (PMMA) blocks, and radiochromic films, as well as special solutions and other materials. These dosimeters are used in combination with specialized read out devices. Standards that describe calibration and operation for radiation dosimetry, as well as procedures to relate the measured dose to the effects achieved and to report and document such results, are maintained by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM international) and are also available as ISO/ASTM standards.
On the basis of the dose of radiation the application is generally divided into three main categories:
Low dose applications (up to 1 kGy) 
- Sprout inhibition in bulbs and tubers 0.03-0.15 kGy
- Delay in fruit ripening 0.25-0.75 kGy
- Insect disinfestation including quarantine treatment and elimination of food borne parasites 0.07-1.00 kGy
Medium dose applications (1 kGy to 10 kGy) 
- Reduction of spoilage microbes to prolong shelf-life of meat, poultry and seafoods under refrigeration 1.50–3.00 kGy
- Reduction of pathogenic microbes in fresh and frozen meat, poultry and seafoods 3.00–7.00 kGy
- Reducing the number of microorganisms in spices to improve hygienic quality 10.00 kGy
High dose applications (above 10 kGy) 
These doses are above those currently permitted in the USA for commercial food items by the FDA and other regulators around the world. The European Union countries allow dried herbs and spices to be irradiated to a maximum dose of 15 kGy which is equal to an "overall average dose" of 10 kGy as defiend under EU Directives (i.e. at the maximum dose uniformity ratio (maximum dose / minimum dose) of 3 allowed in the EU and using the relationship that "overall average dose" for dried herbs and spices is equal to the average of the sum of the maximum dose and minimum dose). Though these doses are approved for non commercial applications, such as sterilizing frozen meat for NASA astronauts (doses of 44 kGy) and food for hospital patients.
- Sterilization of packaged meat, poultry, and their products that are shelf stable without refrigeration 25.00-70.00 kGy
- Product improvement as increased juice yield or improved re-hydration.
Table of the history of food irradiation 
- 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers X-rays ("bremsstrahlung", from German for radiation produced by deceleration)
- 1896 Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers natural radioactivity; Minck proposes the therapeutic use
- 1904 Samuel Prescott describes the bactericide effects Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
- 1906 Appleby & Banks: UK patent to use radioactive isotopes to irradiate particulate food in a flowing bed
- 1918 Gillett: U.S. Patent to use X-rays for the preservation of food
- 1921 Schwartz describes the elimination of Trichinella from food
- 1930 Wuest: French patent on food irradiation
- 1943 MIT becomes active in the field of food preservation for the U.S. Army
- 1951 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission begins to co-ordinate national research activities
- 1958 World first commercial food irradiation (spices) at Stuttgart, Germany
- 1970 Establishment of the International Food Irradiation Project (IFIP), head quarters at the Federal Research Centre for Food Preservation, Karlsruhe, Germany
- 1980 FAO/IAEA/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation recommends the clearance generally up to 10 kGy "overall average dose"
- 1981/1983 End of IFIP after reaching its goals
- 1983 Codex Alimentarius General Standard for Irradiated Foods: any food at a maximum "overall average dose" of 10 kGy
- 1984 International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) becomes the successor of IFIP
- 1997 FAO/IAEA/WHO Joint Study Group on High-Dose Irradiation recommends to lift any upper dose limit
- 2003 Codex Alimentarius General Standard for Irradiated Foods: no longer any upper dose limit
- 2004 ICGFI ends
Public Impact, Opinion, and Safety 
Irradiation has not been widely adopted due to an asserted negative public perception, the concerns expressed by some consumer groups and the reluctance of many food producers. Consumer perception of foods treated with irradiation is more negative than those processed by other means. "People think the product is radioactive," said Harlan Clemmons, president of Sadex, a food irradiation company based in Sioux City, Iowa.
Consumer organizations, environmentalist groups, and opponents to food irradiation refer to some studies suggesting that a large part of the public questions the safety of irradiated foods, and will not buy foods that have been irradiated.[verification needed]
On the other hand, other studies indicate the number of consumers concerned about the safety of irradiated food has decreased in the last 10 years and continues to be less than the number of those concerned about pesticide residues, microbiological contamination, and other food related concerns. Such numbers are comparable to those of people with no concern about food additives and preservatives. Consumers, given a choice and access to irradiated products, appear ready to buy it in considerably large numbers.
Labeling laws differ from country to country. While Codex Alimentarius represents the global standard in particular under the WTO-agreement, member states are free to convert those standards into national regulations. With regard to labeling of irradiated food, detailed rules are published at CODEX-STAN – 1 (2005) labelling of prepacked food.
US Labeling 
The US defines irradiated foods as foods in which the irradiation causes a material change in the food, or a material change in the consequences that may result from the use of the food. This definition does not include foods where one of the ingredients is irradiated. This definition is not consistent with the Codex Alimentarius. All irradiated foods must bear the Radura symbol at the point of sale and the term "irradiated" or a derivative there of, in conjunction with explicit language describing the change in the food or its conditions of use.
The meaning of the label is not consistent as the amount of irradiation used can vary and the FDA regulations are on a product by product basis. The amount of pathogens affected by irradiation can vary as well.
Food that is processed as an ingredient by a restaurant or food processor is exempt from the labeling requirement in the US.
The Radura logo as regulated by FDA is slightly different from the international version as proposed in Codex Alimentarius.
EU Labeling 
The European union follows the Alimentarius provision to label irradiated ingredients down to the last molecule. However, there is no option provided to use the RADURA-logo (what would not exclude to use this logo voluntarily). The European Union is particularly strict in enforcing irradiation labeling requiring its member countries to perform tests on a cross section of food items in the market-place and to report to the European Commission; the results are published annually in the OJ of the European Communities.
Irradiated Food Supply 
There are analytical methods available to detect the usage of irradiation on food items in the marketplace. This may be understood as a tool for government authorities to enforce existing labeling standards and to bolster consumer confidence.
Currently, there is no global trade in irradiated food, except a rather small quantity of fruit irradiated to eliminate insect pests and to fulfill the US quarantine requirements.
United States Irradiated Food Supply 
Certain supermarkets prefer not to carry irradiated products for reasons of consumer perception.
Mexico may become the largest exporter of irradiated produce to the U.S. at this point. Varieties will include Mango, Sweet citrus, Manzano Pepper, Starfruit, Guava according to the current US / Mexico irradiation work plan.
European Union Irradiated Food Supply 
Irradiated foods produced within the EU that fall within the single category; 'dried aromatic herbs, spices and vegetable seasonings' are permitted presently in all 27 member states of the European Community. Though imports into the EC are possible from third countries and the seven countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom) that allow other irradiated foods to be marketed as long as they comply with Directive 1999/2/EC.
The controls on food irradiation, and in particular the strict labeling requirements are regarded by many as restrictive. It is rare to find irradiated and clearly labelled food items on sale. The European Union's official site gives information on the regulatory status of food irradiation, the quantities of foods irradiated at authorized facilities in European Union member states and the results of market surveillance where foods have been tested to see if they are irradiated. The Official Journal of the European Union publishes annual reports on food irradiation, the current report  covers the period from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2010 and compiles information from 27 Member States.
In total, 9263.4 tonnes of food products were irradiated in European Union countries in 2010; mainly in three member state countries: Belgium (63%), the Netherlands (17%) and France (11%). The three types of foods irradiated the most were frog legs (48%), poultry (23%) and dried herbs and spices (16%).
Australian Ban of Irradiated Cat Food 
A series of fatal cat incidences with irradiated pet food in Australia led the cat food company responsible to recall any product from the market. Irradiation at elevated doses or heat sterilization was compulsory at the time of this incident. The company and several scientist speculated this might have been caused by Vitamin A depletion. Over 40 cats were reported to have been euthanized after severe paralysis subsequent to being fed a particular brand of cat food.
- The series of incidents was linked only to a single batch of the brand's product and no illness was linked to any of that brand's other irradiated batches of the same product or to any other brand of irradiated cat food,
- There was no evidence of Vitamin A depletion in any of the cats studied, although there were not enough cats sampled to prove conclusively that there where no cases of Vitamin A depletion.
- Histopathological damage to the white matter of spinal cord and brain was seen. No gross abnormalities were found during postmortem examination. The report by the Australian Veterinary Journal states that there is no known mechanism by which changes induced in foods by irradiation could result in this kind of damage.
Radiation processing of imported cat food has now been banned in Australia. The AQIS announced on June 6, 2009 that the alternative of radiation processing for cat food is no longer acceptable and that irradiated dog food is required to be labeled "Must not be fed to cats".
Since 2009, no study has been published contributing to clearing-up this issue.
Safety, security and wholesomeness aspects 
Hundreds of animal feeding studies of irradiated food, including multigenerational studies, have been performed since 1950. Endpoints investigated have included subchronic and chronic changes in metabolism, histopathology, and function of most systems; reproductive effects; growth; teratogenicity; and mutagenicity. A large number of studies have been performed; meta-studies have supported the safety of irradiated food.
Processing of food by ionizing radiation causes a multitude of chemical changes. This is why it is so effective in inducing beneficial modifications. For comparison, cooking, smoking, salting etc. as traditional techniques cause even changes in the identity of a food and result in a new product; in some cases (green beans) cooking even removes a toxic compound. Even leaving alone would induce dramatic chemical changes leading finally to deterioration and spoilage of such food. Considering food irradiation it is undisputable that many chemical changes occur, and from the beginning of the research into this method the innocuity of newly formed compounds was a main topic. The results, the state of the art, and the mainstream of science are that irradiated food in general is safe to consume. Several national expert groups came to the same result; on top of all two international expert groups have in full detail evaluated the available data and finally concluded that any food at any dose is wholesome and safe to consume as long as it remains palatable and maintains its technical properties. In other words, as a steak burned to coal has lost its sensory and meat properties any over-irradiated food item will lose all of its desirable properties; the radiation doses to cause toxic changes are much higher than the doses needed to accomplish the benefits of irradiation.
Criticism and concerns about food irradiation 
Concerns have been expressed by public interest groups and public health experts that irradiation, as a non-preventive measure, might disguise or otherwise divert attention away from poor working conditions, sanitation, and poor food-handling procedures that lead to contamination in the first place.
Consumer advocacy groups such as Public Citizen or Food and Water Watch maintain that the safety of irradiated food is not proven, in particular long-term studies are still lacking, and strongly oppose the use of the technology.
Concerns and objections include the possibility that food irradiation might do any of the following:
- Mask spoiled food
- Discourage strict adherence to good manufacturing practices
- Preferentially kill "good" bacteria and encourage growth of "bad" bacteria
- Devitalize and denature irradiated food
- Impair flavor
- Not destroy bacterial toxins already present
- Cause chemical changes that are harmful to the consumer
- Be unnecessary in today's food system
Processors of irradiated food are subject to all existing regulations, inspections, and potential penalties regarding plant safety and sanitation; including fines, recalls, and criminal prosecutions. But critics of the practice claim that a lack of regulatory oversight (such as regular food processing plant inspections) necessitates irradiation.
While food irradiation can in some cases maintain the quality (i.e. general appearance and "inner" quality) of certain perishable food for a longer period of time, it cannot undo spoilage that occurred prior to irradiation. Irradiation cannot successfully be used to mask quality issues other than pathogens. As with heat pasteurization (for example, milk), processing by ionizing radiation can contribute to eliminate pathogen risks from solid food (example meat or lettuce). For comparison, milk heat pasteurization is not being alleged to be a method "to cover up poor food quality"; consequently, food irradiation should not be accused to serve such criminal purposes. Under a HACCP-concept (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) radiation processing can serve and contribute as an ultimate critical control point before the food reaches the consumer.
Opponents of food irradiation and consumer activists argue that the final proof is missing that irradiated food is "safe" (i.e. not unwholesome) and that the lack of long-term studies should be a further reason not to permit food irradiation. Opponents also refer to a number of scientific publications reporting significant negative effects of irradiated food, for example
- Polyploidy in malnourished Indian children
- Increase of aflatoxin production by irradiated microorganisms
- Vitamin deficiencies at extremely high doses to the complete diet
- Non-vitamin effects at higher doses (free radicals?)
- Change in chronaxie in rats
However, those experiments could be either not verified in later experiments, could not be clearly attributed to the radiation effect, or could be attributed to an inappropriate design of the experiment etc.
Alternative methods 
For quarantine purposes, insect pests can also be eliminated by fumigation with methyl bromide or aluminium phosphine, vapour heat, forced hot air, hot water dipping, or cold treatment.
Opponents of food irradiation and some consumer activists (for example Public Citizen) maintain that the best alternative to food irradiation to reduce pathogens is in good agricultural practices. Farmers and processing plants should improve sanitation practices, water used for irrigation and processing should be regularly tested for E. coli, and production plants should be routinely inspected. Concentrated animal feeding operations near farmland where produce is grown should be regulated.
Proponents of food irradiation have said that practices of organic farming can only reduce the extent of the microorganism load. They assert that residual flora including pathogen germs always persist, and that processing by ionizing radiation could be the ultimate measure (as a CCP under a HACCP-concept) to practically eliminate such risks.
Regulation of Food Irradiation in Consumer Products 
The provisions are that any "first generation" product must be labeled "irradiated" as any product derived directly from an irradiated raw material; for ingredients the provision is that even the last molecule of an irradiated ingredient must be listed with the ingredients even in cases where the unirradiated ingredient does not appear on the label. The RADURA-logo is optional; several countries use a graphical version that differs from the Codex-version. There is not much information about irradiated food available to the consumer on the market place; a few more recent surveys do not reveal the full picture. It may be assumed that even international trade exists.
The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) has passed a motion to commit member states to implement irradiation technology for their national phytosanitary programs; the General assembly of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has urged wider use of the irradiation technology.
United States Regulation 
Food irradiation in the United States is primarily regulated by the FDA since it is considered a food additive. Other federal agencies that regulate aspects of food irradiation include:
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): Meat and poultry products, fresh fruit.
- Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC): Safety of the processing facility.
- United States Department of Transportation (DOT): Safe transport of the radioactive sources.
Each new food is approved separately with a guideline specifying a maximum dosage; in case of quarantine applications the minimum dose is regulated. Packaging materials containing the food processed by irradiation must also undergo approval.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has approved the use of low-level irradiation as an alternative treatment to pesticides for fruits and vegetables that are considered hosts to a number of insect pests, including fruit flies and seed weevils; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared among a number of other applications the treatment of hamburger patties to eliminate the residual risk of a contamination by a virulent E. coli.
Under bilateral agreements that allows less-developed countries to earn income through food exports agreements are made to allow them to irradiate fruits and vegetables at low doses to kill insects, so that the food can avoid quarantine.
European Union Regulation 
The European Union has established a framework for regulating the processing of food by the application of ionizing radiation by specific directives since 1999; the "Framework" Directive and the "Implementing" Directive and relevant documents and reports are accessible online. The "implementing" directive contains a "positive list" permitting irradiation of only dried aromatic herbs, spices, and vegetable seasonings to a "maximum overall average absorbed radiation dose" of 10 kGy, with no maximum dose specified. However, any Member State is permitted to maintain previously granted clearances or to add new clearance as granted in other Member States, in the case the EC's Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) has given a positive vote for the respective application. Presently, seven Member States (Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom) have adopted such provisions. The food irradiation Directives intentionally exclude the irradiation of foodstuffs prepared for patients requiring sterile diets under medical supervision and it is possible to irradiate any type of such food for these patients.
It is because of the "Single Market" of the EC that any food – even if irradiated – must be allowed to be marketed in any other Member State even if a general ban of food irradiation prevails, under the condition that the food has been irradiated legally in the state of origin. Furthermore, imports into the EC are possible from third countries if the irradiation facility had been inspected and approved by the EC and the treatment is legal within the EC or some Member state.
The Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) of the EC has given a positive vote on eight categories of food to be irradiated. However, in a compromise between the European Parliament and the European Commission, only dried aromatic herbs, spices, and vegetable seasonings can be found in the positive list. The European Commission was due to provide a final draft for the positive list by the end of 2000; however, this failed because of a veto from Germany and a few other Member States. In 1992, and in 1998 the SCF voted "positive" on a number of irradiation applications that had been allowed in some member states before the EC Directives came into force, to enable those member states to maintain their national authorizations.
In 2003, the Codex Alimentarius removed any upper dose limit for food irradiation and at the same time stopped using the term "overall average dose" (instead referring to maximum dose and minimum dose), the SCF adopted a "revised opinion", but, in fact, it did not understand that the concept of "overall average dose" had been replaced, and SCF revised opinion was a re-confirmation and endorsement of the 1986 opinion. The opinion denied cancellation of the upper dose limit, and required that before the actual list of individual items or food classes (as in the opinions expressed in 1986, 1992 and 1998) can be expanded, new individual studies into the toxicology of each of such food and for each of the proposed dose ranges are requested. The SCF has subsequently been replaced by the new European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In April 2011, EFSA’s experts updated their scientific advice on the safety of food irradiation. In its comprehensive advice to EU policy makers, The EFSA BIOHAZ Panel looked at the efficacy and microbiological safety of the process, and the CEF Panel looked at possible risks arising from the formation of chemical substances as a result of food irradiation. A summary of their findings and recommendations, was published, as were two detailed reports; one on the chemical safety, of food irradiation and the other on the efficacy and microbiological safety, of food irradiation.
Other and international Regulation 
Other countries, including New Zealand, Australia, Thailand, India, and Mexico, have permitted the irradiation of fresh fruits for fruit fly quarantine purposes, amongst others. Such countries as Pakistan and Brazil have adopted the Codex Alimentarius Standard on Irradiated Food without any reservation or restriction: i.e., any food may be irradiated to any dose.
See also 
- Deinococcus radiodurans
- Food labeling regulations (disambiguation)
- Food and cooking hygiene
- Irradiated mail
- Local food
Further reading 
- World Health Organization publications:
- Food irradiation – A technique for preserving and improving the safety of Food, WHO, Geneva, 1991 (revised)
- Wholesomeness of irradiated food, WHO, Geneva, Technical Report Series No. 659, 1981
- Safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated food, WHO, Geneva, 1994
- High-dose irradiation: Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy, WHO, Geneva, 1999, Technical Report Series No. 890
- Facts about Food Irradiation, A series of Fact Sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), 1999, IAEA, Vienna, Austria
- Diehl, J.F., Safety of irradiated foods, Marcel Dekker, N.Y., 1995 (2. ed.)
- Satin, M., Food irradiation, Technomic, Lancaster, 1996 (2. ed.)
- Urbain, W.M., Food irradiation, Academic Press, Orlando, 1986
- Molins, R. (ed.), Food irradiation – Principles and applications, Wiley Interscience, N.Y., 2001
- Sommers, C.H. and Fan, X. (eds.), Food Irradiation Research and Technology, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, 2006
- Hauter, W. and Worth, M., Zapped! Irradiation and the Death of Food, Food & Water Watch Press, Washington, DC, 2008.
- "The food that would last forever : understanding the dangers of food irradiation" by Gary Gibbs, Garden City Park, N.Y. : Avery Pub. Group, c1993
- anon., Food Irradiation: Available Research Indicates That Benefits Outweigh Risks, RCED-00-217, August 24, 2000, Government Accountability Office, United States General Accounting Office, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, Washington, D.C. 20548 "Food Irradiation"
- Farkas, J. and Mohácsi-Farkas, C., History and future of food irradiation, Food Sci. Technol. 22(2011),121-128
- WHO Statement on 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone and Related Compounds, 2003
- Evaluation of the Significance of 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone and other Alkylcyclobutanones
- anon., Food Irradiation – A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food, WHO, Geneva, 1991
- World Health Organization. Wholesomeness of irradiated food. Geneva, Technical Report Series No. 659, 1981
- anon., Safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated food, WHO, Geneva, 1994
- World Health Organization. High-Dose Irradiation: Wholesomeness of Food Irradiated With Doses Above 10 kGy. Report of a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Study Group. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1999. WHO Technical Report Series No. 890
- anon., Scientific Opinion on the Chemical Safety of Irradiation of Food, EFSA Journal 2011;9(4):1930 [57 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.1930 last visited 2013-03-03
- Food Irradiation Clearances
- Food irradiation, Position of ADA, J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100:246-253. http://www.mindfully.org/Food/Irradiation-Position-ADA.htm retrieved November 15, 2007
- C.M. Deeley, M. Gao, R. Hunter, D.A.E. Ehlermann, The development of food irradiation in the Asia Pacific, the Americas and Europe; tutorial presented to the International Meeting on Radiation Processing, Kuala Lumpur, 2006. http://www.iiaglobal.org/index.php?mact=News,cntnt01,detail,0&cntnt01articleid=488&cntnt01detailtemplate=resourceCenter-publication-detail-template&cntnt01returnid=231&hl=en_US last visited February 18, 2010
- Kume, T. et al., Status of food irradiation in the world, Radiat.Phys.Chem. 78(2009), 222-226
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