Campylobacter jejuni

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Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni 01.jpg
Scanning electron micrograph of C. jejuni demonstrating the chracteristic curved rod shape of the organism
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Epsilon Proteobacteria
Order: Campylobacterales
Family: Campylobacteraceae
Genus: Campylobacter
Species: C. jejuni
Binomial name
Campylobacter jejuni
(Jones et al. 1931)
Veron & Chatelain 1973
Blood-free, charcoal-based selective medium agar (CSM) for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacteria commonly found in animal feces. It is curved, helical-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative, and microaerophilic.[1][2][3] C. jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. Food poisoning caused by Campylobacter species can be severely debilitating, but is rarely life-threatening. It has been linked with subsequent development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which usually develops two to three weeks after the initial illness.[4]

Sources[edit]

C. jejuni is commonly associated with poultry, and it naturally colonises the digestive tract of many bird species. One study found that 30% of European starlings in farm settings in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, were carriers of C. jejuni.[5] It is also common in cattle, and although it is normally a harmless commensal of the gastrointestinal tract in these animals, it can cause campylobacteriosis in calves. It has also been isolated from wombat and kangaroo feces, being a cause of bushwalkers' diarrhea. Contaminated drinking water and unpasteurized milk provide an efficient means for distribution. Contaminated food is a major source of isolated infections, with incorrectly prepared meat and poultry as the primary source of the bacteria.

On June 29, 2011, the Wyoming Department of Health was notified of two laboratory-confirmed cases of C. jejuni in two persons working at a local sheep ranch who had castrated and docked the tails of lambs. Fecal-oral contamination was later verified by the CDC, which confirmed the bacteria from the infected lambs at the ranch had PFGE patterns indistinguishable from those from the men.[6]

Disease[edit]

Infection with C. jejuni usually results in enteritis, which is characterised by abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and malaise. The symptoms usually persist for between 24 hours and a week, but may be longer. Diarrhea can vary in severity from loose stools to bloody stools. The disease is usually self-limiting. However, it does respond to antibiotics. Severe (accompanying fevers, blood in stools) or prolonged cases may require ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin or norfloxacin. The drug of choice is usually erythromycin. About 90% of cases respond to ciprofloxacin treatment. Fluid and electrolyte replacement may be required for serious cases.

The first full-genome sequence of C. jejuni was performed in 2000 (strain NCTC11168 with a circular chromosome of 1,641,481 base pairs).[7]

Laboratory characteristics[edit]

Characteristic Result
Growth at 25 °C -
Growth at 35-37 °C +
Growth at 42 °C +
Nitrate reduction +
Catalase test +
Oxidase test +
Growth on MacConkey agar +
Motility (wet mount) +
Glucose utilization -
Hippurate hydrolysis +
Resistance to nalidixic acid -
Resistance to cephalothin +
Scanning electron micrograph depicting a number of Campylobacter jejuni bacteria

Campylobacter is grown on specially selective "CAMP" agar plates at 42°C, the normal avian body temperature, rather than at 37°C, the temperature at which most other pathogenic bacteria are grown. Since the colonies are oxidase positive, they will usually only grow in scanty amounts on the plates. Microaerophilic conditions are required for luxurious growth. A selective blood agar medium (Skirrow's medium) can be used. Greater selectivity can be gained with an infusion of a cocktail of antibiotics: vancomycin, polymixin-B, trimethoprim and actidione (Preston's agar), and growth under microaerophilic conditions at 42°C.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. ^ Online Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 7: Campylobacter
  3. ^ Gorbach, Sherwood L., Falagas, Matthew (editors) (2001). The 5 minute infectious diseases consult (1st ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-30736-3. "Multiple Campylobacter Genomes Sequenced". 2005-01-04. Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
  4. ^ Fujimoto S, Amako K. Guillain-Barre syndrome and Campylobacter jejuni infection. Lancet 1990;35:1350.
  5. ^ F M Colles, N D McCarthy, J C Howe, C L Devereux, A G Gosler, and M C J Maiden Dynamics of Campylobacter colonization of a natural host, Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) Environ Microbiol. 2009 January; 11(1): 258–267. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01773.x.
  6. ^ Van Houten, Clay; Musgrave, Karl; Weidenbach, Kelly; Murphy, Tracy; Manley, Wanda; Geissler, Aimee; Pride, Kerry R.; et al. (December 9, 2011). "Notes from the Field: Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Sheep Castration—Wyoming, 2011". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). CDC. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 
  7. ^ Parkhill, J.; Wren, B.W.; Mungall, K.; Ketley, J.M.; Churcher, C.; Basham, D.; Chillingworth, T.; Davies, R.M.; Feltwell, T.; Holroyd, S.; Jagels, K.; Karlyshev, A.V.; Moule, S.; Pallen, M.J.; Penn, C.W.; Quail, M.A.; Rajandream, M.A.; Rutherford, K.M.; van Vliet, A.H.; Whitehead, S.; Barrell, B.G. (February 2000). "The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals hypervariable sequences". Nature 403 (6770): 665–668. doi:10.1038/35001088. PMID 10688204. 

External links[edit]