Acesulfame potassium

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Acesulfame potassium
Acesulfame potassium
Ball-and-stick model of acesulfame potassium
Identifiers
CAS number 55589-62-3 YesY
PubChem 23683747
ChemSpider 11262939 YesY
UNII 23OV73Q5G9 YesY
EC number 259-715-3
ChEMBL CHEMBL1351474 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C4H4KNO4S
Molar mass 201.242
Appearance white crystalline powder
Density 1.81 g/cm3
Melting point 225 °C (437 °F; 498 K)
Solubility in water 270 g/L at 20 °C
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Acesulfame potassium (ace-SUHL-faym), also known as Acesulfame K (K is the symbol for potassium), or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener), and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. In the European Union, it is known under the E number (additive code) E950.[1] It was discovered accidentally in 1967 by German chemist Karl Clauss at Hoechst AG (now Nutrinova).[2] In chemical structure, acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide. It is a white crystalline powder with molecular formula C4H4KNO4S and a molecular weight of 201.24 g/mol.[3]

Properties[edit]

Acesulfame K is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (common sugar), as sweet as aspartame, about 2/3 as sweet as saccharin, and 1/3 as sweet as sucralose. Like saccharin, it has a slightly bitter aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. Kraft Foods has patented the use of sodium ferulate to mask acesulfame's aftertaste.[4] Acesulfame K is often blended with other sweeteners (usually sucralose or aspartame). These blends are reputed to give a more sucrose like taste whereby each sweetener masks the other's aftertaste, and/or exhibits a synergistic effect by which the blend is sweeter than its components.

Unlike aspartame, acesulfame K is stable under heat, even under moderately acidic or basic conditions, allowing it to be used as a food additive in baking, or in products that require a long shelf life. In carbonated drinks, it is almost always used in conjunction with another sweetener, such as aspartame or sucralose. It is also used as a sweetener in protein shakes and pharmaceutical products,[5] especially chewable and liquid medications, where it can make the active ingredients more palatable.

Discovery[edit]

Acesulfame potassium was developed after the accidental discovery of a similar compound (5,6-dimethyl-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide) in 1967 by Karl Clauss and Harald Jensen at Hoechst AG.[6][7] After accidentally dipping his fingers into the chemicals with which he was working, Clauss licked them to pick up a piece of paper.[8] Subsequent research showed a number of compounds with the same basic ring structure had varying levels of sweetness. 6-Methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide had particularly favourable taste characteristics and was relatively easy to synthesize, so it was singled out for further research, and received its generic name (acesulfame-K) from the World Health Organization in 1978.[6]

Safety[edit]

As with other artificial sweeteners, concern exists over the safety of acesulfame potassium. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved its general use. Critics say acesulfame potassium has not been studied adequately and may be carcinogenic,[9] although these claims have been dismissed by the FDA[10] and equivalent authorities in the European Union.[11]

As for potential negative effects, acesulfame K has been shown to stimulate dose-dependent insulin secretion in rats, though no hypoglycemia was observed, in one animal study from 1987.[12]

One rodent study showed no increased incidence of tumors in response to administration of acesulfame K.[13] In this study, conducted by the National Toxicology Program, 60 rats were given acesulfame K for 40 weeks, making up as much as 3% of their total diet (which would be equivalent to a human consuming 1,343 12-oz cans of artificially sweetened soft drinks every day). No sign indicated these (or lower) levels of acesulfame K increased the rats' risk of cancer or other neoplasms. However, a similar study conducted with p53 haploinsufficient mice showed signs of carcinogenicity in males but not females.[13] Further food safety research has been recommended.[9][14]

Research suggests acesulfame K may affect prenatal development. One study appeared to show acesulfame K is ingested by mice through their mothers' amniotic fluid or breast milk, and this influences the adult mouse's sweet preference.[15]

Additional research on the effects of acesulfame K on mice revealed chronic use over a period of 40 weeks resulted in a moderate but limited effect on neurometabolic function. These results suggest chronic usage of acesulfame K may alter neurological function.[16]

Environment Canada and University of Waterloo tested the water from the Grand River at 23 sites between its headwaters and where it dumps into Lake Erie. The results suggest the artificial sweetener acesulfame is the best at evading wastewater treatment, and it appears in far higher concentrations than saccharin or sucralose at the various test sites.[17]

Compendial status[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". UK: Food Standards Agency. 2012-03-14. 
  2. ^ Clauss, K.; Jensen, H. (1973). "Oxathiazinone Dioxides - A New Group of Sweetening Agents". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 12 (11): 869–876. doi:10.1002/anie.197308691. 
  3. ^ Ager, D. J.; Pantaleone, D. P.; Henderson, S. A.; Katritzky, A. R.; Prakash, I.; Walters, D. E. (1998). "Commercial, Synthetic Nonnutritive Sweeteners" (PDF). Angewandte Chemie International Edition 37 (13–14): 1802–1817. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19980803)37:13/14<1802::AID-ANIE1802>3.0.CO;2-9. 
  4. ^ United States Patent 5,336,513
  5. ^ http://www.who.int/prequal/trainingresources/pq_pres/TrainingZA-April07/Excipients.ppt
  6. ^ a b O'Brien-Nabors, L. (2001). Alternative Sweeteners. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 13. ISBN 0-8247-0437-1. 
  7. ^ Williams, R. J.; Goldberg, I. (1991). Biotechnology and Food Ingredients. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-00272-6. 
  8. ^ Newton, D. E. (2007). Food Chemistry (New Chemistry). New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 0-8160-5277-8. 
  9. ^ a b Karstadt, M. L. (2006). "Testing Needed for Acesulfame Potassium, an Artificial Sweetener" (PDF). Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (9): A516. doi:10.1289/ehp.114-a516a. PMC 1570055. PMID 16966071. 
  10. ^ Kroger, M.; Meister, K.; Kava, R. (2006). "Low-Calorie Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes: A Review of the Safety Issues". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 5 (2): 35–47. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.tb00081.x. 
  11. ^ Scientific Committee on Food (2000). "Opinion - Re-evaluation of acesulfame K with reference to the previous SCF opinion of 1991" (PDF). SCF/CS/ADD/EDUL/194 final. EU Commission. 
  12. ^ Liang, Y.; Steinbach, G.; Maier, V.; Pfeiffer, E. F. (1987). "The Effect of Artificial Sweetener on Insulin Secretion. 1. The Effect of Acesulfame K on Insulin Secretion in the Rat (Studies in Vivo)". Hormone and Metabolic Research 19 (6): 233–238. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1011788. PMID 2887500. 
  13. ^ a b National Toxicology Program (2005). "Toxicity Studies of Acesulfame Potassium (CAS No. 55589-62-3) in FVB/N-TgN(v-Ha-ras)Led (Tg.AC) Hemizygous Mice and Carcinogenicity Studies of Acesulfame Potassium in B6.129-Trp53tm1Brd (N5) Haploinsufficient Mice (Feed Studies)" (PDF). Genetically Modified Model Report (National Institutes of Health) 2005 (NTP GMM-2): 1–113. PMID 18784762. NIH Publication No. 06-4460. 
  14. ^ Soffritti, M. (2006). "Acesulfame Potassium: Soffritti Responds" (PDF). Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (9): A516–A517. doi:10.1289/ehp.114-a516b. PMC 1570058. 
  15. ^ Zhang, G. H.; Chen, M. L.; Liu, S. S.; Zhan, Y. H.; Quan, Y.; Qin, Y. M.; Deng, S. P. (2011). "Effects of Mother's Dietary Exposure to Acesulfame-K in Pregnancy or Lactation on the Adult Offspring's Sweet Preference". Chemical Senses 36 (9): 763–770. doi:10.1093/chemse/bjr050. PMID 21653241. 
  16. ^ Cong W-n, Wang R, Cai H, Daimon CM, Scheibye-Knudsen M, et al. (2013). "Long-Term Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Treatment Alters Neurometabolic Functions in C57BL/6J Mice.". PLoS One 8 (8): e70257. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070257. 
  17. ^ "Major Canadian river contains artificial sweeteners". Waterloo News (University of Waterloo). December 13, 2013. 
  18. ^ British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat (2009). "Index, BP 2009" (PDF). 

External links[edit]