Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other. For many people, the term carries an overtone of moral or religious disapproval, but the significance of sexual acts to which the term is applied varies between religions, societies and cultures. The definition is often disputed. In modern usage, the term is often replaced with a more judgment-neutral term like extramarital sex.
- 1 Etymology and usage
- 2 History
- 3 Abrahamic religions
- 3.1 Christianity
- 3.1.1 Fornication
- 3.1.2 Christianity and premarital sex
- 3.2 Islam
- 3.3 Judaism
- 3.1 Christianity
- 4 Eastern religions
- 5 Laws
- 6 See also
- 7 References
Etymology and usage
The word derives from Latin, fornix meaning "arch", supposedly as a euphemism for "brothel". The first recorded use in English is in the Cursor Mundi, c. 1300; the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) records a figurative use as well: "The forsaking of God for idols".
Fornicated as an adjective is still used in botany, meaning "arched" or "bending over" (as in a leaf). John Milton plays on that and its sexual meaning in The Reason of Church-Government Urged against Prelaty (1642): "[She] gives up her body to a mercenary whordome under those fornicated [ar]ches which she cals Gods house." In architecture, the term refers to vault; this usage, by way of prostitutes in Rome who supposedly "frequented the vaulted arcades surrounding the Colosseum", has given rise to its current meaning.
In the English translations of the Bible the Greek term πορνεία (porneia) has given rise to some dispute. The traditional translation of the term into English has been fornication, but has also been translated as whoredom. More recent translations have preferred the alternate translation of sexual immorality or simply immorality.
According to the New Testament Greek Lexicon, it is defined "illicit sexual intercourse", which is then further defined as "adultery, fornication, homosexuality, lesbianism, intercourse with animals etc.", "sexual intercourse with close relatives", "sexual intercourse with a divorced man or woman" and "metaph. the worship of idols".
||The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (February 2013)|
In England in 1650, during the ascendancy of the Puritans, fornication was made a felony. At the Restoration in 1660, this statute was not renewed, and prosecution of the mere act of fornication itself was abandoned. However, notorious and open lewdness, when carried to the extent of exciting public scandal, continued to be an indictable offence at common law.
In Britain in the 1170s, "it was common practice for ordinary couples to co-habit before marriage and for cousins to marry one another". Sex before marriage only became equated with sinfulness with the passing of the Marriage Act 1753.
Prior to the passing of this Act, laws against bastard children became more strict during the 1730s and 1740s.
Indeed, there was very little stigma around bastards at any social level in medieval England. For instance, William the Conqueror's right to succeed to the throne of Normandy was never questioned on the grounds he was a bastard nor, in his conflict with Harold Godwinson over who should rule England, was this issue raised as an argument against him. However, attitudes shifted a few generations later when bastards were no longer able to claim the English throne.
The Pauline epistles contain multiple condemnations of various forms of extramarital sex. The First Epistle to the Corinthians states "Flee from sexual immorality" and lists adulterers and "those who are sexually immoral" among a list of in a list of "wrongdoers who...will not inherit the kingdom of God." [1 Corinthians 6:9][1 Cor 6:18] First Corinthians and the Epistle to the Galatians also address fornication.[Galatians 5:19][1 Corinthians 7:2] The Apostolic Decree of the Council of Jerusalem also includes a prohibition of fornication.
Christianity and premarital sex
There is much debate amongst Christians as to whether or not sex between two people who have never been married to anyone constitutes a form of fornication. The Bible itself is silent on the issue of consensual, premarital sex between an engaged couple.
From its outset, Protestantism has been more dynamic in its understanding of sexuality than Roman Catholicism, as it has not been constrained by procreation ethics and, as a result, it has been able to incorporate modern understandings of the human being that have emerged over the last century. However, Protestants, like Catholics, continue to struggle with ethical conundrums presented by "alternative lifestyles" including sexual relationships between unmarried heterosexuals, and, for the most part, heterosexual marriage is considered the ideal context for sexual intercourse but many theologians accept premarital sex and, since the 1990s, every mainstream Protestant denomination has had taskforces working on questions of sexual ethics.
The discussion turns on two Greek words—moicheia (μοιχεία, adultery) and porneia (el:πορνεία, from which the word pornography is derived). The first word is restricted to contexts involving sexual betrayal of a spouse; however, the second word is used as a generic term for illegitimate sexual activity. Elsewhere in First Corinthians, incest, homosexual intercourse (according to some interpretations) and prostitution are all explicitly forbidden by name (however, the Septuagint uses "porneia" to refer to male temple prostitution). Paul is preaching about activities based on levitical sexual prohibitions in the context of achieving holiness. The theory suggests it is these behaviours, and only these, that are intended by Paul's prohibition in chapter seven.
One major academic theological work that equates porneia with premarital sex is Kittel and Friedrich's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament from 1977. In defining porneia as fornication, it states that "The NT is characterized by an unconditional repudiation of all extra-marital and unnatural intercourse." Likewise, Friberg's Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament defines porneia as being "generally, every kind of extramarital, unlawful or unnatural sexual intercourse."
A survey undertaken by the American Sociological Review between 2000 and 2008 covering 31 developing countries found that "94 percent of Jews... reported having premarital sex, compared to 79 percent of Christians, 65 percent of Buddhists, 43 percent of Muslims and 19 percent of Hindus."
Jesus and the early church
Attitudes towards marriage and sexuality at the time of Jesus stemmed from a blend of Roman and Jewish ideas. For instance, during the lifetime of Jesus, there was a strong social disapproval amongst Romans of polygamy. This made its way into Judaism and early Christianity, despite the Old Testament portraying examples of this behaviour amongst patriarchs and kings.
Jewish marriage in the time of Jesus was a two-stage process. First, there was a betrothal in which the man claimed the woman as his exclusive sexual property. Secondly, there was the marriage contract which specified what the bride and groom's families would give the couple and what the bride would obtain if she divorced. "At the time of Jesus, and in rural areas like Galilee, a young couple might well co-habit before the contract was signed “in order to get acquainted.”" Jesus apparently did not condemn sex at the betrothal stage as there is no record of any statements of his about this in the Gospels.
Jesus' teaching on divorce raised "the status of the wife from disposable dependent of the man to part of his very flesh."
After the crucifixion, the early Church's statements on marital affairs mainly concerned acceptable reasons for divorce and remarriage. Whilst Paul, in his epistles to early believers, emphasised that both celibacy and marriage were good forms of life, after his life the Church felt that celibacy was more virtuous and liberating. This focus came about because the early church was very ascetic, possibly due to the influence of Greek philosophical thought. The focus on celibacy meant that other issues relating to sexual morality for the non-celibate remained under-developed.
Augustine of Hippo's views strongly influenced how later Christians thought about sex. In his later writings, he was "deeply suspicious of sexual passion" and this has influenced the outlook of all the major Christian denominations down to the present day.
It was some time later, during the sixth century, that the Emperor Justinian formulated laws that were to become the basis of Western marriage law for the next millennia. Under his legislation, co-habiting couples were no longer recognised as married and their children were regarded as illegitimate, with the same status as the children of prostitutes. However, the status of illegitimate children could be updated if the parents later married. It was not yet considered sinful behaviour however and would not be so until much later with the rise of the Roman Catholic Church's Reform Church movement in the Middle Ages and especially with new idea that it was a sacrament in the 1220s.
According to Susan C. Karant-Nunn and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks in their book, Luther on Women, Martin Luther felt that "The sex act was of course sinful outside of marriage ..." In his sermon on the Epistle to the Ephesians Chapter 5, Luther stated:
|“||In naming uncleanness in addition to fornication, the reference is to all sensual affections in distinction from wedded love. They are too unsavory for him [Paul] to mention by name, though in Romans 1, 24 he finds it expedient to speak of them without disguise. However, also wedded love must be characterized by moderation among Christians.||”|
Luther however, in contrast to his Roman Catholic opponents, considered that it was not the Church’s business to define marriage law. He understood marriage to be a legal agreement rather than a sacrament. He stated that a marriage was instituted by God but its regulation was the business of the State, not the Church. Doctor Luther defined marriage as "the God-appointed and legitimate union of man and woman in the hope of having children or at least for the purpose of avoiding fornication and sin and living to the glory of God. The ultimate purpose is to obey God, to find aid and counsel against sin; to call upon God; to seek, love, and educate children for the glory of God; to live with one’s wife in the fear of God and to bear the cross..."
Martin Bucer argued that sexual intimacy belonged in marriage and that, in marriage, the man becomes "the head and saviour of the wife and forms one flesh with her in order to avoid fornication and that the wife is the body and help of her husband, again to avoid fornication." Marriage for him, though, not only meant the avoidance of sin and procreation of children but social and emotional bonding resulting in a fellowship. As Selderhuis notes, for Bucer, "When people conduct themselves lasciviously, either as married or unmarried folk, they fall under divine judgement... Marriage... [is] the context in which sexual intimacy should have its place... Marriage is, after all, the only framework within which sexual desires can be legitimately satisfied."
Immanuel Kant, who was raised as a Pietist, considered sex before marriage to be immoral. He argued that sexual desire objectifies the person you crave and, since no logically consistent ethical rule allows you to use a person as an object, it is immoral to have sex (outside of marriage). Marriage makes the difference because, in marriage, the two people give all of themselves to create a union and, thus, now have rights over each other as each now belongs to the other. As Kant himself puts it, “The sole condition on which we are free to make use of our sexual desires depends upon the right to dispose over the person as a whole – over the welfare and happiness and generally over all the circumstances of that person… each of them... [are obliged] to surrender the whole of their person to the other with a complete right to disposal over it.”
In the current day, the Lutheran Church of Australia holds to the belief that premarital sex is sinful. It believes that sexual activity belongs within the marriage relationship only and that the practice of pre-marital sex is in "violation of the will of God."
In the United States, pastors of the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod undertook a survey on premarital sex amongst their congregations in 2010. "These Lutheran pastors reported that over 57 percent of the couples they now marry are living together prior to the wedding, and that the rate of cohabitation in their congregations is increasing." Despite this trend, the Synod believes that "Regardless of the reasons given for living together, cohabitation is simply wrong for Christians."
Alternatively, the Wisconsin Synod takes the view that a Christian couple could engage in sex before marriage but for the fact it would be an act of defiance against civil and religious norms in society. On being asked this question by a couple, the Church's Paul Kleim stated, "Were there no civil laws regulating marriage or Christian rite publicly uniting couples in marriage, your commitment to each other before God would be sufficient basis for you to begin living together as husband and wife. However, the civil and religious expectations that prevail make it wrong for you to practice marriage without a license... In your wedding ceremony you will be asking God to join you in marriage, and you will be testifying to state and church that this is the beginning of your marriage. While sexual intimacy during your engagement might not be fornication, it would certainly be civil disobedience and spiritual dishonesty. And that's wrong before God."
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) delivered a detailed document, entitled A Social Statement on Human Sexuality, in 2009. With regard to sex before marriage, the document, declares that "Because this church urges couples to seek the highest social and legal support for their relationships, it does not favor cohabitation arrangements outside of marriage. It has a special concern when such arrangements are entered into as an end in themselves. It does, however, acknowledge the social forces at work that encourage such practices. This church also recognizes the pastoral and familial issues that accompany these contemporary social patterns. In cases where a decision is made for cohabitation, regardless of the reasons, this church expects its pastors and members to be clear with the couple regarding the reasons for the position of this church and to support the couple in recognizing their obligation to be open and candid with each other about their plans, expectations, and levels of mutual commitment. Some cohabitation arrangements can be constructed in ways that are neither casual nor intrinsically unstable... This church believes, however, that the deepest human longings for a sense of personal worth, long-term companionship, and profound security, especially given the human propensity to sin, are best served through binding commitment, legal protections, and the public accountability of marriage, especially where the couple is surrounded by the prayers of the congregational community and the promises of God."
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland's stance on the issue is ambiguous. It strictly condemns extramarital sex but in relation to pre-marital sex it states only that "Sexuality disconnected from love and from responsibility enslaves people, bringing harm to themselves and others."
According to the Kinsey Institute, "Today, the Swedish Lutheran Church is very liberal in action, but careful not to take formal stands in most sexual issues, such as premarital sex, cohabitation, and sex education."
The Lutheran Church in Germany (EKD) has noted that all forms of long-term cohabitation are vulnerable and that legislators must give due recognition to the fundamental significance of marriage. The Church has further stated that "Marriage and family alone can be considered as role models for living together."
Calvinism traditionally asserted that engaging in premarital sex was a sin. Calvin himself said little on why he thought engaged couples should not have sex and his rationale for the prohibition was vague but he did seek to reduce the length of engagements amongst couples in Geneva to less than six weeks, to reduce the temptation of premarital sex. He agreed, though, with Luther that marriage was a legal matter for the state, not a sacramental matter for the church.
There were remarkably low rates of premarital conceptions and illegitimate births amongst Huguenots in seventeenth century France compared to the rates amongst their Roman Catholic opponents, indicating how they had internalised values that condemned premarital sex as immoral.
The famous Swiss Huguenot theologian, Karl Barth, discussed sexual morality in his magnum opus, Church Dogmatics. He stated that “Coitus without co-existence is demonic" ("demonic", in Christianity, simply meaning any sphere that does not submit to God.) Barth goes on to state that "the physical sexuality of man should form an integral part of his total humanity as male or female, and that the completion of the sexual relation should be integrated into the total encounter of man and woman. All right or wrong and therefore salvation or perdition in this matter depends on whether it is viewed in isolation and abstraction or within this whole... If it is not, if physical sexuality and sex relations have their own right and authority in which man and woman and their encounter may be controlled and fulfilled, then it is a demonic business. Naturally, the command of God will always resist any such idea of sovereign physical sexuality." For Barth, to engage in sex outside of marriage is not only rebellious but dehumanising as it puts humans on the level of animals, driven by passion and a search for self-gratification.
Furthermore, for Barth, "A wedding is only the regulative confirmation and legitimation of a marriage before and by society. It does not constitute a marriage”. Sex within marriage can be sinful as well unless it affirms the coexistence of the couple. This opens the door to a more holistic understanding of sex.
However, some modern Swiss and French Reformed theologians, such as M. Cornuz, believe that it is permitted if the sexual activities take a form which respects the partner and helps the relationship grow in intimacy. These theologians hold that it is when a relationship is exploitive that it is sinful. Hence, engaging in sex with prostitutes is always sinful as it is an exploitive relationship and does not allow the participants to grow in dignity. This change has come about within the last two generations in Switzerland. Prior to that, the cultural norm was that the couple would not engage in sex before marriage. Modern Reformed theologians have endeavoured to meet the challenge of applying Christian teaching to this very different culture from that of the past.
In summary, modern Swiss and French Reformed theologians feel that one should always be true to one's individual conscience, so if the person feels sex before marriage is sinful, that person should listen to his or her conscience and abstain. Hence, it is up to the couple themselves to decide if engaging in premarital sex or remaining virgins is the best way for them to reflect the love of God in their relationship.
In contrast with the European theological view, the American Presbyterian Church, "like other Christian bodies [in the United States], has viewed marriage as a prerequisite to sexual intercourse and considered sex outside marriage a sin."
The prominent conservative American Calvinist theologian, R. C. Sproul, opposes premarital sex on the grounds that the marriage covenant is an essential legal safeguard, protecting both members of the couple from each other's sinfulness.
The English reformers took a stern view of adultery and fornication, which Homily 11 of the First Book of Homilies (1547) defined to include “all unlawfull use of those parts, which bee ordeyned for generation."
However, prior to the Marriage Act 1753, British couples could live together and have sex after their betrothal or "the spousals". Until the mid-1700s, it was normal and acceptable for the bride to be pregnant at the nuptials, the later church public ceremony for the marriage. With the Act in force, for the first time in British history, all marriages in England and Wales had to take place in their parish church. (The law also applied to Roman Catholics, but Jews and Quakers were exempt.) The Act combined the spousals and nuptials and, by the start of the 19th century, social convention and the Anglican faith prescribed that brides be virgins at marriage. Illegitimacy became more socially discouraged, with first pregnancies outside of marriage declining from 40% to 20% during the Victorian era but returning to 40% by the start of the 21st century. The reason that the Hardwicke Act led to pre-marital sex being equated with sin is because, whilst the State defined who was married, it was the Anglican Church that was given the responsibility to police this law for the State. Today, Britain remains abnormal amongst European nations in having Church weddings whereas most other nations on that continent insist on civil registrations leaving it up to the couple if they choose to have a religious ceremony as well.
The 1984 Anglican booklet Forward to Marriage was also tolerant of premarital sex but strongly endorsed marriage as "a necessary commitment for a long-term relationship".
In 1987, the General Synod of the Church of England asserted "(1) that sexual intercourse is an act of total commitment which belongs properly within a permanent married relationship, (2) that fornication and adultery are sins against this ideal, and are to be met by a call to repentance and the exercise of compassion."
The 1988 Lambeth Conference declared in its Resolution on Marriage and Family that "Noting the gap between traditional Christian teaching on pre-marital sex, and the life-styles being adopted by many people today, both within and outside the Church: (a) calls on provinces and dioceses to adopt a caring and pastoral attitude to such people; (b) reaffirms the traditional biblical teaching that sexual intercourse is an act of total commitment which belongs properly within a permanent married relationship; (c) in response to the International Conference of Young Anglicans in Belfast, urges provinces and dioceses to plan with young people programmes to explore issues such as pre-marital sex in the light of traditional Christian values" (Resolution 34).
The 1998 Lambeth Conference made a subsequent resolution. The Conference held "in view of the teaching of Scripture, upholds faithfulness in marriage between a man and a woman in lifelong union, and believes that abstinence is right for those who are not called to marriage" (Resolution I.10). This Resolution also commended a report on human sexuality entitled Called to Full Humanity which stated that "The Holy Scriptures and Christian tradition teach that human sexuality is intended by God to find its rightful and full expression between a man and a woman in the covenant of marriage, established by God in creation, and affirmed by our Lord Jesus Christ. Holy Matrimony is, by intention and divine purpose, to be a lifelong, monogamous and unconditional commitment between a woman and a man. The Lambeth Conference 1978 and 1998 both affirmed 'marriage to be sacred, instituted by God and blessed by our Lord Jesus Christ'. The New Testament and Christian history identify singleness and dedicated celibacy as Christ-like ways of living."
A 2002 survey by the Church Times found that less than half of the 5,000 readers questioned said it was wrong for men and women to have sex before they married. Over 25% also said it was acceptable for a couple to live together without ever intending to marry.
The 2003 report, Cohabitation: A Christian Reflection, produced by the Diocese of Southwark, found that the Church's traditional teaching that sex before marriage is wrong has been inherited from a different form of society from that of today but then cited research that illustrates the problems that accompany cohabitation, particularly with regard to raising children. It concluded that marriage is "a much more satisfactory social convention than cohabitation", but says that the Church has failed to present marriage in a way that captures the imagination of young people and that the Church needed to rise to the challenge and rediscover its confidence in marriage.
The report noted that one problem for the Church is that there is no biblical text dealing explicitly with cohabitation, and clergy have no answer to the question they often face: "Where does it say in the Bible that I should not live and sleep with my partner?" The report notes that Paul gave a "cautious welcome" to marriage, but that there was also a "militant apostolic view" that favoured celibacy, which "was seen as more noble than marriage" by many early Christians. The report also noted that "the strict sexual codes of the earliest Christian communities helped to give them a separate identity distinct from the sexual hedonism of the pagan world."
The report ultimately rejected the possibility that cohabitation with no intention to marry is acceptable for members of the Christian Church.
In a 2004 interview, the Anglican Primate of Australia, Archbishop Peter Carnley, noted that heterosexual de facto relationships and a disinclination to commit were more serious worries for him than the same-sex marriage movement. When asked if he thought sexual morality was subjective, he disagreed, stating "I think it's possible to say, for example, that it is objectively quite clear that promiscuity is a bad thing".
In 2009, N. T. Wright noted that, in popular discourse, there has been a "supposed modern and scientific discovery of a personal ‘identity’ characterised by sexual preference, which then generates a set of ‘rights’... Without entering into discussion of the scientific evidence, it must be said that the Christian notion of personal identity has never before been supposed to be rooted in desires of whatever sort. Indeed, desires are routinely brought under the constraints of ‘being in Christ’. This quite new notion of an ‘identity’ found not only within oneself but within one’s emotional and physical desires needs to be articulated on the basis of scripture and tradition, and this to my mind has not been done.... The church has never acknowledged that powerful sexual instincts, which almost all human beings have, generate a prima facie ‘right’ that these instincts receive physical expression. All are called to chastity and, within that, some are called to celibacy; but a call to celibacy is not the same thing as discovering that one has a weak or negligible sexual drive. The call to the self-control of chastity is for all: for the heterosexually inclined who, whether married or not, are regularly and powerfully attracted to many different potential partners, just as much as for those with different instincts."
In 2011, the Archbishop of York, John Sentamu, commenting on Prince William and Kate Middleton's decision to live together before their wedding, said that the royal couple's public commitment to live their lives together today would be more important than their past. Sentamu said that he had conducted wedding services for "many cohabiting couples” during his time as a vicar in south London and that "we are living at a time where some people, as my daughter used to say, want to test whether the milk is good before they buy the cow".
He also said, "For some people, that's where their journeys are. But what is important, actually, is not to simply look at the past because they are going to be standing in the Abbey taking these wonderful vows: "for better for worse; for richer for poorer; in sickness and in health; till death us do part".
In the United States, the Episcopal Church only approves "of sex between men and women who are married. In 1979, the U.S. church's governing body voted down a resolution to approve other sexual activity."
Earlier, in 1987, Spong's Newark Diocese had commissioned a report that concluded that the "Episcopal Church should recognize and bless committed non-marital sexual relationships between homosexuals, young adults, the divorced and widowed ..." The report aimed "to ignite a new debate on sexual ethics among leaders of the nation's 3 million Episcopalians in the hope that they will amend church doctrine to embrace all believers. ... Spong, an advocate of the recommendations ... said his views are a minority position in the church."
In 2011, there was a televised debate between Barbadian Anglican priests Charles Morris and Errington Massiah as to whether pre-marital sex was indeed the sin of fornication or not.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, did not personally believe sex outside of marriage to be a sin and noted in 2002 that he found it hard to reconcile his liberal personal beliefs with the public stance of the Church. However, in 2008, Doctor Williams said, "Sex outside marriage is not as God purposes it... I always find it difficult to condense sexual ethics into a soundbite... All I can say is where the Church stands – it's not a question of what Rowan Williams's view is... the biblical view of sexual relations is consistently within the pattern of absolute mutual commitment, reflecting God's commitment to his people. And the assumption of the Bible is that that commitment is heterosexual. That is the framework we work in."
In 2013, Doctor Williams' successor, Justin Welby stated that "My understanding of sexual ethics has been that, regardless of whether it's gay or straight, sex outside marriage is wrong." He reiterated this belief again later in 2013, further noting that "To abandon the ideal simply because it's difficult to achieve is ridiculous." After Welby made his first statement, a Sunday Times poll found that "A majority of adults (69%, including 76% of those professing no faith) believe Justin Welby to be wrong in condemning sex outside marriage, while 17% think he is right (including 30% of Anglicans and UKIP supporters), and 13% are unsure."
The Kinsey Institute comments that "Prior to the 1950s, the religious influences forming sexual constructs [in Britain] came almost exclusively from "the official church" of England, and "unofficially" from the other Christian denominations. In recent decades, the picture has become more complex. Since midcentury, the Church of England's approach to social morality and sexuality has fluctuated between two poles, the traditionalists and the modernists, or the "permission givers" and the "orthodox moral directors." With the national religious scene resembling the circular approach of the politicians to sexual knowledge and attitudes, the sociosexual control and influence appears to bounce back and forth between church and state according to a mutually cooperative formula. ... This doctrinal "pendulum" is confusing for the majority of the population who are not experts at moral and theological niceties and subtleties. The people themselves are part of the system of confusion: While expecting clear and definite moral messages from both establishment and Church, they reserve the right to judge the validity of those messages, even when they are biblically based."
Mennonites believe that sex outside of marriage is sinful. The Mennonite Confession of Faith states “According to Scripture, right sexual union takes place only within the marriage relationship. Scripture places sexual intimacy within God’s good created order. Sexual union is reserved for the marriage bond.”
The American Methodist theologian and pastor, Ben Witherington III, believes that "virginity in a woman was highly valued before marriage [in Biblical cultures]. ... In early Jewish law if you had sex with a woman you were considered married to her or you had shamed her. See the story of Mary and Joseph. Porneia can refer to all sorts of sexual sin including deflowering a virgin ... there was no dating or physical intimacy prior to an arranged marriage in the vast majority of cases. The notion of dating doesn’t exist in Jesus and Paul's world. Second, honor and shame cultures placed a high value on sexual purity. Notice how prostitutes were stigmatized. Women were mainly blamed for sexual immorality. Finally Jesus gave his disciples two choices in Mt. 19—fidelity in heterosexual marriage or being a eunuch! This means no sex outside marriage."
The position of the United Methodist Church in the United States on the issue is as follows: "Although all persons are sexual beings whether or not they are married, sexual relations are only clearly affirmed in the marriage bond."
By contrast, the Uniting Church in Australia is still formulating its views on the subject. It recognises the changes in marriage practice and lifestyle that have resonated throughout society and that the UCA is perceived by the public of being more accepting of the realities of humanity than many other denominations. A report noted that scripture is not really about marriage as understood in contemporary western societies and, in fact, has very little to say about it. In the report, the church also acknowledged that many unmarried people had sex but neither condemned nor endorsed it, instead noting that there were many different views within the church.
Stanley Hauerwas argues that questions about sex before marriage need to be reframed in terms of the narrative of the church. He asks individuals to consider if it is a pure or licentious lifestyle that will best prepare the Christian to live out and serve in the narrative of the church. Doctor Hauerwas goes on to conclude, "For the issue is not whether X or Y form of sexual activity is right or wrong, as if such activity could be separated from a whole way of life... The issue is not whether someone is chaste in the sense of not engaging in genital activity, but whether we have lived in a manner that allows us to bring a history with us that contributes to the common history we may be called upon to develop with one another. Chastity, we forget, is not a state but a form of the virtue of faithfulness that is necessary for a role in the community... what the young properly demand is an account of life and the initiation into a community that makes intelligible why their interest in sex should be subordinated to other interests. What they, and we, demand is the lure of an adventure that captures the imagination sufficiently that conquest means more than the sexual possession of another. I have tried to suggest that marriage and singleness for Christians should represent just such an adventure, and if it does not, no amount of ethics or rules will be sufficient to correct the situation."
Fornication is carnal union between an unmarried man and an unmarried woman. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a grave scandal when there is corruption of the young.
In the early Middle Ages, although the Church theoretically disapproved of nonmarital sex, it approved of it in practice, at least for males (females could be punished) and the practice was commonplace. The Third Council of Aachen (862) noted that premarital sex was quite permissible, declaring it was "rare, almost unheard-of, for a man to remain a virgin until marriage." (At the same time, the Church's attitude to the keeping of concubines was ambivalent.)
Indeed, the Roman Catholic Church did not begin to actively condemn pre-marital sex until the twelfth century. The Paris-based "Reform Church" movement was a Catholic faction that attempted to refocus society's moral compass with a particular emphasis on sex and marriage. The movement sent priests to Wales where it was, up until that time, the norm for Christians to live together prior to marriage.
Up until this period, marriage was considered a private contract between two people. They would make a pledge to each other and, from that moment on, they were considered married. This pledge could take place anywhere; it did not have to occur in a church and neither the church nor the state were involved. It was during the twelfth century that the Roman Catholic Church took control of the process of marriage. From that point on, to be legally recognised, a marriage had to take place in a church with a formal service conducted by a priest. At the same time, pre-marital sex came to be regarded as sinful. Hence all marriage and sexual activity now came under the control of the Church. In circa 1220, the Paris-based Catholic theologian Peter Lombard even went so far as to controversially included marriage as one of the seven sacraments in his influential theology textbook The Sentences.
At the time of the Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church "officially advocated celibacy for the religious, and prohibited marriage, but allowed fornication and concubinage." For instance, in 1527 all but 10 out of 200 Roman Catholic clergymen in Thuringia were living with women outside of marriage.
The Council of Trent (which began in 1545 in reaction to the Protestant Reformation) formally ratified the Roman Catholic view that marriage was a sacrament and set strict guidelines around what constituted a legitimate marriage in Roman Catholic eyes.
To give an indication of the extent of opposition to premarital sex in the Roman Catholic Church up until recently, "Conservative Catholic teaching [in the first half of the twentieth century] denied children of unmarried parents baptism and therefore burial in consecrated land."
The 2012 British Social Attitudes survey showed that only one in ten British Roman Catholics and Anglicans thought that pre-marital sex was wrong (however, of those who attended Church on a weekly basis, only 23% thought it was permissible).
A 1994 study of French Roman Catholics showed that 83% preferred to listen to their consciences rather than to the official position of the Roman Catholic Church when making major decisions in their lives, leading to 75% of Catholics, by 2003, to say that cohabitation outside of marriage is a personal matter and 13% to say whether it is right or not depends on circumstances.
A 2014 survey showed that most German Roman Catholics also disputed the Church's ruling against premarital sex.
In his book Forbidden Fruit: Sex & Religion in the Lives of American Teenagers, Mark Regnerus notes that "Evangelical Christian teens are more likely to have lost their virginity earlier than mainline Protestants. They start having sex on average at age 16.3 and are more likely than other religious groups to have had three or more sexual partners by age 17."
A 2014 press release from online dating websites announced the results of a poll of 2,600 Americans in their attitudes towards dating and sex. The poll found that 61 percent of Christians believed they would have sex before marriage. Fifty-six percent found it appropriate to cohabit with a romantic partner after dating for a time between six months and two years. Fifty-nine percent said it doesn't matter who the primary breadwinner of the family is. And 34 percent responded that they would marry someone of a different faith.
The American Baptist pastor and assistant professor, Jennifer Knust, believes that the Bible is contradictory on the subject of premarital sex and that some Bible texts, notably the Book of Ruth, present it as a source of God's blessing.
Southern Baptist convention
A 2013 study of married couples in Southern Baptist churches in Texas found that over 70% of respondents reported having had premarital vaginal or oral sex. The Southern Baptist scholar Frank Stagg interpreted the New Testament as saying that sex is reserved for marriage. He maintained that the New Testament teaches that sex outside of marriage is a sin of adultery if either sexual participant is married, otherwise the sin of fornication if both sexual participants are unmarried.
The Southern Baptists' Ethics and Religious Liberties Commission also condemns premarital sex on the grounds of their interpretation of the Bible. Feeling that marriage is a "divine institution" the Southern Baptist position is closer to that of Roman Catholic sacramentalism than that of Luther and Calvin who maintained marriage was a legal agreement and the business of the State.
Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful deed, and an evil, opening the road to other evils.
The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication - flog each of them with a hundred stripes: Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of the Believers witness their punishment.
Sharia considers premarital and extra marital sex as two of six hudud crimes, that is, it is a crime against Allah. As a hudud crime, it must be dealt with a fixed punishment. Islam requires that Muslim society punish both the boy and the girl, who have engaged in premarital sex, with 100 lashes in public; for extra marital sex, the punishment required by Sharia is 100 lashes followed by stoning to death in public. These punishments are also prescribed in Sahih Hadiths, the books most trusted in Islam after Quran,
'Ubada b. as-Samit reported: Allah's Messenger as saying: Receive teaching from me, receive teaching from me. Allah has ordained a way for those women. When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female, they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death.
The act of sexual penetration must, however, be attested by at least four Muslim witnesses of good character, the accused has a right to testify in court, the suspect's word or testimony is required to hold the most weight in the eyes of the judge(s), punishments are reserved to the legal authorities and the law states that false accusations are to be punished severely. The former regulations also make some Muslims believe, that the process's goal was to eventually abolish the physical penalties relating to acts of fornication and adultery that were already present within many societies around the world when Islamic teachings first arose. According to this view, the principles are so rigorous in their search for evidence, that they create the near impossibility of being able to reach a verdict that goes against the suspect in any manner.
Beyond being a crime requiring punishment in worldly life, fornication is a sin leading to chastisement in after-life in Islam.
The Torah does not consider premarital sex a capital crime, unless one was already betrothed.
To quote two sources, "The Torah does not outlaw it—as it does many other types of sexual relationships—and the child of such a union is not considered a mamzer (illegitimate). Nonetheless, marital sex is considered ideal, and premarital sex is traditionally not approved of. The negative attitude toward premarital sex, to a large degree, reflects the overwhelmingly positive attitude toward sex within marriage." Likewise, "The only limits placed on sexual activities in the Torah are prohibitions against adultery and incest. In Biblical times, a man was not prohibited from having sexual relations with a woman, as long as it led to marriage. The Bible never explicitly states a woman and man may not have sexual intercourse prior to marriage; therefore, no sanction was imposed for premarital sex, but it was considered a violation of custom."
Despite the fact it is not condemned in the Torah, Orthodox Jews are opposed to premarital sex.
Hinduism condemns pre-marital sex and adultery. Among Hindu communities, sexual matters are left to the judgment of those involved and not a matter to be imposed through law. Sexual behavior of Hindus are also governed by the prevalent practices of the society. For example, Nāradasmṛti, one of many legal texts of Hindu communities in ancient India, states in verse 13.60-61,
If a man has intercourse with an attached woman somewhere other than his own house, it is known as adultery by the experts, but not if she came to his house on her own. It is not a punishable crime when someone has intercourse with the wife of a man who has abandoned her because she is wicked, or with the wife of a eunuch or of a man who does not care, provided the wife has initiated it, of her own volition.—Nāradasmṛti 13.60-61
The term "attached woman" in the above verse includes a woman who is either married and protected by her husband, or a woman is not married and protected by her father. In verses 13.71-72, Nāradasmṛti states that a man should marry the woman, with whom he had consensual intercourse.
If a man has intercourse with an unmarried woman, who consents to it, it is no offense, but he shall deck her with ornaments, worship her, and thus bring her to his house as his bride.—Nāradasmṛti 13.72
Manusmriti considers adultery as a source of personal trauma and social disorder, and prescribes rules for the property, maintenance and divorce rights of spouse not involved in the adultery, and the rights of offsprings if produced from sex outside marriage.
In the diversity of Hinduism, a spectrum of views on sexual freedoms thrived in ancient India. Marco Polo, while visiting Hindu kingdoms in 13th century India, made the observation that social mores in India consider sex within marriage as proper and virtuous, although they don't consider any other sexual gratification to be a sin.
In Yoga school of Hinduism, five types of temperance (yama) are recommended for ethical life, the fourth yama being celibacy and self-restraint from sexually cheating on one's partner. Marital fidelity, where all sexual thoughts and expressions are limited to one's spouse, is taught as a virtuous value.
|This section requires expansion. (September 2014)|
Fornication laws are mostly tied to religion and the legal and political traditions within the particular jurisdiction. Laws differ greatly from country to country.
United States of America
Ethical issues arising from sexual relations between consenting heterosexuals who have reached the age of consent have generally been viewed as matters of private morality, and so, have not generally been prosecuted as criminal offenses in the common law. This legal position was inherited by the United States from the United Kingdom. Later, some jurisdictions, a total of 16 in the southern and eastern United States, as well as the states of Wisconsin and Utah, passed statutes creating the offense of fornication that prohibited (vaginal) sexual intercourse between two unmarried people of the opposite sex. Most of these laws either were repealed, were not enforced, or were struck down by the courts in several states as being odious to their state constitutions. See also State v. Saunders, 381 A.2d 333 (N.J. 1977), Martin v. Ziherl, 607 S.E.2d 367 (Va. 2005).
Some acts may be prohibited under criminal laws defining the offense of sodomy, rather than the laws defining the offense of fornication. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lawrence v. Texas (2003) rendered the states' remaining laws related to sodomy unenforceable. Lawrence v. Texas is also presumed by many to invalidate laws prohibiting fornication: the decision declared sodomy laws unconstitutional, saying that they interfered with private, consensual, non-commercial intimate relations between unrelated adults, and therefore were odious to the rights of liberty and privacy, such rights being retained by the people of the United States.
In some Muslim countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Kuwait, Maldives, Morocco, Oman, Mauritania, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Sudan, Yemen, any form of sexual activity outside marriage is illegal.
- "Fornication". Student Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- "Fornication". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- "Fornix, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2001.
- "Fornication, n.1". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2001.
- "Fornicated, adj.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2001.
- O'Gorman, James F. (1998). ABC of Architecture. U of Pennsylvania P. pp. 106–107. ISBN 9780812216318. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- Vine's Dictionary of New Testament Words
- Young's Literal Translation
- "The English Standard Version". ChristianCourier.com. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "The Greek Lexicon". BibleStudyTools.com. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Fornication". New International Encyclopedia. 1906.
- "Gerald of Wales: Patriotic Welshman or arrogant agent of English imperialism?". Wales Online. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "The no-sex 'myth'". BBC. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Medieval Lives - Birth, Marriage and Death: Episode Two (A Good Marriage). BBC. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Witte, John (2005). Sex, Marriage, and Family in John Calvin's Geneva: Courtship, Engagement, and Marriage. ISBN 9780802848031.
- arsenokoitēs (masc. noun of fem. 1st declension), literally a man who shares a bed with other men (see LSJ and BDAG).
- Koltun-Fromm, Naomi (April 2006). "Hermeneutics of Holiness: Syriac- Christian and Rabbinic Notions of Holy Community and Sexuality" (.doc). Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Kittel, G (ed):Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Volume VI, pages 579-95
- Friberg,T: Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament
- "On sex, Muslims and Hindus practice what they preach". Christian Century. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Susan C. Karant-Nunn and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (2003). Luther on Women. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- Kant, I: Lectures on Ethics
- "Attitude to Birth Control" (PDF). 1968. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Bergmann, Rev. Kevin (June–July 2011). "Where Practice Doesn't Make Perfect". The Lutheran Witness. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Kelm, Paul E. (January 1984). "Premarital sex, tithing, and cremation". Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS). Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Catechism: Christian Doctrine of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland". Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. 1999. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "Continuum Complete International Encyclopaedia of Sexuality: Sweden". Kinsey Institute. 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Helm, Paul (July 2006). "Sex, Marriage, and Family in John Calvin's Geneva, Volume 1: Courtship, Engagement, and Marriage". Reformation21. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Helm, Paul (July 2006). Sex, Marriage, and Family in John Calvin's Geneva, Volume 1: Courtship, Engagement, and Marriage. Reformation21. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- Philip Benedict (1 January 1991). The Huguenot Population of France, 1600-1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority. American Philosophical Society. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-87169-815-5.
- "The Huguenot Population of France". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 1966. p. 98. ISSN 0065-9746.
- Barth, K: Church Dogmatics
- "La sexualité avant le mariage, est-ce un péché?" (in French). Questiondieu.com. 1 October 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Sexualité, relations avant ou après mariage... qu'en dit la Bible?" (in French). Questiondieu.com. 12 September 2004. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Est-ce que coucher avec une prostituée est un péché?" (in French). Questiondieu.com. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Est-ce important de rester vierge jusqu'au mariage?" (in French). Questiondieu.com. 26 Mar 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Vierge pour le mariage?" (in French). Questiondieu.com. 12 July 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Presbyterian Sex Report Attacks Church's Attitudes". Apr 1991.
- [dead link]
- "Anglican church tolerant on premarital sex issue". The Free Lance-Star (London). Associated Press. 14 January 1984. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Lambeth Conference Archives - 1988 - Resolution 34".
- "Lambeth Conference Archives - 1998 - Resolution I.10".
- Ruth Gledhill (March 31, 2003). "Church told to rethink bar on sex before marriage". The Times.
- "Rowan’s Reflections: Unpacking the Archbishop’s Statement". The Anglican Communion Institute, Inc.
- Ross, Tim; Wynne-Jones, Jonathan; Rayner, Gordon (29 April 2011). "Royal wedding: Archbishop backs William and Kate's decision to live together before marriage". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Episcopal Unit Supports Non-Marital Sex". Los Angeles Times (Newark, New Jersey). Associated Press. 30 January 1987. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Anglican Priest Suggest Pre-marital Sex might not be a Sin". Trivester. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Sex outside marriage is no sin, says Archbishop". Daily Mail (London). 17 Mar 2013.
- George Pitcher (August 7, 2008). "Rowan Williams and sex: a clarification". Telegraph Blogs.
- ""Whether it's gay or straight, sex outside marriage is wrong" Archbishop Justin Welby". Anglican Mainstream. 17 March 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
My understanding of sexual ethics has been that, regardless of whether it's gay or straight, sex outside marriage is wrong.
- Doughty, Steve (17 March 2013). "'My wife keeps an eye on my drinking and I never do it alone': Archbishop of Canterbury reveals his fears of following father into alcoholism". The Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Kellaway, Lucy (10 May 2013). "Lunch with the FT: Justin Welby". Financial Times. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Field, Clive (17 March 2013). "Sunday Times Religion Poll". British Religion in Numbers. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Continuum Complete International Encyclopaedia of Sexuality: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Kinsey Institute. 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Church, published by arrangement with the General Board of the General Conference Mennonite; Board, the Mennonite Church General (1995). Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective.. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press. ISBN 0-8361-9043-2.
- "Is Premarital Sex a Sin? Bible Scholars Respond". Kinsey Institute. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Does The United Methodist Church believe that premarital sex is OK?". United Methodist Church. 2004. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Bos, Robert (2013). "Views of marriage in the UCA: Report on a consultation process (PDF)". Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Dowling, Heather (2012). "Sex, Marriage and All That Stuff)". Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- Hauerwas, S: A Community of Character: Toward a Constructive Christian Social Ethic
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The sixth commandment". Vatican.va. 29 October 1951. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "German Kingdoms Of Early Medieval Europe". Women's Studies Encyclopedia. 1994. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- James A. Brundage (15 February 2009). Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. University of Chicago Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-226-07789-5.
- Clyde L. Manschreck (8 January 2009). Melanchthon: The Quiet Reformer. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-60608-283-6.
- Pius XI (December 31, 1930). "Casti connubii".
- "Almost 800 'forgotten' Irish children dumped in septic tank mass grave at Catholic home". ABC Australia. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Pope Benedict warns against gay marriage". BBC News. 9 March 2012.
- SARAH WOLFE (March 10, 2012). "The Pope Is Asking US Bishops To Crack Down On Gay Marriage, Cohabitation And Premarital Sex". Business Insider Australia.
- "British Social Attitudes Survey, 2012".
- Alec G. Hargreaves; John Kelsay; Sumner B. Twiss (2007). Politics and Religion in France and the United States. Lexington Books. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-7391-1930-3.
- Gilmour, Maggie (7 May 2010). "Let's face it, sex happens". CBC News. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "ChristianMingle(R) and JDate(R) Release Second Annual State of Dating in America(TM) Report". Press Release/Marketwired. 21 Jan 2014.
- "Christians Are Following Secular Trends in Premarital Sex, Cohabitation Outside of Marriage, Says Dating Site Survey". Christian Post. Jan 2014.
- Rosenbaum JE, Weathersbee B (March 2013). "True love waits: do Southern Baptists? Premarital sexual behavior among newly married Southern Baptist Sunday school students". J Relig Health 52 (1): 263–75. doi:10.1007/s10943-010-9445-5. PMC 3156853. PMID 21274632.
- Stagg, Evelyn and Frank. Woman in the World of Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1978. ISBN 0-664-24195-6
- Ziba Mir-Hosseini (2011), Criminalizing sexuality: zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts, SUR - Int'l Journal on Human Rights, 15, pp. 7-31
- Haideh Moghissi (2005), Women and Islam: Part 4 Women, sexuality and sexual politics in Islamic cultures, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-32420-3
- Sakah Saidu Mahmud (2013), Sharia or Shura: Contending Approaches to Muslim Politics in Nigeria and Senegal, Lexington, ISBN 978-0739175644, Chapter 3
- Muḥammad Salīm ʻAwwā (1982), Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, American Trust Publications, ISBN 978-0892590155
- M. Tamadonfar (2001), Islam, law, and political control in contemporary Iran, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(2): 205-220
- Mohamed El-Awa (1993), Punishment in Islamic Law, American Trust Publications, ISBN 978-0892591428, pp 1-68
- Guy Bechor (2002), Between Vision and Reality: Law in the Arab World, IDC Projects Publishing House, pp. 103-112
- Ursula Smartt, Honour Killings Justice of the Peace, Vol. 170, January 2006, pp. 4-6
- Z. Mir-Hosseini (2011), Criminalizing sexuality: zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts, Int'l Journal on Human Rights, 15, 7-16
- A. Quraishi (1999), Her honour: an Islamic critique of the rape provisions in Pakistan's ordinance on zina, Islamic studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 403-431
- Steven L. Bridge (2009), Getting the Old Testament: What It Meant to Them, What It Means for Us, ISBN 978-0801045745, Chapter 5
- "Jewish Views on Premarital Sex". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Premarital Sex". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- "Premarital Sex, Orthodox Jews & Censorship". Jewish Journal. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty. The Origins of Evil in Hindu Mythology. University of California Press. p. 7.
- The Cultural Context of Sexual Pleasure and Problems: Psychotherapy with Diverse Clients, p. 175, by Cynthia A. Graham, Kathryn Hall
- Ramanathan and Weerakoon, The Cultural Context of Sexual Pleasure and Problems: Psychotherapy with Diverse Clients, p. 173-174, Editors: Cynthia A. Graham and Kathryn Hall, Routledge; Quote - "In this (Hinduism smritis) doctrine, sexual matters are not to be legislated but are left to the judgement of those involved."
- Ramanathan and Weerakoon, The Cultural Context of Sexual Pleasure and Problems: Psychotherapy with Diverse Clients, p. 173-174, Editors: Cynthia A. Graham and Kathryn Hall, Routledge; Quote - "The sexual behavior of Hindus are generally governed by the prescribed practices of the society."
- Lariviere, Richard (2001). The Nāradasmṛti. pp. 391–393. ISBN 978-8120818040.
- Jolly, Julius (1876). Naradiya Dharmasastra. Trubner and Co. pp. 87–88.
- Olivelle, Patrick (2004). Manu's Code of Law. Oxford University Press. pp. 32, 325–329. ISBN 978-0195171464.
- Eraly, Abraham (2011). The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin Books. p. 440. ISBN 978-0670084784.
- Polo, Marco (2007). The Customs of the Kingdoms of India. Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0141025407.
They eat no meat and drink no wine. They live very virtuous lives according to their own usage. They have no sexual intercourse except with their own wives. They take nothing that belongs to another. They would never kill a living creature. (...) On the other hand you should know that they do not regard any form of sexual indulgence as a sin.
- Studies in Hindu Law and Dharmaśāstra, Anthem Press, by Ludo Rocher, p. 293
- other four yama are: restraint from all violence and injury to others, restraint from starting or propagating deceit and falsehood, restraint from theft, restraint from avarice.
- Lochtefeld, James. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Rosen Publishing New York. p. 777 (Entry on Yama). ISBN 0-8239-2287-1.
- Himalayan Academy. "Celibacy and fidelity". Gutenberg. Kauai's Hindu Monastery, Hawaii. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
As the fourth yama, or restraint, brahmacharya is emulated in married life in the sense of fidelity, confining all sexual thoughts and expressions to one's spouse.
- Warren Matthews. World Religions. CengageBrain.com. p. 142.
- Takeuchi Yoshinori. Buddhist Spirituality: Later China, Korea, Japan, and the Modern World. Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. p. 169.
- Jim Thompson, The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Nov. – Dec., 1958), pp. 350–356
- Jim Thompson The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Nov. – Dec., 1958), pp. 350–356, 353
- "Utah Code, Title 76, Chapter 07. Offenses Against the Family".
- Jordan, Mary (21 August 2008). "Searching for Freedom, Chained by the Law". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Ernesto Londoño (2012-09-09). "Afghanistan sees rise in 'dancing boys' exploitation". The Washington Post (DEHRAZI, Afghanistan).
- "Home". AIDSPortal. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Iran". Travel.state.gov. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "United Nations Human Rights Website - Treaty Bodies Database - Document - Summary Record - Kuwait". Unhchr.ch. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Culture of Maldives". Every Culture. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- Nakim, Nora (9 August 2012). "Morocco: Should pre-marital sex be legal?". BBC. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "2010 Human Rights Report: Mauritania". State.gov. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Education in Dubai". Dubaifaqs.com. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Judd, Terri; Sajn, Nikolina (10 July 2008). "Briton faces jail for sex on Dubai beach". The Independent (London). Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- ""Sex outside of marriage is a criminal offense here," PH ambassador to Qatar warns Pinoys". SPOT.ph. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Sudan must rewrite rape laws to protect victims". Reuters. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa - Yemen". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 2 August 2013.