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Somersault jump in freestyle skiing
|Highest governing body||International Ski Federation|
|Olympic||1988 as demonstration event; regular competition since 1992|
Aerial skiing was developed in about 1950 by Olympic gold medalist Stein Eriksen. The International Ski Federation (FIS) recognized freestyle as a sport in 1979 and brought in new regulations regarding certification of athletes and jump techniques in an effort to curb the dangerous elements of the competitions. The first World Cup series was staged in 1980 and the first FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships took place in 1986 in Tignes, France. Freestyle skiing was a demonstration event at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. Mogul skiing was added as an official medal event at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, and the aerials event was added for the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer.
Forms of freestyle skiing
Aerialists ski off 2-4 meter jumps, that propel them up to 6 meters in the air (which can be up to 20 meters above the landing height, given the landing slope). Once in the air, aerialists perform multiple flips and twists before landing on a 34 to 39-degree inclined landing hill about 30 meters in length. The top male aerialists can currently perform triple back flips with up to four or five twists.
Aerial skiing is a judged sport, and competitors receive a score based on jump takeoff (20%), jump form (50%) and landing (30%). A degree of difficulty (DD) is then factored in for a total score. Skiers are judged on a cumulative score of two jumps. These scores do not generally carry over to the next round.
Aerialists train for their jumping maneuvers during the summer months by skiing on specially constructed Water Ramps for Freestyle Skiing & Snowboarding and landing in a large swimming pool. An example of this is the Utah Olympic Park training facility. A water ramp consists of a wooden ramp covered with a special plastic mat that when lubricated with sprinklers allows an athlete to ski down the ramp towards a jump. The skier then skis off the wooden jump and lands safely in a large swimming pool. A burst of air is sent up from the bottom of the pool just before landing to break up the surface tension of the water, thus softening the impact of the landing. Skiers sometimes reinforce the skis that they use for water-ramping with 6mm of fiberglass or cut holes in the front and back in order to soften the impact when landing properly on their skis.
Summer training also includes training on trampolines, diving boards, and other acrobatic or gymnastic training apparatuses.
Moguls are a series of bumps on a trail formed when skiers push the snow into mounds or piles as they execute short-radius turns.
Ski cross is based on the snowboarding boardercross. Despite it being a timed racing event, it is often considered part of freestyle skiing because it incorporates terrain features traditionally found in freestyle.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Freestyle skiing.|
- wiki.fis-ski.com - The resource of information and knowledge on Freestyle Skiing, Ski Jumping, FIS World Ski Championships, FIS Leaders Seminar, FIS Ladies Seminar
- fisfreestyle.com FIS Freestyle News, Calendar, Rules and Results
- www.freestyleski.com - The official site of the Canadian Freestyle Ski Association. Your source for moguls, aerials, halfpipe and slopestyle skiing in Canada.
- History of Freestyle - The history of freestyle skiing.
- Freestyle Ski Disciplines - Freestyle skiing disciplines explained.
- Digital Freestyle Skiing Digital Media Thesis project for Masters, multiple freestyle skiing videos of competitions from 1980's-2000's - moguls, aerials, ballet
- www.mogulskiing.net – Mogul skiing's online home. Technique guide, misconceptions debunked, tips from pros, photos, video, equipment reviews, mogul-specific ski area reviews, news, forums and discussion group, US Freestyle Team info, etc.
- Mogul skiing tutorials & videos