Gujarati phonology

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Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e ə o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open (æ) ɑ
  • Sanskrit's phonemic vowel length has been lost.[1] Vowels are long when nasalized or in a final syllable.[2]
  • Gujarati contrasts oral and nasal, and murmured and non-murmured vowels,[2] except for /e/ and /o/.[3]
  • In absolute word-final position the higher and lower vowels of the e/ɛ and o/ɔ sets vary.[3]
  • /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ developed in the 15th century. Old Gujarati split into Rajasthani and (Middle) Gujarati.[4]
  • English loanwords are a source of /æ/.[5]

Consonants[edit]

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ
Stop aspirated () t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiceless p ʈ k
murmured d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
voiced b ɖ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ
voiced (z) ɦ
Tap ɾ
Approximant ʋ l [6] j
  • A fourth nasal phoneme is postulated for the phones [ɲ, ŋ] and the nasalization of a preceding vowel [Ṽ].[7] Before velar and palatal stops, there is variation between these; e.g. [mɑ̃ɡʋũ]~[mɑŋɡʋũ] ('ask for'), [ɦĩcko]~[ɦĩɲcko] ('swing').[8]
  • Stops occurring at first members of clusters followed by consonants other than /ɾ, j, ʋ/ are unreleased; they are optionally unreleased in final position. The absence of release entails deaspiration of voiceless stops.[8]
  • Intervocalically and with murmuring of vowels, the voiced aspirated stops /ɡʱ, d̪ʱ, bʱ/ have voiced spirant allophones [ɣ, ð, β]. Spirantization of non-palatal voiceless aspirates has been reported as well,[8] including /pʰ/ being usually realized as [f] in the standard dialect.[8]
  • The voiced retroflex stops and the nasal /ɖʱ, ɖ, ɳ/ have flapped allophones [ɽʱ, ɽ, ɽ̃]. Intervocalically all three are flapped. /ɳ/ is unflapped before retroflex stops, and in final position varies freely between flapped and unflapped.[7] The stops are unflapped initially, geminated, and postnasally; and flapped intervocalically, finally, and before or after other consonants.[9]
  • /ʋ/ has [v] and [w] as allophones.[10]
  • The distribution of sibilants varies over dialects and registers.
    • Some dialects only have [s], others prefer [ʃ], while another system has them non-contrasting, with [ʃ] occurring contiguous to palatal segments. Retroflex [ʂ] still appears in clusters in which it precedes another retroflex: [spəʂʈ] ('clear').[11]
    • Some speakers maintain [z] as well for Persian and English borrowings. Persian's /z/'s have by and large been transposed to /dʒ/ and /dʒʱ/: /dʒin̪d̪ɡi/ ('life') and /tʃidʒʱ/ ('thing'). The same cannot be so easily said for English: /tʃiz/ ('cheese').
    • Lastly, a colloquial register has [s], or both [s] and [ʃ], replaced by voiceless [h]. For educated speakers speaking this register, this replacement does not extend to Sanskrit borrowings.[8]

Phonotactical constraints include:

  • /ɭ/ and /ɳ/ do not occur word-initially.[2]
  • Clusters occur initially, medially, and finally. Geminates occur only medially.[2]
  • Biconsonantal initial clusters beginning with stops have /ɾ/, /j/, /ʋ/, and /l/ as second members.[12] In addition to these, in loans from Sanskrit the clusters /ɡn/ and /kʃ/ may occur.
    The occurrence of /ɾ/ as a second member in consonantal clusters is one of Gujarati's conservative features as a modern Indo-Aryan language. For example, languages used in Asokan inscriptions (3rd century BC) display contemporary regional variations, with words found in Gujarat's Girnar inscriptions containing clusters with /ɾ/ as the second member not having /ɾ/ in their occurrence in inscriptions elsewhere. This is maintained even to today, with Gujarati /t̪ɾ/ corresponding to Hindi /t̪/ and /t̪t̪/.[13]
  • Initially, s clusters biconsonantally with /ɾ, j, ʋ, n, m/, and non-palatal voiceless stops.[12]
  • Triconsonantal initial clusters include /st̪ɾ, spɾ, smɾ/ - most of which occur in borrowings.[12]
  • Geminates were previously treated as long consonants, but they are better analyzed as clusters of two identical segments. Two proofs for this:[7]
    • The u in geminated uccār "pronunciation" sounds more like the one in clustered udgār ('utterance') than the one in shortened ucāṭ ('anxiety').
    • Geminates behave towards (that is, disallow) [ə]-deletion like clusters do.

Gemination can serve as intensification. In some adjectives and adverbs, a singular consonant before the agreement vowel can be doubled for intensification.[14] #VCũ → #VCCũ.

big [moʈũ] [moʈʈũ] big
straight [sid̪ʱũ] [sid̪d̪ʱũ] straight
considerably [kʰɑsũ] [kʰɑssũ] considerably

Stress[edit]

The matter of stress is not quite clear:

  • Stress is on the first syllable except when it doesn't have /a/ and the second syllable does.[15]
  • Stress is barely perceptible.[16]
  • Stress typically falls on the penultimate syllable of a word, however, if the penultimate vowel in a word with more than two syllables is schwa, stress falls on the preceding syllable.[17]

ə-deletion[edit]

Schwa-deletion, along with a-reduction and [ʋ]-insertion, is a phonological process at work in the combination of morphemes. It is a common feature among Indo-Aryan languages, referring to the deletion of a stem's final syllable's /ə/ before a suffix starting with a vowel.[15]

This does not apply for monosyllabic stems and consonant clusters. So, better put, #VCəC + V# → #VCCV#. It also doesn't apply when the addition is an o plural marker (see Gujarati grammar#Nouns) or e as an ergative case marker (see Gujarati grammar#Postpositions).[18] It sometimes doesn't apply for e as a locative marker.

Stem Suffix Suffixed Stem C/V Del Notes
verb root [keɭəʋ] educate [iʃ] 1st person singular, future [keɭʋiʃ] will educate CVCəC + VC → CVCCVC Yes Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (verbal declension).
[səmədʒ] understand [jɑ] masculine plural, perfective [səmdʒjɑ] understood CVCəC + CV → CVCCCV Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a semi-vowel (verbal declension).
[ut̪əɾ] descend [t̪o] masculine singular, imperfective [ut̪əɾt̪o] descending VCəC + CV → VCəCCV No Suffix starting with a consonant.
[t̪əɾ] swim, float [ɛ] 2nd person singular, present [t̪əɾɛ] swimming, floating CəC + V → CəCV Monosyllabic.
[ʋəɾɳəʋ] describe [i] feminine, perfective [ʋəɾɳəʋi] described CVCCəC + VC → CVCCəCVC Consonant cluster.
[ɑɭoʈ] wallow, roll [iʃũ] 1st person plural, future [ɑɭoʈiʃũ] will wallow, roll VCoC + VCV → VCoCVCV Non-ə.
noun [ɑɭəs] laziness [ũ] adjectival marker [ɑɭsũ] lazy VCəC + V → VCCV Yes Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (adjectival marking).
[ʋəkʰət̪] time [e] locative marker [ʋəkt̪e] at (the) time CVCəC + V → CVCCV Sometimes yes — e as a locative marker.
[d̪iʋəs] day [d̪iʋəse] on (the) day CVCəC + V → CVCəCV No Sometimes no — e as a locative marker.
[ɾəmət̪] game [o] plural marker [ɾəmət̪o] games CVCəC + V → CVCəCV Plural o number marker suffix.
adjective [ɡəɾəm] hot [i] noun marker [ɡəɾmi] heat CVCəC + V → CVCCV Yes Polysyllabic stem with /ə/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (noun marking).

ɑ-reduction[edit]

A stem's final syllable's /ɑ/ will reduce to /ə/ before a suffix starting with /ɑ/. #ɑC(C) + ɑ# → #eC(C)ɑ#. This can be seen in the derivation of nouns from adjective stems, and in the formation of passive and causative forms of verb stems.[19]

Stem Suffix Suffixed Stem Red
cut [kɑp] [ɑ] [kəpɑ] be cut Passive Yes
[ɑʋ] [kəpɑʋ] cause to cut Causative
cause
to cut
[kəpɑʋ] [ɑ] [kəpɑʋɑ] cause to be cut Causative Passive No1
[ɖɑʋ] [kəpɑʋɖɑʋ] cause to cause to cut Double Causative
use [ʋɑpəɾ] [ɑ] [ʋəpɾɑ]2 be used Passive Yes
long [lɑmb] [ɑi] [ləmbɑi] length Noun
  1. It doesn't happen a second time.
  2. It can take place after an ə-deletion. #ɑCəC + ɑ# → #əCCɑ#.

[ʋ]-insertion[edit]

Between a stem ending in a vowel and its suffix starting with a vowel, a [ʋ] is inserted.[20] #V + V# → #VʋV#. This can be seen in the formation of passive and causative forms of verb stems.

Stem Suffix Suffixed Stem
see [dʒo] [ɑ] [dʒoʋɑ] be seen
sing [ɡɑ] [ɑɽ] [ɡəʋɑɽ] cause to sing

The second example shows an ɑ-reduction as well.

ə-insertion[edit]

ə finds itself inserted between the emphatic particle /dʒ/ and consonant-terminating words it postpositions.[21]

one [ek] [ekədʒ] one
that [e] [edʒ] that

Murmur[edit]

/ɦ/ serves as a source for murmur, of which there are three rules:[22]

Rule Formal1 Casual English
1 Word-initial ɦV → V̤2 [ɦəʋe] [ə̤ʋe] now
[ɦɑɽkũ] [ɑ̤ɽkũ] bone
2 əɦVnon-high
non-high, more open
[səɦelũ] [sɛ̤lũ] easy
[bəɦoɭũ] [bɔ̤ɭũ] large
[d̪əɦɑɽo] [d̪a̤ɽo]3 day
3 ə/aɦVhighə̤/ɑ̤ (glide) [ɾəɦi] [ɾə̤j] stayed
[bəɦu] [bə̤ʋ] very
1 Gujarati spelling reflects this mode. The script has no direct notation for murmur.
2 Rule 1 creates allomorphs for nouns. For example, /ɦəd̪/ ('limit') by itself can be [ə̤d̪], but can only be [ɦəd̪] in /beɦəd̪/ ('limitless').
3 More open.

The table below compares declensions of the verbs [kəɾʋũ] ('to do') and [kɛ̤ʋũ] ('to say'). The former follows the regular pattern of the stable root /kəɾ/ serving as a point for characteristic suffixations. The latter, on the other hand, is deviant and irregular in this respect.

Infinitive Perfective Imperative 1sg. Future
[kəɾʋũ] [kəɾjũ] [kəɾo] [kəɾiʃ]
[kɛ̤ʋũ] [kəɦjũ] [kɔ̤] [kə̤jʃ]

Fortunately the [kɛ̤ʋũ] situation can be explained through murmur. If to a formal or historical root of /kəɦe/ these rules are considered then predicted, explained, and made regular is the irregularity that is [kɛ̤ʋũ] (romanized as kahevũ).

Thus below are the declensions of [kɛ̤ʋũ] /ɦ/-possessing, murmur-eliciting root /kəɦe/, this time with the application of the murmur rules on the root shown, also to which a preceding rule must be taken into account:

0. A final root vowel gets deleted before a suffix starting with a non-consonant.
Rule Infinitive Perfective Imperative 1sg. Future
[kəɦe-ʋũ] [kəɦe-jũ] [kəɦe-o] [kəɦe-iʃ]
0 [kəɦ-jũ] [kəɦ-o] [kəɦ-iʃ]
2 [kɛ̤-ʋũ] [kɔ̤]
3 [kə̤-jʃ]
[kɛ̤ʋũ] [kəɦjũ] [kɔ̤] [kə̤jʃ]

However in the end not all instances of /ɦ/ become murmured and not all murmur comes from instances of /ɦ/.

One other predictable source for murmur is voiced aspirated stops. A clear vowel followed by a voiced aspirated stop can vary with a pair gaining murmur and losing aspiration: #VCʱ ←→ #V̤C.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mistry (2003:115)
  2. ^ a b c d Mistry (2003:116)
  3. ^ a b Cardona & Suthar (2003:662)
  4. ^ Mistry (2003:115–116)
  5. ^ Mistry (1996:391–393)
  6. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  7. ^ a b c Mistry (1997:659)
  8. ^ a b c d e Cardona & Suthar (2003:665)
  9. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  10. ^ Mistry (2001:275)
  11. ^ Mistry (1997:658)
  12. ^ a b c Cardona & Suthar (2003:666)
  13. ^ Mistry (2001:274)
  14. ^ Mistry (1997:670)
  15. ^ a b Mistry (1997:660)
  16. ^ Campbell, G.L. (1991), "Gujarati", Compendium of the world's languages, volume 1. Abaza to Lusatian, New York: Routledge, pp. 541–545 
  17. ^ UCLA Language Materials Project: Gujarati. Retrieved on 2007-04-29
  18. ^ Mistry (1997:661–662)
  19. ^ Mistry (1997:662)
  20. ^ Mistry (1997:663)
  21. ^ Cardona & Suthar (2003:667)
  22. ^ Mistry (1997:666–668)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cardona, George; Suthar, Babu (2003), "Gujarati", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
  • Dave, T.N. (1931), Notes on Gujarati Phonology, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 6 (3): 673–678, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00093174, ISSN 1356-1898, JSTOR 607202 .
  • Firth, J.R. (1957), Phonetic Observations on Gujarati, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 20 (1): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00061802, JSTOR 610376 .
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 .
  • Mistry, P.J. (2003), "Gujarati", in Frawley, William, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics 2 (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press .
  • Mistry, P.J. (2001), "Gujarati", in Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl, An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present, New England Publishing Associates .
  • Mistry, P.J. (1997), "Gujarati Phonology", in Kaye, A.S, Phonologies of Asia and Africa, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns .
  • Mistry, P.J. (1996), "Gujarati Writing", in Daniels; Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press .
  • Pandit, P.B. (1961), Historical Phonology of Gujarati Vowels, Language (Linguistic Society of America) 37 (1): 54–66, doi:10.2307/411249, JSTOR 411249 .
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1921), Gujarati Phonology, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 505–544 .
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1915), Indo-Aryan Nasals in Gujarati, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 1033–1038 .