Help:Citation Style 1

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A link to this page can be created by using {{cs1}} to create Citation Style 1.

Citation Style 1 (CS1) is collection of templates that can be modified to create multiple styles. In its native form, it is a well-used method of referencing Wikipedia articles. It includes a series of templates that in turn use either the meta-template {{Citation/core}} or the newer Lua Module:Citation/CS1.

The use of CS1 or of templates is not compulsory; per WP:CITEVAR:

Wikipedia does not have a single house style. Editors may choose any option they want; one article need not match what is done in other articles or what is done in professional publications or recommended by academic style guides. However, citations within a given article should follow a consistent style.

CS1 uses elements of The Chicago Manual of Style and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, with significant adaptations.

Style[edit]

There are a number of templates that use a name starting with cite; many were developed independently of CS1 and are not compliant with the CS1 style. There are also a number of templates that use one of the general use templates as a meta-template to cite a specific source.

To be compliant with CS1, a template must:

  • Be based on {{citation/core}}, Module:Citation/CS1 or one of the templates listed below.
  • Use a period as a punctuation mark to separate fields and end the citation.
  • Use a semicolon as a punctuation mark to separate authors and editors.
  • Format the title of longer works in italics.
  • Format the title of short works such as chapters in quotes.

Templates[edit]

General use[edit]

The following is a list of templates that implement Citation Style 1 for one or more types of citations but are not restricted to any specific source.

Legend
dagger Indicates that template uses Module:Citation/CS1; others use {{citation/core}}
Yes Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget can generate the template anytime user wishes. However, this does not mean that the tool or gadget fully supports all parameters or provides an interface for them. In fact, none of the mentioned items do so.
Sometimes Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget may or may not generate the corresponding template. For more information, see associated footnote.
General use CS1 templates
Template Use Citation expander gadget RefToolbar 1.0 RefToolbar 2.0 ProveIt SnipManager Cite4Wiki
{{Cite AV media}}dagger audio and visual sources Yes Yes
{{Cite AV media notes}}dagger liner notes from albums, DVDs, CDs and similar audio-visual media
{{Cite book}}dagger books Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{Cite conference}}dagger conference papers Yes
{{Cite DVD notes}}dagger DVD liner notes
{{Cite encyclopedia}}dagger edited collections Yes
{{Cite episode}} television or radio programs and episodes Yes
{{Cite interview}}dagger interviews
{{Cite journal}}dagger magazines, journals, academic papers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Sometimes[a]
{{Cite mailing list}} archived public mailing lists
{{Cite map}} maps
{{Cite news}}dagger news articles in print, video, audio or web Sometimes
[further explanation needed]
Yes Yes Yes Yes Sometimes
[further explanation needed]
{{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}}dagger audio or video podcast
{{Cite press release}}dagger press releases Yes
{{Cite report}} Unpublished reports by government departments, instrumentalities, operated companies, etc
{{Cite serial}} audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}}dagger signs, plaques and other visual sources
{{Cite speech}}dagger speeches
{{Cite techreport}}dagger technical reports
{{Cite thesis}}dagger theses
{{Cite web}}dagger web sources not characterized by another template Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. ^ Cite4Wiki uses {{Cite web}} by default, but has been customized to use {{Cite news}}, etc., for certain specific sources, and can be further customized in this manner.

Bot-filled[edit]

The following templates use {{cite journal}} as a meta-template. By simply entering an identifier, a bot will build the citation from information retrieved from a database.

Bot-filled citation templates
Template Identifier
{{Cite doi}}dagger Digital object identifier
{{Cite hdl}}dagger Handle System
{{Cite pmid}}dagger PubMed

From a technical standpoint, the bot builds a wrapper template for {{cite journal}}. The wrapper contains the citation information retrieved from the specified database. Once constructed, the wrapper function is used transparently.

Specific source[edit]

There are a number of templates that are CS1 compliant but are tied to a specific source; these are listed in Category:Citation Style 1 specific-source templates.

Of special note in these is:

Article preprint
citation template
Template Identifier
{{Cite arXiv}} arXiv preprints

How the templates work[edit]

CS1 uses a series of templates that provide a consistent output. The main difference is in parameters optimized for the subject. For example, {{cite book}} has fields for title and chapter, whereas {{cite journal}} has fields for journal and title.

This help page uses the names most commonly used across the templates series; see each template's documentation for details.

CS1 templates present a citation generally as:

  • With author:
Author (Date). "Title". Work (Publisher). Identifiers.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Without author:
"Title". Work (Publisher). Date. Identifiers.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

Authors[edit]

An author may be cited using separate parameters for the author's last name and first name by using |last= and |first=. If a cited source has multiple authors, subsequent authors can be listed in the citation using |last2= and |first2=, |last3= and |first3=, etc. as shown in the following example:[Note 1]

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe. 

If a cited source has a large number of authors, one can limit the number of authors displayed when the citation is published by using the |display-authors= parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.

If a cited author is notable and the author has a Wikipedia article, the author's name can be linked with |authorlink=. If a citation includes multiple notable authors, one may use |authorlink2=, |authorlink3=, etc. This method is used because |last= and |first= do not allow wikilinking. Please note that |authorlink= cannot be used to link to an external website; the external link will not render correctly. Below is an example of a wikilinked author credit:

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |authorlink=Stephen Hawking |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe. 

When an author is cited, the date of the cited work is displayed after the author's name, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |authorlink=Stephen Hawking |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |year=2007}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy (2007). George's Secret Key to the Universe. 

If no author is cited, the date appears after the title, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |year=2007}}
George's Secret Key to the Universe. 2007. 

If the cited source does not credit an author, as is common with newswire reports, press releases or company websites use:

|author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.-->

This HTML comment alerts both fact-checking and citation-fixing editors and bots that the cited source specifically did not name an author and therefore an author credit wasn't accidentally omitted from the citation. Without this entry editors and bots would waste time researching cited sources in an attempt to improve existing citations only to find that there is no author to credit.

When using |author= avoid citations like {{cite news |work=Weekday Times|author=Weekday Times editors|title=...}}, unless the article is on a field in which the majority of professional journals covering that field use such a citation style.

Editors should use an |author= organizational citation when the cited source, such as a committee report, specifically names an official body or a sub-unit of the publisher as the collective author of the work, e.g. |author=Commission on Headphone Safety or |author=Rules Sub-committee. Do not use |author= to assert what you think was probably the collective author when the source itself does not specifically specify a collective author; doing so is original research and falsification of source verifiability and reliability.

You may also use |author=, |author2=, |author3=, etc. to cite authors when first last order style is used in an article or the national or ethnic name style is not first last. Note that |author= may not create the expected anchor for Shortened footnotes and parenthetical referencing.

Editors[edit]

An editor may be cited using separate parameters for the editor's last and first name. A single or first editor would use |editor-last= and |editor-first=; subsequent editors would use |editor2-last= and |editor2-first=, |editor3-last= and |editor3-first=, etc.[Note 2]

If an editor is notable and has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that editor's Wikipedia article using |editor-link=. If a cited work has multiple editors, you may use |editor2-link=, |editor3-link=, etc. to wikilink to each editor's Wikipedia article. This method is used because |editor-last= and |editor-first= do not allow wikilinking. Please note that |editor-link= cannot be used to link to an external website; the external link will not render correctly.

If a cited source has a large number of editors, one can limit the number of editors displayed when the citation is published using the |display-editors= parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.

Others[edit]

  • others: This parameter is used to credit contributors other than an author or an editor, such as an illustrator or a translator. You should include both the type of contribution and the name of the contributor, for example |others=Illustrated by John Smith or |others=Trans. Jones

Dates[edit]

Dates are generally included by three parameters:

  • date: Full date of publication edition being referenced, in the same format as other dates in citations in the same article. Must not be wikilinked.
  • OR: year: Year of publication edition being referenced.
    • month: (deprecated) Name of the month of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead. Must not be wikilinked. Use date instead.
    • origyear: Original publication year, for display alongside the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics, for instance origyear=First published 1859 or origyear=Composed 1904. This parameter only displays if there is a value for year or date.

Acceptable date formats are shown in the "Acceptable date formats" table of the Manual of Style/Dates and numbers, Dates and years section. Further points:

  • Prescriptions about date formats only apply when the date is expressed in terms of Julian or Gregorian dates, or which use one of the seasons spring, summer, autumn or fall, winter. Sources are at liberty to use other ways of expressing dates, such as "spring-summer" or a date in a religious calendar; editors should report the date as expressed by the source. Although the seasons are not normally capitalized, they are capitalized when used as dates in CS1 templates, and the capitalization of the season stated by the source may be altered to follow this rule.
  • Do not wikilink.
  • Access and archive dates in references should be in either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD.

CS1 compliance with Wikipedia's Manual of Style[edit]

CS1 uses Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers §§Dates and years (WP:DATESNO) as the reference for all date format checking performed by Module:Citation/CS1. For various reasons, CS1 is not fully compliant WP:DATESNO. This table indicates CS1 compliance with the listed sections of WP:DATESNO.

CS1 compliance with Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers
section compliant comment
Acceptable date formats table yes Exceptions: linked dates not supported;
sortable dates not supported ({{dts}} etc);
proper name dates not supported;
Unacceptable date formats table yes
Consistency no article level restrictions are beyond the scope of CS1
Strong national ties to a topic no
Retaining existing format no
Era style no dates earlier than 100 not supported;
Julian and Gregorian calendars limited Module:Citation/CS1 cannot know if a date is Julian or Gregorian; assumes Gregorian
Ranges yes Exceptions: does not support the use of &ndash; or &nbsp;
does not support dates prior to 100;
does not support solidus separator (/)
does not support " to " as a date separator
does not support YYYY–YY where the two-digit year is less than 13 (change to YYYY–YYYY to eliminate the error message);
Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates yes Exceptions: does not support {{circa}} or {{floruit}};
does not support dates prior to 100;
Supports c. only with a single year value (no ranges or day/month combinations).
Days of the week no
Months yes Exceptions: shortened month names longer than three characters or with terminating periods are not supported;
Seasons no CS1 capitalizes seasons used as dates in citations, in line with external style guides;
Decades no
Centuries and millennia no
Abbreviations for long periods of time no

Date range, multiple sources in same year[edit]

If dates are used with the ref=harv parameter, the year range is 100 to present without era indication (AD, BC, CE, BCE). In the case where the same author has written more than one work in the same year, a lower-case letter may be appended to the year in the date parameter (date = July 4, 1997b – Module:Citation/CS1 supported templates only) or the year parameter (year = 1997b – all CS1 templates).

Titles and chapters[edit]

  • title The title of the cited source. Titles are displayed in italics, except for short works such as a {{cite press release}} and cited articles in {{cite news}}, {{cite journal}}, {{cite web}}, {{cite conference}}, and {{cite podcast}}, where the title is shown in quotation marks. Use title case unless the cited source covers a scientific, legal or other technical topic and sentence case is the predominant style in journals on that topic. Use either title case or sentence case consistently throughout the article. Do not omit a leading "The" from the title. Subtitles are typically separated from titles with ": " though " – " is also used. As with trademarks, Wikipedia does not attempt to emulate any stylistic flourishes used by the cited source's publisher, such as ALL-CAPS, all-lower-case, Small Caps, etc.; use either standard title case or sentence case consistently. If the cited source is itself notable and has a Wikipedia article, the title can be wikilinked. Wikilinking the title will make it impossible to use the "url" parameter to link to an external copy of the cited source, so only do this when citing works that do not need to be externally linked. A link to the actual source is preferred to a link to a Wikipedia article about the source.
  • script-title: Languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet, Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, etc., should not be italicized and may also read right-to-left (rtl). To include titles in these languages, use script-title. Titles in script-title are wrapped in special HTML markup to isolate rtl script from adjacent left-to-right text. Part of that special markup is a language attribute that browsers can use to assist in the proper display of the script. Editors may add a prefix to the script that will identify the language. The prefix is an ISO 639-1 two-character language code followed by a colon: |script-title=ar:العربية. Unrecognized codes are ignored and will display in the rendered citation.
  • trans-title: If the cited source is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. This field will be displayed in square brackets after the title and will be linked to |url= if used.
  • chapter The title of the cited chapter from the source, written in full. Displayed in quotes before the title. For websites arranged in sections the "at" parameter serves a similar function: |at=Featured News
  • trans-chapter: If the cited source is in a foreign language, an English translation of the cited chapter title can be given here. This field will be displayed in square brackets within the quotation marks which enclose the chapter field.

Titles containing certain characters will both display and link incorrectly unless those characters are replaced or encoded.

newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;

Type[edit]

  • type: Specifies the type of work cited. Appears in parentheses immediately after the title. Some templates use a default that can be overridden; example: {{cite press release}} will show (Press release) by default. Other useful values are Review, Systemic review, Meta-analysis or Original article.

Language[edit]

  • language: The language the work is written in, if it is not English. Displayed before the title, enclosed in parentheses and prefixed with in. Do not use icons in this field.

Work and publisher[edit]

Further information: WP:CITEHOW
  • work: Used by some templates such as {{cite web}}, {{cite news}} (where it is also aliased to newspaper and magazine), {{cite journal}} (aliased to journal), and others where the citation is usually to a specific item in a larger work, most commonly an article in a website or print periodical, or an episode in a TV series. Do not confuse this with the "publisher" parameter, which is for the publishing company. If the work is notable and has an article, it should be wiki-linked at first appearance in citations in the article. If the "title" is already linked to externally, do not externally link to the "work".
On websites, in most cases "work" is the name of the website (as usually given in the logo/banner area of the site), otherwise the site's domain name. If the "work" as given by the site/publication would be exactly the same as the name of the publisher, use the domain name; do not falsify the work's name by adding descriptive verbiage like "website of [Publisher]" or "[Publisher]'s Homepage". Capitalize for reading clarity, and omit "www.", e.g. convert "www.veterinaryresourcesuk.com" to "VeterinaryResourcesUK.com". Many journals use highly abbreviated titles when citing other journals (e.g. "J Am Vet Med" for "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association") because specialists in the field the journal covers usually already know what these abbreviations mean. Our readers do not, so these abbreviations should always be expanded. If the titled item being cited is part of some other larger work, such as a book, periodical or sub-organization, forming a sub-site at a domain name (e.g., the law school's section of a university's website system), it is usually better to use the name of that more specific work than that of the entire site/system. If the nature of the work and its relation to the site, book or other context in which it is found is complicated or confusing, simply explain the situation after the citation template and before the </ref> that closes the citation.
  • publisher: the name of the company that actually published the source. The field should not include the corporate designation such as "Ltd" or "Inc.", unless some ambiguity would result or the company is usually known with that designation even in everyday use. "Publisher", "Publishing" and "Publications" can be abbreviated "Pubr.", "Pubg." and "Pubs." respectively, but some templates in this series include a period (full-stop) immediately after this parameter, so the period may have to be omitted; check the output if you abbreviate here. These words are usually safe to omit, but are usefully included where the publisher's name might be confusing. This is most often the case when the publisher's name is something like "Joshua Martin Publications", which without the designation might be mistaken for a co-author. A leading "The" can generally be omitted, again unless confusion might result (e.g., for The International Cat Association, "The" is part of their official acronym, TICA). If the publisher is notable and has an article independent of the "work", the "publisher" parameter can include a wiki-link to that article, but should never externally link to the publisher's website. The "publisher" parameter should not be included for mainstream newspapers or where it would be the same or mostly the same as the work/site/journal/etc., for example, the "publisher" parameter should be omitted in these examples:
|work=Amazon.com    and   |publisher=Amazon
|newspaper=The New York Times    and   |publisher=The New York Times Company
|newspaper=USA Today    and   |publisher=Gannett Company

Whether the publisher needs to be included depends on the type of work. Wikipedia:Citing sources suggest it should be for books, but not necessarily other works. If the work is self-published, this is a very important fact about potential reliability of the source, and needs to be specified; no consensus exists for the exact value of |publisher=, but some printed style guides suggest "author". When an exhaustive attempt to discover the name of the publisher (try whois for websites) fails, use |publisher=<!--Unspecified by source.--> to explicitly indicate that this was checked, so other editors do not waste time duplicating your fruitless efforts. Do not guess at the publisher when this information isn't clear.

  • location: Geographical place of publication, usually City, Country, or City, U.S. State; simply the city name by itself can be used for world-recognized cities like New York, London (except in articles about Canadian topics), Paris, Tokyo. Simply having a unique name doesn't mean it's globally recognizable; e.g., many people do not know where Mumbai is, especially if they are old enough that it was called Bombay for much of their lives. If in doubt, be more not less specific, since "Toronto, Canada" and "San Francisco, California" do not actually hurt anything. The |location= parameter should be omitted when it is implied by the name of the work, e.g. The New York Times. The |location= parameter should be used when the location is part of the common name but not the actual name of a newspaper. For example, the newspaper commonly known as the New York Daily News is actually Daily News (New York) and can be entered with |newspaper=Daily News |location=New York, which yields Daily News (New York).
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via (optional): Name of the content deliverer (when they are not the publisher) who presents the source in a format other than the original, or when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, or where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), or if(!) the deliverer requests attribution, or as suggested in WP:The Wikipedia Library, e.g. WP:Credo accounts/Citations. |via= permits adding a level of detail of "say where you found it" within the syntax of Citation Style 1, without requiring external templates like {{HighBeam}} or {{subscription required}}. |via= is not intended to replace |publisher=, so citations of books (say, ebooks) published and sold by Google Books wouldn't use it.

Pages[edit]

An editor may use any one of the following parameters in a given citation to refer to the specific page(s) or place in a cited source that contains the information that supports the article text. If more than one of the following parameters are used in the same citation, the error message Extra |pages= or |at= (help) will display in the published citation. When more than one of the following parameters is used in error, |page= overrides both |pages= and |at=; |pages= overrides |at=. To resolve the error, remove extra parameters of this type until only one remains in the affected citation.

  • page: page in the cited source containing the information that supports the article text, for example |page=52 .
  • pages: pages in the cited source containing the information that supports the article text. Separate page ranges with an en dash: – , for example |pages=236–239 . Separate non-sequential pages with a comma, for example |pages=157,159 . The form |pages=461,466–467 is used when you are citing both non-contiguous and sequential pages. Note: CS1 citations do not record the total number of pages in a cited source; do not use this parameter for that purpose.
  • at: place in the cited source containing the information that supports the article text when a page number is not given, is inappropriate or is insufficient. Common examples include column or col., paragraph or para. and section or sec. Depending on the source being cited, other indicators may be appropriate to use with the |at= parameter including, but not limited to, track, hours, minutes and seconds, act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, etc. Examples include |at=Column 2 or |at=Paragraph 5 or |at=Back cover or |at=Act III, Scene 2.

Edition identifiers[edit]

  • edition: Identifies the particular edition of a cited source when the source has more than one edition, such as "2nd", "Revised", etc. Note that this parameter automatically displays " ed." after your entry. For example |edition=Revised third displays as: Revised third ed. The edition parameter can be omitted if there is no content difference between two editions of the same work; e.g. if a book was identically published in the UK and the US except, for example, ISBN number and cover art, it is not necessary to indicate either "UK" or "US" edition; or if citing minute:seconds of a film available in both a regular edition and a "Special Limited Collector's Edition", if the running time and cut are the same, it is not necessary to cite the particular edition.
  • series: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.[Note 3]
  • volume: For a source published in several volumes. This field is displayed in bold after the title and series parameters. An alternative is to include the volume information in the title parameter after the main title.
  • issue: When the source is part of a series that is published periodically. Aliases: number.

External links[edit]

  • url: Adds a link to the title
  • chapterurl: Adds a link to the chapter.
  • format: Format of the document at its URL (e.g., PDF, xls, etc.) Do not specify for HTML as it is implied as the default. Several URI schemes and filename extensions will show an icon— these icons have no alt text and do not meet accessibility standards. Do not use this parameter for completely different purposes, with annotations such as "fee required" or "reprint"; its intent is to notify readers what the file format is (e.g. in case some browsers might have trouble with it, or some might prefer to save the link to disk rather than open it in the browser). Access restrictions can be shown using |subscription= or |registration=, see Registration or subscription required. Other notes about reprintings, etc., should be placed after the template, and before </ref>.

Online sources[edit]

Links to sources are regarded as conveniences and are not required, except when citing Web-only sources. There are many digital libraries with works that may be used as sources.

  • Links should be to full versions of the source.
  • Online sources that require payment or subscription may be included per the verifiability policy.

Do not link to:

Main page: WP:LINKSTOAVOID
  • Sites that do not have permission to republish the work or which otherwise violate copyright.
  • Commercial sites such as Amazon.
  • Reviews of the work.
  • Very short extracts such as Google Books snippet view where there is not enough context to verify the content, unless the entire work is also freely available there. (See WP:BOOKLINKS)

Link formats[edit]

Links should be kept as simple as possible. For example, when performing a search for a Google Book, the link for Monty Python and Philosophy would look like:

http://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC&lpg=PP1&dq=monty%20python&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

But can be trimmed to:

http://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC

Pages[edit]

A direct link to a specific page may be used if supported by the host. For example, the link to page 173 of Monty Python and Philosophy on Google Books:

http://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC&l&pg=PA173

If the same source is reused with different pages, separate citations must be created. A way around this problem is to use {{rp}} to provide linked page number citations.

Special characters[edit]

URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.

Access date[edit]

  • accessdate: The date the web link was accessed; only shows when a link is included.

Icons[edit]

URLs with certain filename extensions or URI schemes will apply an icon specific to that file type. This is done through MediaWiki CSS, not these templates.

Web archives[edit]

Further information: Wikipedia:Link rot
  • archiveurl
  • archivedate

The original link may become unavailable. When an archived version is located, the original URL is retained and |archiveurl= is added with a link to an archived copy of a web page, usually from services like WebCite and the Internet Archive. |archivedate= must be added to show the date the page was archived, not the date the link was added. When |archiveurl= is used, |url= and |archivedate= are required, else an error will show. When an archived link is used, the citation displays with the title linked to the archive and the original link at the end:

"Monty Python and Philosophy". Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. 
  • deadurl: To change the order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end, set |deadurl=no:
"Monty Python and Philosophy". Archived from the original on October 12, 2011. 

Identifiers[edit]

Most templates support these identifiers:

Registration or subscription required[edit]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, if a cited online source requires registration, add |registration=yes to the citation; if a cited online source requires a subscription, add |subscription=yes to the citation. If both parameters are added to the same citation, |subscription=yes will override |registration=yes and the "registration required" note will not display in the published citation.

Quote[edit]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source; enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.

Anchors[edit]

  • ref: Creates an anchor for use with Shortened footnotes and parenthetical referencing. These styles use in-text cites with a link that will jump to an anchor created by the CS1 template. Anchors are not enabled by default, they are created by use of |ref=
  • |ref=harv: Creates an anchor of the format CITEREFauthorslastnameyear suitable for a {{harv}}, {{sfn}} etc. Examples:
{{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |year=2006 |ref=harv}}
Creates an anchor named CITEREFHardcastle2006 which may be linked from {{harv|Hardcastle|2006|pp=12-34}}.
{{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |first2=George A. |last2=Reisch |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |year=2006 |ref=harv}}
Creates an anchor named CITEREFHardcastleReisch2006 which may be linked from {{harv|Hardcastle|Reisch|2006|pp=12-34}}.
  • |ref=ID: Creates a custom anchor defined by ID. This is useful where the author and/or date is unknown. The {{harvid}} template may be used here to create an anchor suitable for a {{harv}}, {{sfn}} etc. For example, |ref={{harvid|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006}} creates an anchor which may be linked from {{harv|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006|pp=12-34}}

Display options[edit]

These features are not often used, but can customize the display for use with other styles.

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as Shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed except when there are nine authors, then the author list in the citation is truncated to eight authors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed except when there are four editors, then the editor list in the citation is truncated to three editors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains four editor names and one wishes all four editor names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-editors=4. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • lastauthoramp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |lastauthoramp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;.

et al.[edit]

et al. is the abbreviation of the Latin et alii (and others). It is used to complete a list of authors of a published work, where the complete list is considered overly long. The term is widely used in English, thus it is not italicized per MOS:FOREIGN.

Printing[edit]

When viewing the page, CS1 templates render the URL to the title to create a link; when printing, the URL is printed. External link icons are not printed.

Elements not included[edit]

Not all factually accurate pieces of information about a source are used in a Citation Style 1 citation. Examples of information not included:

  • The total number of pages in a cited source
  • The name of the library that provided access to an electronic copy of a cited source
  • The name of the library that owns a physical copy of a cited work
  • The library record and/or shelf location of a physical copy of a cited work

Tools[edit]

CS1 templates may be inserted manually or by use of tools:

Error checking:

Common issues[edit]

Shortcut:
|accessdate= does not show.
If |url= is not supplied, then |accessdate= does not show; by design.
The bare URL shows before the title.
If the |title= field includes a newline or an invalid character then the link will be malformed; see Web links.
The title appears in red.
If URL is supplied, then the title cannot be wikilinked.
The URL is not linked and shows in brackets.
The URL must include the URI scheme in order for MediaWiki to recognize it as a link. For example: www.example.org vs. http://www.example.org.
A field is truncated.
A pipe | in the value will truncate it.
The template markup shows.
Double open brackets [[ are used in a field without closing double brackets ]].
The author shows in brackets with an external link icon.
The use of an URL in |authorlink= will break the link; this field is for the name of the Wikipedia article about the author, not a website.
Multiple author or editor names are defined and one or more does not show
The parameters must be used in sequence, i.e. if |last= or |last1= is not defined, then |last2= will not show. By design.
|page=, |pages= or |at= do not show.
These parameters are mutually exclusive, and only one will show; by design.
The periods separating the series of fields are missing
If |separator= is present but blank, no separator punctuation will be used.
The citation is broken across lines, successive lines are indented and may be bulleted or numbered.
If |separator= is set to an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
Too many templates used on one page can also cause server lag problems, causing the page to load slowly or save slowly after an edit has been made.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Lua coded templates, the number of authors that can be listed in the citation and displayed when published is unlimited. In older templates that have not yet been converted to Lua coding, any number of authors may be listed in the citation, however only the first eight will display, followed by "et al."
  2. ^ In Lua coded templates, the number of editors that can be listed in the citation and displayed when published is unlimited. In older templates that have not yet been converted to Lua coding, any number of editors may be listed in the citation, however only the first three will display, followed by "et al."
  3. ^ "Some numbered series have gone on so long that, as with certain long-lived journals, numbering has started over again, preceded by n.s. (new series), 2nd ser. (second series), or some similar notation, usually enclosed in commas. (A change of publisher may also be the occasion for a change in series designation.) Books in the old series may be identified by o.s., 1st ser., or whatever complements the notation for the new series."[1]:14.132

References[edit]

  1. ^ University of Chicago (2010). The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226104201. 

Discussions[edit]