Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park
|Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park|
The Redwood Grove Trail (old-growth loop) in Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park
|Location||Santa Cruz County, California, USA|
|Area||4,623 acres (1,870.9 ha)|
|Governing body||California Department of Parks and Recreation|
Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park is a state park of California, USA, preserving mainly forest and riparian areas in the watershed of the San Lorenzo River, including a grove of old-growth coast redwood. It is located in Santa Cruz County, primarily in the area between the cities of Santa Cruz and Scotts Valley, near the community of Felton and the University of California at Santa Cruz. The park includes a non-contiguous extension in the Fall Creek area north of Felton. The 4,623-acre (1,870.9 ha) park was established in 1954.
The main park covers approximately 1,750 acres (7.08 km2), and the separate Fall Creek (not to be confused with the Fall Creek farther north in San Mateo County) unit contains an additional 2,390 acres (9.67 km2). The park lies within the southern end of the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion. In the numerous stream canyons live large populations of coast redwood, coast Douglas fir, California bay laurel, tanbark oak, California hazelnut, bigleaf maple and many other native species.
Up-slope from the redwood forest are found transitional tree species such as Pacific madrone, along with a stand of Ponderosa pine, rare at such a low elevation. Some of the highest and driest ridge slopes in the park support fairly unique chaparral communities known as "elfin forests". The old-growth grove of coast redwood, approximately 40 acres (16 ha) in size, is located entirely in the original section of the park, surrounded by many species of fern and plentiful redwood sorrel. Surrounding areas, including the non-contiguous Fall Creek unit, were logged extensively in the mid-to-late 1800s for lumber and as fuel for the many lime kilns that used to operate in the area, such as the ones preserved at nearby Cowell Lime Works. Logging activities mostly ceased by the 1920s, and the second growth redwoods are now up to several feet in diameter.
Both portions of the park have much to offer vacationing families or nature enthusiasts. Hiking, fishing, camping (including RV hookups), birdwatching, horse and dog-friendly trails, and shopping at the Mountain Parks Nature Store await visitors to this park. Next door to the main parking lot is the Roaring Camp and Big Trees Narrow Gauge Railroad.
There are over 15 miles (24 km) of hiking trails, some of which lead to small, isolated sandy beaches on the San Lorenzo River, and others with overlook views of the Santa Cruz Mountains, with peeks at Monterey Bay.
The park has a newly remodeled visitor center, which is open year-round to the public, and is staffed by California Parks employees and volunteer docents. Additionally, the Mountain Parks Nature Store is open during most park hours, and there is a direct entrance from the park's main parking lot to the grounds of Roaring Camp and Big Trees Railroad.
The Redwood Grove comprises old-growth "virgin" redwoods, the oldest trees of which are approximately 1,400-1,800 years old and grow to approximately 300 feet (91 m) tall and over 16 feet (4.9 m) in diameter. Referred to by locals as "the loop," the grove is primarily a self-guided walk—but on most summer weekends, and many other times year-round, free guided walks led by docents or park employees are available. Featured on the loop are unique old-growth redwoods, including one with albino growth lignotubers and the John C. Fremont tree (a tree hollowed out by fire that was once used as a resort honeymoon room).
In the field next to the park's entrance kiosk, all three known types of redwood trees, the Coast Redwood, the Giant Sequoia, and the Dawn Redwood (the latter two not native to the area) are planted together, providing a unique place to instantly compare and contrast the members of this family of trees.
This park provides a good environment for the study of different habitats. Habitats in this park, often changing back and forth within a few hundred feet of one another, include riparian, sandhill community, mixed evergreen, and redwood forests. Anglers fish for steelhead and salmon during the winter, and there is also a picnic area overlooking the San Lorenzo River.
Besides roads, the park may also be reached by the Santa Cruz, Big Trees and Pacific Railway, and campsites for tents and RVs are available—just short day hike distances from the main part of the park.
Fall Creek extension
The extension of the park contains over 20 miles (30 km) of hiking trails, mostly along the creeks that flow year-round and make beautiful mini waterfalls during the rainy season (November–March). There is also an 18-hole Disc Golf course run by a local school (Nature Academy). Along Fall Creek are the ruins of a 19th-century lime manufacturing operation, including a quarry and lime kilns built by I.X.L. Lime Company (established in 1874). The lime works were later acquired by industrialist Henry Cowell.
During the 1830s and 40s, when California was still part of Mexico, large land grants were created, called ranchos. The lands now included in the State Park were once parts of three different ranchos. Rancho Cañada del Rincon en el Rio San Lorenzo, Rancho Zayante and Rancho Carbonera. By 1865, most of the former rancho lands had been subdivided. Industrialist Henry Cowell purchased 6,500 acres (26 km2) of the former Rancho Cañada del Rincon en el Rio San Lorenzo, including 1,600 acres (6 km2) of forest, in 1865, adding to his quarrying and lime operations in the vicinity. A significant number of buildings in San Francisco were built using the redwood and limestone products from this area. In the 1920s the owners of a large resort adjacent to Henry Cowell's holdings raised support for the County of Santa Cruz to buy and preserve their pristine redwood lands, an action finally approved of, in large part thanks to the work of California Lieutenant Governor William Jeter, in 1930. Eventually Samuel Cowell, aged 90, last of the Cowell line, donated the rest of what became the park to the state, but only under the condition that Santa Cruz County also give up its portion of the land (Big Trees Park) to the state so that it could all be managed together. Thus Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park was officially created on August 18, 1954. The separate Fall Creek unit was added later.
- Bolsinger, Charles L.; Waddell, Karen L. (1993). Area of old-growth forests in California, Oregon, and Washington. United States Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-197.
- California State Park System Statistical Report: Fiscal Year 2009/10. California State Parks. p. 30. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park". Redwood Hikes. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
- Perry, Frank A.; Piwarzyk, Robert W.: Luther, Michael D.; Orlando, Alverda; Molho, Allan; Perry, Sierra L. Lime Kiln Legacies: The History of the Lime Industry in Santa Cruz County. The Museum of Art and History at the McPherson Center (2007), p.100
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