Zmudowski State Beach

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Zmudowski State Beach is located in Moss Landing in Monterey County, California, United States,[1] operated by the California Department of Parks and Recreation. It is a popular fishing area and tourist attraction. Some of the fish found in this location are the perch, kingfish, sole, flounder, halibut, bocaccio (tomcod), jacksmelt, lingcod, cabezon, salmon, steelhead, and occasional rockfish. The beach features the Pajaro River estuary, where a natural preserve has been set aside for nature and wildlife exploring. Families go to this state beach to picnic and use the beach area. The sandy beach is also popular with bird watchers and equestrians. Horses are only allowed near the waterline. Swimming and water sports such as surfing are hazardous because of strong rip-currents. Coastal erosion has greatly affected Zmudowski State Beach, along with other beaches all over California. Zmudowski State Beach has also been impacted by an influx of marine debris with changes to its wildlife population. Due to these historical changes, Zmudowski State Beach has never been the same.

The beach is located 20 miles northwest of Monterey, off Highway 1. It is accessible via Giberson Road, a two-mile narrow road through agricultural fields.[2]

History[edit]

The beach is named after Watsonville schoolteacher Mary Zmudowski, who donated it to the State of California in the 1950s. It is pronounced "zhmud-OF-ski." [2]The state of California attained a 155-acre parcel from Miss Mary Zudowski in 1950, which included all 9,124 feet of land beside the ocean. The Park Commission changed the name of the park from Pajaro River to Zmudowski in 1952 in order to recognize the contribution this family made.[3] This beach has always been a secret attraction to the Monterey Area. People from all over can come to participate in many of the activities listed above.

Geography[edit]

Because of the location of Zmudowski State Beach, in Moss Landing, coastal upwelling plays a large part on the beach in the spring and summer. Winds from the north, along the coast blow south past Monterey, causing the surface water to be pushed away, and the water from underneath to rise, or “upwell,” and replace the surface water with nutrient rich water.[4] This is why Zmudowski State Beach is such a great place to fish- the water has high biological productivity. Upwelling has fluctuated a lot in the past 20 years, effecting the fishing and wildlife at Zmudowski State Beach. All the upwellings, every spring and summer have been pretty strong, bringing in a lot of plankton and a variety of fishes. This beach is known for its fishing in the Monterey area.

Wildlife[edit]

The water upwelling at Zmudowski State Beach has affected wildlife, particularly the fish population. Certain nutrients from the water rise to the surface, and stimulate high plankton productivity of the Monterey Bay region. The high nutrient content, salinity and density make this area perfect for fishing, and attract many anglers. The beach allows and provides year-around recreational fishing opportunities. The Perch fish is the most universally collected fish in Monterey, and there is an abundance of perch fish that exist in Zmudowski State Beach. However, there have been laws and regulations set up to protect the fish population. On a daily basis, one can catch only 20 fish in combination of all other species, with not more than 10 fish of one species. These laws are put into place to prevent extinction of fish populations.[5]

Marine Debris[edit]

Marine debris has been found in the Zmudowski State Beach. Marine debris is man-made solid waste material that enters the marine environment through rivers, streams, drainage, or any other source.[6] Most marine debris is due to land-based resources, such as litter, industrial discharges, and global management. Only 20 percent of the debris found in the ocean comes from commercial fishing ships, cargo ships, or cruise ships. The other 80 percent connects back to pedestrians, motorists, and beach visitors. This clean exotic beach where people come to enjoy and relax is now shifting towards a trash zone. Trash increases the amount of pathogens and chemicals in the water, thereby hurting the water quality. Marine debris prevents swimming and other uses of the water, because of all poisonous toxins. Marine debris is a global pollution issue that is hazardous to wildlife, oceanic habitat, and humans. Birds, fish and mammals think plastic is food, and end up eating this debris. At the Zmudowski beach, animals choke on plastic, which causes them to die of starvation. Sea turtles mix up plastic for jellyfish, and grey whales have been found dead with plastic in their stomachs. As a result, the oceanic animal population is decreasing in the Monterey Bay area.[7]

Environmental Hazard[edit]

Because of the increase of marine debris, Zmudowski State Beach may become less popular among beachgoers, resulting in economic losses. Marine debris endangers humans and can bring them physical harm. There are nails, glass, and syringes sticking out of the ground that cut humans. This problem is making the beach less attractive and enjoyable. Local citizens have organized cleanups to try and resolve this issue. The government is spending millions of dollars to fight litter. West coast communities have also spent about 520,000,000 dollars as well. Many laws have been put in place to try to protect the beach. As the result, it is now illegal to throw plastic into the ocean, and anyone caught doing so will have to pay a fine at Zmudowski State Beach.[8]

Coastal Erosion[edit]

Coastal erosion has greatly impacted the Zmudowski State Beach, and poses many threats to the structure and to the community of the beach. Coastal erosion is the dissolution of land or the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, or drainage.[9] Erosion rates along the southern Monterey Bay shoreline between Moss Landing and Wharf II in Monterey are the highest in California. Unfortunately, the Zmudowski State Beach is diminishing about 2 feet per year, and it is at extreme risk for erosion destruction in approximately the next fifty years. If this happens, all of the animals that live at the beach will suffer. Rules governing proper techniques when building near the beach have been put in place in order to minimize damage from coastal erosion.[10]

Zmudowski State Beach is a popular fishing destination. Accordingly, Zmudowski State Beach is ranked a three star as a popular fishing destination.[11] Marine debris and coastal erosion must be addressed in order to keep the waters fishable.

Pajaro River Estuary[edit]

Zmudowski State Beach also features the Pajaro River Estuary, where a nature preserve exists. An estuary is quite simply a body of water formed where freshwater from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the seawater.[12] Estuaries and tidal wetland systems are some of the most productive and adaptive of Earth’s ecosystems. This area surrounding the beach is a tidal wetland, but back 10,000 years ago it did not used to be. The rising sea levels drowned the valley. Thousands of years later, sediment deposition transformed this area into a estuary. The transformation of the land into wetland and marsh actually began after the California Gold Rush. When the Americans arrived they cut down a lot of the trees to clear the land, and sediment continued to transform the wetland. Between 1870 and 1956, many levees were constructed within the Zmudowski Beach Region and near the Pajaro Estuary. The area, mostly salt marsh, decreased by 66% due to the levees. But, the benefit of salt marsh loss was the increase of four habitat types. When the early twentieth century came, more than 90 salt marshes were altered into habitats that man made ponds and marshes containing fresh water. Mid twentieth century the salt marshes continued to decline and were replaced with un-vegetated mudflat. By the late 1950’s almost all the salt marshes left were drained and used for agriculture. Today, all the land is used for tourist attraction and is a home for many animals.[13]

Saving Zmudowski[edit]

Earlier this year California had planned on closing 70 parks to cut money from the parks budget, since the deficit is already at $15.7 billion. Luckily, Zmudowski State Beach was saved from being cut because it does not require a lot of money to maintain. Back in 2012, Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill that allowed $10 million to be used for the State Park System. This money will be beyond useful for the two Monterey County Parks- Zmudowski State Beach and Moss Landing State Beach, since they both received no donations.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Zmudowski State Beach
  2. ^ a b "SeeMonterey:Zmudowski State Beach". Monterey County Convention and Visitors Bureau. Retrieved April 30, 2009. 
  3. ^ "Discover California State Parks in the Monterey". Crashing Waves, Redwoods And Historic Sites. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  4. ^ "Coastal Upwelling". NOAA Fisheries. Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  5. ^ "California Department of Fish and Wildlife". Delmonte, Aaron. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  6. ^ Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H.M. "Science Direct". Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  7. ^ "California Coastal Commission". Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  8. ^ Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H.M. "Marine debris in central California: Quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA". Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  9. ^ Houston, Will. "Monterey Herald News". Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  10. ^ "Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary". Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  11. ^ "Yelp". Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  12. ^ "What is an Estuary?". Exploring Estuaries. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  13. ^ Van Dyke, Eric; Wasson, Kerstin (April 2005). "Historical Ecology of a Central California Estuary: 150 Years of Habitat Change". Estuaries 28 (No. 2): 173-180. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  14. ^ Courtney, Buchanan. "Zmudowski, Moss Landing State Beach Stay Open Through November". Watsonville Patch. Watsonville Patch. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°50′28″N 121°48′16″W / 36.84119°N 121.80448°W / 36.84119; -121.80448