Watts Towers of Simon Rodia
Simon Rodia State Historic Park
|Location||1727 E. 107th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90002|
|NRHP Reference #||77000297|
|Added to NRHP||April 13, 1977|
|Designated NHL||December 14, 1990|
|Designated CHISL||August 17, 1990|
|Designated LAHCM||March 1, 1963|
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The Watts Towers, Towers of Simon Rodia, or Nuestro Pueblo ("our town"), are within the Simon Rodia State Historic Park, in the Watts community of Los Angeles, Southern California. They are a collection of 17 interconnected sculptural structures, the tallest reaching a height of over 99 feet (30 m). The towers and walls were designed and built by Italian immigrant construction worker and tile mason Sabato ("Simon") Rodia (1879-1965), over a period of 33 years, from 1921 to 1954. The work is an example of 'outsider art' vernacular architecture and Italian-American naïve art.
The Watts Towers are located near the 103rd Street / Watts Towers Los Angeles Metro station of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Blue Line, and off the I-105 Century Freeway. They were designated a National Historic Landmark and a California Historical Landmark in 1990. They are also a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, and on the National Register of Historic Places in Los Angeles.
Design and construction
The sculptures' armatures are constructed from steel rebar and his own concoction of a type of concrete, wrapped with wire mesh. The main supports are embedded with pieces of porcelain, tile, and glass. They are decorated with found objects, including bottles, ceramic tiles, sea shells, figurines, mirrors, and much, much more. Rodia called the Towers 'Nuestro Pueblo' (which means 'our town' in Spanish). He built them with no special equipment or predetermined design, working alone with hand tools. Neighborhood children brought pieces of broken pottery to Rodia, and he also used damaged pieces from the Malibu Pottery and CALCO (California Clay Products Company). Green glass includes recognizable soft drink bottles from the 1930s through 1950s, some still bearing the former logos of 7 Up, Squirt, Bubble Up, and Canada Dry; blue glass appears to be from milk of magnesia bottles.
Rodia bent much of the Towers' framework from scrap rebar, using nearby railroad tracks as a makeshift vise. Other items came from alongside the Pacific Electric Railway right of way between Watts and Wilmington. Rodia often walked the right of way all the way to Wilmington in search of material, a distance of nearly 20 miles (32 km).
In 1955, Rodia 'quit claimed' his property to a neighbor and left, reportedly tired of battling with the City of Los Angeles for permits, and because he understood the possible consequences of his aging and being alone. He moved to Martinez, California to be with his sister and never returned. He died ten years later.
Preservation after Rodia
Rodia's bungalow inside the enclosure was burned down, as a result of a 4th of July mishap and the City of Los Angeles condemned the structure and ordered it all to be destroyed. Actor Nicholas King and a film editor William Cartwright visited the site in 1959, and purchased the property from that neighbor for $2,000 in order to preserve it. The City's decision to pursue expediting the demolition was still in force. The towers had already become famous and there was opposition from around the world. King, Cartwright, architects, artists, enthusiasts, academics, and community activists formed the 'Committee for Simon Rodia's Towers in Watts.' The Committee negotiated with the city to allow for an engineering test to establish the safety of the structures and avoid demolition of the structures.
The test took place on October 10, 1959. For the test, steel cable was attached to each Tower and a crane was used to exert lateral force all connected to a 'load-force' meter. The crane was unable to topple or even shift the Towers with the forces applied, and the test was concluded when the crane experienced mechanical failure. Bud Goldstone and Edward Farrell were the engineer and architect leading the team. The stress test registered 10,000 lbs. The Towers are anchored less than 2 feet (0.61 m) in the ground, and have been highlighted in Architectural textbooks, and have changed the way some structures are designed for stability and endurance.
The Committee preserved the Towers independently until 1975 when for the purpose of guardianship, they partnered with the City of Los Angeles,. The City partnered with the State of California in 1978. It is operated by the City of Los Angeles Cultural Affairs Department and curated by the Watts Towers Arts Center/Charles Mingus Youth Arts Center, which grew out of the Youth Arts Classes established in the house structure more than 50 years ago.
In February 2011, LACMA received a grant from the James Irvine Foundation to scientifically assess and report on the condition of the Watts Towers, to continue to preserve the undisturbed structural integrity and composition of the aging works of art. 
The Watts Towers or "Nuestro Pueblo" are considered one of Southern California's most culturally significant public artworks.  They are one of nine folk art sites listed in the National Register of Historic Places, and were designated a National Historic Landmark in 1990. The towers were also designated a California Historical Landmark in 1990.
Conservation and damage
The withstanding of weather and moisture for over half a century have caused pieces of tile and glass to become loose on the towers, which are conserved for reattachment in the ongoing restoration work. The structures suffered little from the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the region, with only a few pieces shaken loose.
This structures have not been compromised by vandalism, and are granted respect by the local and surrounding communities.
Watts Towers Arts Center
The Watts Towers Arts Center is an adjacent community arts center that opened in 1970.  The center was built and staffed by the non-profit Committee for Simon Rodia's Towers in Watts. Changing displays of contemporary artworks are on exhibit, and tours of the Watts Towers are conducted by the center. The Center's Charles Mingus Youth Arts Center holds art classes, primarily for youth and Special Needs adults from the local community and surrounding cities. Partnerships with CalArts and Sony Pictures provide media arts and piano classes. The Day of the Drum and Jazz Festival occurs annually on last weekend of every September. It includes arts and craft booths and live music.
The 2006 documentary I Build the Tower is the most comprehensive and insightful documentary film about Sabato "Simon" Rodia, and his creative vision and skill in building the Towers. The 1987 docudrama Daniel and The Towers is about them also. The Towers of Simon Rodia is a 2008 documentary filmed in digital 3-D.
Watts Towers were highlighted in the 1973 BBC television series The Ascent of Man, in its episode "The Grain in the Stone—tools, and the development of architecture and sculpture" that was written and presented by Jacob Bronowski.
- List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles.
- List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in South Los Angeles
- California Historical Landmarks in Los Angeles County, California
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California
Regional and international landmarks
- United States
- Baldasare Forestiere, another Italian immigrant in California born the same year as Rodia who built the Forestiere Underground Gardens.
- Nitt Witt Ridge, an eclectic assemblage house in Cambria, California.
- Rubel Castle, a folk art sculptural house in Glendora, California.
- Bishop Castle, a massive stone castle hand built by Jim Bishop near Rye, Colorado.
- Mystery Castle, a house in Phoenix, Arizona, built in the 1930s in a similar style.
- Wharton Esherick Studio, built by American sculptor Wharton Esherick.
- Coral Castle, a stone artwork and residence built in Homestead, Florida.
- Philadelphia's Magic Gardens, by mosaic artist Isaiah Zagar, an art space occupying three city lots created over the span of fourteen years.
- Heidelberg Project, a street in Detroit where houses have been turned into an outdoor art environment.
- Broken Angel House, in Clinton Hill, Brooklyn, designed with similar ad hoc construction for over 30 years.
- Edward James, surrealist poet inspired by Rodia. James built "Las Pozas" in San Luis Potosí state, México.
- Hermit House, a unique residence in Israel, with intricate mosaics created by an artist over thirty years.
- Ferdinand Cheval, a French postman who constructed an "ideal palace" out of rocks in his spare time.
- Rock Garden, Chandigarh, a rock garden built completely out of thrown-away items. The project was secretly initiated by Nek Chand.
- Justo Gallego Martínez, a Spaniard who built his own cathedral.
- Valerio Ricetti, an Italian immigrant in Australia who built the Hermit's Cave.
- Antoni Gaudí, Catalan architect with a similar Expressionist style, particularly La Sagrada Família in Barcelona.
- "Watts Towers". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
- Department of City Planning. "Designated Historic-Cultural Monuments". City of Los Angeles. Retrieved 2010-06-15.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23.
- "Watts Towers". National Historic Landmark Quicklinks. National Park Service. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Goldstone, Arloa Paquin (1990-06-18). "The Towers of Simon Rodia". National Register of Historic Places Registration. National Park Service.
- Goldstone, Bud; Goldstone, Arloa Paquin (1997). The Los Angeles Watts Towers. Getty Conservation Institute. ISBN 978-0892364916.
- Boehm, Mike (2011-02-11). "LACMA gets $500,000 grant to fund its new role as Watts Towers conservator". Los Angeles Times.
- Watts Towers
- Public Art in Public Places Project
- "The Towers of Simon Rodia, Accompanying 8 photos, from 1967–1989.". National Register of Historic Places Registration. National Park Service. 1990-06-18.
- Wattstowers.us: The Watts Towers Arts Center, and Charles Mingus Youth Arts Center.
- The Towers of Simon Rodia (2008), with the documentary short Watts Towers – Then & Now — available on a DVD (2-D or 3-D) from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art bookshop.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Watts Towers.|
- Official Simon Rodia State Historic Park website
- Official Watts Towers Arts Center — Watts Towers website
- Watts Towers on Great Buildings www.greatbuildings.com: Watts Towers
- Wattstowers.org at the Wayback Machine
- Public Art in Public Places Project: "Watts Towers (1921–1954), Los Angeles"
- I Build the Tower, a feature-length documentary film about Simon Rodia and the Watts Towers
- The official website dedicated entirely to Simon Rodia's Watts Towers and their impact on international art
- KCET Life & Times. History of the Towers
- Spherical panoramas of Rodia's work
- Trywatts.com: Most Everything that ever Mentioned, Showed, Documented, or Featured the Watts Towers
- The Towers — 1957 documentary
- Rodia's Watts Towers Photodocumentary with ruins of Rodia's house, plus surprising new biographical information
- America's Memory @ the Library of Congress: Watts Towers
- Unusual Travel Destinations.com: The Watts Towers of Simon Rodia