The history of the Jews in Guyana began in the 1660s, when Jewish settlers arrived in the Dutch colony of Essequibo, the forerunner of what became British Guiana and today's Guyana. Among those expelled from Spain who migrated to South America and the Caribbean islands countries such as Curaçao, Barbados and other smaller islands. Over the years, the Jewish population never grew in substantial numbers, and by the 1930s there was neither an organized Jewish community nor a synagogue in the capital city of Georgetown. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, several Jewish families immigrated to British Guiana from Arab lands to avoid persecution and expand business opportunities.
British Guiana was part of the expanding British Empire, which included much of the Middle East. The expansion of the sugar cane industry in British Guiana allowed the British to encourage workers (initially indentured Portuguese from Madeira, and then East Indians from South India), and the expansion of the economy brought opportunities to Jews from warm lands to emigrate. Most of the Jewish migration during this period came from British controlled portions of the Middle East including what is now modern Iraq, and were erroneously identified as Assyrians and called "Syrians." Prominent among these families were affluent Jews including the Elias family from Palestine who ran several mercantile exchanges until the great fires of the 1960s burn them out. There were also several other Jewish merchant families erroneously identified as Arabs. Until the 1960s, there were close to a few hundred Jewish merchants who were categorized as "Syrians". Most of the Jews returned to the Middle East after racial resentment and political upheaval culminated with race riots of the 1960s.
After World War II began, the British colonial administration in charge of Guyana agreed to provide shelter for 50 Jewish refugees who escaped Europe through Spain. These refugees emigrated after the war.
Janet Jagan, an American-born Jewish woman married to a Guyanese national, served as prime minister from March 17, 1997, to December 19, 1997, and as president of Guyana from December 19, 1997, to August 11, 1999. However, Jagan downplayed her faith, telling a journalist in a 2000 interview that "Jewishness wasn't much of a factor in my life." Jagan also added that as of 2000, "There's no Jewish community in Guyana."