Hinduism and Judaism

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Hinduism and Judaism are amongst the oldest existing religions in the world. They have shared a notable relationship throughout historical and modern times.

Theological similarities[edit]

Scholarly efforts to compare Hinduism and Judaism were popular mostly during the Enlightenment, in the process of arguing the deistic worldview.[1] Hananya Goodman states that Hinduism and Judaism have played an important role in European discussions of idolatry, spirituality, primitive, theories of race, language, mythologies, etc.[2]

Both religions were regarded by some scholars to be ethnic, and not promoting conversions. However, adherents of both religions are found across the world.[3] Both religions share common elements in regard to a complicated system of laws, purity codes, and dietary restrictions, for defining their communities.[4]

Judaism has been compared with Brahminism by Osho Rajneesh[5] and Steven Rosen in their books citing the similarities of Brahmins and Jews who viewed themselves as "God's chosen people." Rosen further adds that Brahmins had a "community of priests" while Jews had a "Kingdom of Priests".[6]

David Flusser pointed to a story from the Upanishads as having similarities to the tale of Abraham and states that "One can easily discover parallels in the Upanishads to the Abraham Legend".[7][8]

American biologist Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in his book The American nations; or: discusses linguistic and traditional similarities between the two religions. In one chapter he writes:

"Our Noah- is thus NH (pr NOE) which the Jews since pronounced NUH, and even Mnuh ! Exactly the same name as given him by the Hindus! And all meaning repose, with many collateral meanings, lawgiver, collecting people, assembly humanity & c. The laws of M'nu are preserved by the Hindus : to him is also ascribed the substance of the Vedas, and the whole Mosaic history till near his own death. But the Hindus have many- M'nus ; Adam and Seth were such, by the names of Adimo and Satya."[9]

Scriptures[edit]

Barbara Holdrege analyzed the comparative analysis in her writing, about the role of scriptures in Brahmanical and Rabbinic, Kabbalistic traditions, she noted that cosmological conceptions of sacred scripture in which Veda and Torah are portrayed not merely as restricted corpus of texts, but as a multileveled cosmic reality that encircle both historical and transmundane dimensions. She adds further that sacred status, authority, and function of scripture in these traditions are to a certain extent shaped by these conceptions and thus such a study is essential for understanding the role of Veda and Torah as the paradigmatic signs of their respective traditions.[10]

Judaism, notable for its monotheistic concept, shares some similarities with those Hindu scriptures that describe monotheism such as Vedas.[11] In Judaism, God is transcendent while in Hinduism, God is both immanent and transcendent.[12]

In Judaism, god is called Yahweh, Deuteronomy regard Yahweh as "God of gods and Lord of lords".[13]

Hinduism varies from Monotheism, Polytheism, Pantheism, Panentheism, thus the opinion about supreme god differs. According to Upanishads, Mahabharata, and some Puranas, Narayana is considered as supreme deity.[14] Today, Vaishnavism sect consider Vishnu to be the supreme god,[15] while Shaivism consider Shiva as the supreme god.[16]

In Judaism, God is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. While in Hinduism, gods are considered for having the similar status to another,[17] as distinct, but it can be also be seen as "aspects or manifestations of a single, transcendent god",[17] or an "impersonal absolute".[17]

Bernard Jackson points out the extent to which legal regulations, customs, and royal ordinances in Halakha and Dharmaśāstra are binding on members of their respective[clarification needed] societies. Jackson adds that both Jewish and Hindu law evidence a great sensitivity to the interplay of local custom and authoritative law. Jackson also adds that in both religions, the writing down of a collection of norms did not necessarily mean that all or even most norms were intended to be enforced and that the laws connected with royal authority were not necessarily statutory. Wendy Doniger states that Hinduism and Judaism are alike in their tendency toward orthopraxy rather than orthodoxy.[18]

Relations[edit]

Historical[edit]

Bhavishya Purana is regarded by a number of scholars to have predicted Judaism's prophet Moses, and similar parallels are found in Vedas.[19]

The trade relations of both communities can be traced back to 1,000 BCE and earlier to the time of the Harrappa and Mohenjo-daro cultures of the Indian subcontinent and the Babylonian culture of Middle East. A Buddhist story describes Indian merchants visiting Baveru (Babylonia)[20] and selling peacocks for public display. Similar, earlier accounts describe monkeys exhibited to the public.[21] According to Chaim Menachem Rabin, the connection between ancient Israel and the Indian subcontinent, was recorded during the reign of King Solomon (10th century BCE) in I Kings 10.22. It reads:-

"For the king had Tarshish ships in the sea together with the ships of Hiram; once every three years the Tarshish ships arrived, carrying gold and silver, elephant tusks, monkeys and peacocks."[22]

Studies of Old Testament continue to be useful for tracing the history and culture of the Middle East. The Old Testament has also been helpful for understanding relations between these two traditions.[23] Geographical analysis of Israel suggests that the authors of Old Testament were talking about India, where the selling of animals such as monkeys and peacocks existed.[24] Trade connections between India and Palestine and Mediterranean Jewish communities continued, and later, the languages of these cultures started to share linguistic similarities.[25]

Modern[edit]

Jews never faced persecution by Hindus, neither are there any records of Hindus facing persecution by Jews. The creation of Israel as a Jewish state was supported by Hindu nationalists, most notably M. S. Golwalkar, who said:

The Jews had maintained their race, religion, culture and language; and all they wanted was their natural territory to complete their Nationality.[26]

The world's first Jewish-Hindu interfaith leadership summit, led by Hindu organisations in India and Jewish organisations in Israel, as well as the American Jewish Committee, was held in New Delhi on February 2007.[27] Swami Dayananda recognized the similarities of both religions and pointed to the belief in One supreme being, non- conversion, oral recitation of the Veda and the Torah, and the special importance of peace and non- violence. Savarupananda Saraswatiji explained that "Both the Hindu and Jewish communities have a lot in common, we need to discover and nurture these areas for the benefit of millions of people."[28]

This meeting included Rabbis such as Daniel Sperber, Yona Metzger, and others. They affirmed a number of points, one of which was:

Their respective traditions teach that there is one supreme being who is the ultimate reality, who has created this world in its blessed diversity and who has communicated Divine ways of action for humanity, for different people in different times and places.[29]

About 5,000 Jews reside in India today.[30] The Bnei Menashe are a group of more than 9,000 Jews from the Indian states Manipur and Mizoram who have resided in India since as early as 8th century BC.[31] On 31 March, 2005, Sephardi Rabbi, Shlomo Amar, one of Israel's two chief rabbis, accepted the Bnei Menashe's claim of being one of the ten lost tribes considering their devotion to Judaism. His decision was significant because it paved the way for all members of Bnei Menashe to enter Israel under Israel's Law of Return.[32] In the past two decades, some 1,700 Bnei Menashe members have moved to Israel. Israel has reversed the policy of immigration for the remaining 7,200 Bnei Menashe.

There are some who profess a belief in both religions: they regard themselves as Hinjew.[33][34][35]

According to a report by the Pew Research Center, of all religious groups, Hindus and Jews remain the most successful at retaining their adherents.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hananya Goodman. Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. SUNY Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780791417157. 
  2. ^ Kathryn McClymond. Beyond Sacred Violence: A Comparative Study of Sacrifice. JHU Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780801896293. 
  3. ^ Emma Tomalin. Religions and Development. Routledge. p. 109. 
  4. ^ Sushil Mittal, Gene Thursby. Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 181. ISBN 9781134593224. 
  5. ^ I Say Unto You (Vol -I), p. 259 - 260
  6. ^ "Essential Hinduism", by Steven Rosen, page. 13
  7. ^ David Flusser (1988). Judaism and the origins of Christianity. Magnes Press, Hebrew University. p. 650. 
  8. ^ "Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism", page 35- 40
  9. ^ Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. The American nations; or, Outlines of their general history, ancient and modern. Oxford University. p. 104. 
  10. ^ Hananya Goodman. Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. SUNY Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780791417157. 
  11. ^ Manfred Hutter (2013). Between Mumbai and Manila: Judaism in Asia Since the Founding of the State of Israel (Proceedings of the International Conference, Held at the Department of Comparative Religion. V&R unipress GmbH. p. 241. ISBN 9783847101581. 
  12. ^ Sitansu S. Chakravarti (1991). Hinduism, a Way of Life. p. 84. ISBN 9788120808997. 
  13. ^ Jack R. Lundbom. Deuteronomy: A Commentary. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 60. 
  14. ^ Gavin Flood. An Introduction to Hinduism. p. 120-121. 
  15. ^ Kedar Nath Tiwari. Comparative Religion. Motilal. p. 38. 
  16. ^ Shavism (Saivism) Devotion to Shiva
  17. ^ a b c Flood 1996, p. 14.
  18. ^ Hananya Goodman. Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780791417157. 
  19. ^ "God-fleshed: a chronicle of the comings of Christ", p. 66, by Roy Abraham Varghese, Rachel Varghese, Mary Varghese, url = [1]
  20. ^ Catherine Cornille. The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Inter-Religious Dialogue. Wiley. p. 417. 
  21. ^ Hananya Goodman. Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. SUNY Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780791417157. 
  22. ^ The Bible in Basic English. Cambridge University Press. 1956. p. 349. 
  23. ^ Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Hinayana-India (Central India). Genesis. p. 2939. ISBN 9788177552676. 
  24. ^ Hananya Goodman. Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. SUNY Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780791417157. 
  25. ^ Hananya Goodman. Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. SUNY Press. p. 25-30. ISBN 9780791417157. 
  26. ^ Elst, Koenraad (2001). The Saffron Swastika: The Notion of "Hindu Fascism". Voice of India. ISBN 8185990697. 
  27. ^ World's Jewish and Hindu Leaders Gather in New Delhi, wfn.org
  28. ^ Manfred Hutter (2013). Between Mumbai and Manila: Judaism in Asia Since the Founding of the State of Israel (Proceedings of the International Conference, Held at the Department of Comparative Religion. V&R unipress GmbH. p. 215. ISBN 9783847101581. 
  29. ^ "Declaration of Mutual Understanding and Cooperation from the First Jewish-Hindu Leadership Summit". 2007. 
  30. ^ History of the Jews of India, Indian-Jewish Association UK
  31. ^ "Bnei Menashe Move To Israel: Indian Jews From 'Lost Tribe' Arrive In Holy Land". Huffingtonpost. 24 December 2012. 
  32. ^ Rabbi backs India's 'lost Jews', April 2005
  33. ^ Dana Evan Kaplan. Contemporary American Judaism: Transformation and Renewal. Columbia University Press. p. 89. 
  34. ^ "A Harvard Hinjew". 6 June 1985. 
  35. ^ "Jew and Hinjew". 18 November 1999. 
  36. ^ "Jewish researchers dispute some Pew religion survey data". 28 February 2008. 

Further reading[edit]