House of Percy
|House of Percy|
Armorial of Percy
|Country||Kingdom of England, United Kingdom|
|Founder||William de Percy (d.1096), 1st feudal baron of Topcliffe|
|Current head||Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland|
The House of Percy (old French Perci) were the most powerful noble family in northern England for much of the Middle Ages, having descended from William de Percy (d.1096), a Norman who crossed over to England after William the Conqueror in early December 1067, was created 1st feudal baron of Topcliffe in Yorkshire, and was rebuilding York Castle in 1070. The name derives from the manor of Percy-en-Auge in Normandy, the home of the family at the time of the Norman Conquest. Members have held the titles of Earl of Northumberland or Duke of Northumberland to this day, in addition to Baron Percy and other titles. In common with their rivals, the House of Neville, the Percy surname twice died out in the male line but was re-adopted by the husband of a Percy heiress and by their descendants. In the 12th century, the original Percy line was represented by Agnes de Percy, whose son by her husband Joscelin of Louvain adopted the surname Percy. Again in the 18th century, the heiress Elizabeth Seymour married Sir Hugh Smithson, who adopted the surname Percy and was created Duke of Northumberland.
Recurring names in the Percy genealogy include Henry (first borne by the 7th Baron and his 10 immediate successors, including the 1st Earl and Harry Hotspur), Hugh (first borne by the 1st Duke), Joscelin (first borne by Joscelin of Louvain), and Algernon (first borne by the 1st Baron as a nickname: Aux Gernons or "with moustaches").
Prominent members of the family include:
- William de Percy (d.1096) (d. 1096), 1st feudal baron of Topcliffe, Yorkshire, nicknamed "Aux Gernons" ("with moustaches"), a Norman who emigrated to England after the Conquest
- Alan de Percy, 2nd feudal baron of Topcliffe (d. circa 1130/5)
- William II de Percy, 3rd feudal baron of Topcliffe (d. 1174/5), who left two daughters Maud and Agnes as co-heiresses.
- Agnes de Percy (1134-1205), married Joscelin of Louvain (d.1180).
- Richard de Percy (d. 1244), 5th feudal baron of Topcliffe, signatory to Magna Carta. Died childless. Succeeded his elder brother Henry de Percy (d.1198), the 4th Baron Topcliffe, whose son William III de Percy (1197-1245) became Richard's heir.
- William de Percy, (1197–1245), 6th feudal baron of Topcliffe
- Henry de Percy, 7th feudal baron of Topcliffe (1228–1272)
- Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick (1273–1314), 7th feudal baron of Topcliffe and 1st baron by writ.
- Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1299–1352)
- Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick (see below)
- Thomas Percy (d. 1369), Bishop of Norwich
- Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1320–1368)
- Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland (1341–1408) (forfeit 1405), helped Henry IV seize the throne, later rebelled against him
- Sir Henry Percy (1364/1366–1403), also called Harry Hotspur, helped Henry IV seize the throne but later rebelled against him, killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury
- Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (see below)
- Lady Elizabeth Percy (c. 1390 – 1437)
- Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (1394–1455), supporter of King Henry VI, killed at the beginning of the Wars of the Roses
- Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland (1421–1461) (forfeit 1461), Lancastrian leader in the Wars of the Roses
- Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland (see below)
- Margaret Percy (b. c. 1447)
- Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland (1449–1489) (restored 1470), aligned with Yorkists, present but inactive at the Battle of Bosworth Field
- Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland (see below)
- Eleanor Percy, Duchess of Buckingham (1474–1530), daughter of the 4th Earl
- Alan Percy (c. 1480 – 1560), son of the 4th Earl, English churchman and academic
- Anne FitzAlan, Countess of Arundel (1485–1552), daughter of the 4th Earl
- Thomas Percy (1560–1605), great-grandson of the 4th Earl, participated in the Gunpowder Plot
- Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland (1478–1527)
- Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland (1502–1537), betrothed to Anne Boleyn
- Thomas Percy (c. 1504 – 1537), participated the Pilgrimage of Grace revolt
- Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland (1532–1585)
- Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (see below)
- George Percy (1580–1632), explorer, author, early governor of Virginia
- Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (1564–1632), known as "The Wizard Earl" for his intellectual pursuits, imprisoned after the Gunpowder Plot
- Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland (1602–1668), Lord High Admiral of England, later a Parliamentarian in the English Civil War
- Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670), no male heirs, becomes the last male of direct Percy lineage to inherit the Earldom.
- Elizabeth Seymour, Duchess of Somerset (1667–1722), only daughter and heiress of the 11th Earl
- Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, 1st Earl of Northumberland (1684–1750), son of Elizabeth Seymour
- Elizabeth Percy (née Seymour), Duchess of Northumberland, 2nd Baroness Percy (1716–1776), daughter and heiress of the 7th Duke of Somerset, married Sir Hugh Smithson (who adopted the name Percy)
- Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1714–1786), nee Smithson
- Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland (1742–1817), British army officer during the American Revolutionary War
- Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley (1750–1830), second son of the 1st Duke
- James Smithson (1764–1829), illegitimate son of the 1st Duke, associated with the Smithsonian Institution and smithsonite
- George Percy, 2nd Earl of Beverley, 5th Duke of Northumberland (1778–1867), politician
- Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland (1810–1899), politician
- Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland (see below)
- Lord Algernon Percy (1851–1933), politician
- Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland (1846–1918), politician
- Alan Ian Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland (1880–1930)
- Henry George Alan Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland (1912–1940), killed in World War II
- Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland (see below)
- Elizabeth Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton and Brandon (1916–2008)
- Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland (1914–1988)
- Henry Alan Walter Richard Percy, 11th Duke of Northumberland (1953–1995)
- Ralph George Algernon Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland (b. 1956)
- George Dominic Percy, Earl Percy (b. 4 May 1984)
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.849
- Burke's General Armory, 1884 & Landed Gentry
- Smith-Ellis, W., Antiquities of Heraldry, Vol. 1, pp.204-5, who suggests that a Roll of Arms c.1308-14 temp. Edward II lists the arms of Redvers as abatue or extinct and states in the same roll that they were borne by Sir Henry de Percy, whose father was heir of his 2nd brother Ingelram, who married Adeline, daughter and heiress of William de Fors by Isabel, daughter and heiress of Baldwin de Rivers, Earl of Devon. The Courtenays were also heirs of Isabel de Fors, and also quarter the Redvers lion
- Sanders, I.J., English Baronies, Oxford, 1960, p.148
- Rose, Alexander (2003). Kings in the North. The House of Percy in British History. London: Phoenix. pp. 26–7. ISBN 1-84212-485-4. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- Rose, Alexander (2003). Kings in the North. The House of Percy in British History. London: Phoenix. pp. 86–9. ISBN 1-84212-485-4. Retrieved 2011-05-21.