Jochi

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Jochi
Khan of the Ulus of Jochi
Juchi Khan.JPG
Statue of Jochi Khan in Mongolia
Born 1181 (1181)
Birthplace Mongolia
Died 1227 (aged 45–46)
Place of death Eurasia
Predecessor Genghis Khan
Successor Orda (c. 1204-1280)
Batu (c. 1205-1255)
Berke, Khan of the Golden Horde from 1257-1267
Royal House Borjigin
Dynasty Mongol Empire
Royal anthem There is only God in heaven and only one Lord Genghis Khan on Earth.
Father Genghis Khan
Mother Börte

Jochi (Mongolian: Зүчи, Züchi, Kazakh: Жошы, Zhoshy, Crimean Tatar: Cuçi; also spelled Jöchi and Juchi) (c. 1181–1227) was the eldest son of the Mongol chieftain Genghis Khan, and presumably one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life. An accomplished military leader, he participated in his father's conquest of Central Asia, along with his brothers and uncles.

Early life[edit]

Genghis Khan seated in the center and Jochi standing in the left.

There is some question as to Jochi's true paternity. Shortly after her marriage to Genghis Khan (known as Temüjin at the time), Börte was abducted by members of the Mergid confederation. She was given to a certain Chilger Bökh, who was the brother of the Yehe Chiledu, as a spoil of war. She remained in Chilger Bökh's captivity for a few months before she was recovered by Temüjin. Shortly afterwards she gave birth to Jochi. By all accounts, Genghis Khan treated Jochi as his first son, but a doubt always remained among the Mongols whether Temüjin or Chilger Bökh was the real father of Jochi. This uncertainty about his paternity was not without consequences. Jochi’s descendants, although they formed the oldest branch of Genghis Khan’s family, were never considered for the succession in claiming their father’s heritage and there were signs of estrangement between Jochi and Genghis Khan.

Wars of conquest[edit]

A Mughal miniature painting of Genghis Khan his wife Borte and their sons.

In 1207 he had successfully conquered the forest peoples in Siberia, extending the northern border of the Mongol Empire for the first time. On behalf of his father, Jochi led two campaigns against the Kyrgyz, in 1210 and 1218.[1] Jochi’s contribution in the Khwarezm war was extensive and he was responsible for capturing the towns of Signak, Jand, and Yanikant in April, 1220, during this war. Subsequently he was given the command of operation against the city of Urgench (Gurganj) which was the capital of the Khwarezmian Empire. Here the siege of the town led to inordinate delays because Jochi engaged in extensive negotiation with the town to persuade it to surrender peacefully and save it from destruction. This action was seen as militarily unsound by his brother, Chagatai. Chagatai wanted to destroy the city but Genghis Khan had promised the city to Jochi after his victory. This difference of opinion on military affairs deepened a rift between Jochi and Chagatai. Genghis Khan intervened in the campaign and appointed Ögedei as the commander of the operation. Ögedei resumed the operations vigorously and the town was duly captured, sacked, massacred and destroyed thoroughly.

The differences in tactics between Jochi and Chagatai in early 1221 added to their personal quarrel about the succession. To settle the matter, Genghis Khan called the political and military council called a "kurultai". The formal meeting was used in both familial matters and matters of state. Temüjin was elected/appointed Khan of his tribe during a kurultai, and he called for them often during his early campaigns to garner public support for his wars. These meetings were key to Genghis Khan legitimacy. Tribal tradition was also critical. As Genghis Khan's first-born son, Jochi, was favored to rule the clan and the empire after his father died. At the familial kurultai called in 1222, the issue of Jochi's legitimacy was brought up by Chagatai. At that meeting, Genghis Khan made it clear that Jochi was his legitimate first-born son. However, he worried that the quarrelsome nature of the two would split the empire. By early 1223 Genghis Khan had selected Ögedei, his third son, as his successor. For the sake of preserving the Empire, both Jochi and Chagatai agreed but the rift between them never healed. Their rift would later politically divide the European part of the Mongol Empire from its Asian part permanently.

Succession controversy[edit]

Genghis Khan with his sons including Jochi.

During the autumn of 1223 Genghis Khan started for Mongolia after completing the Khwarezm campaign. Ögedei, Chagatai and Tolui went with him but Jochi withdrew to his territories north of Aral and Caspian Seas. There he remained until his death and would not see his father again in his lifetime. Perhaps the selection of Ögedei as a successor to Genghis Khan had greatly disappointed him; this is a probable explanation for Jochi's withdrawal from court life.

Though the histories are unclear, there is evidence that Jochi conspired against Genghis, and that Genghis in return pondered a pre-emptive strike. When Genghis Khan returned home he sent for Jochi. When the latter refused to obey and asked a pardon Genghis Khan sent Chagatai and Ögedei against him. But before it came to open hostilities, news came that Jochi had died in February 1226[citation needed].

Near the end of Jochi's life, Genghis Khan summoned him for a meeting. Jochi declined citing ill health, but a general reported seeing him leading a hunt to Genghis. This enraged Genghis Khan, who made preparations for Chagatai and Ogedei to lead a punitive expedition at Jochi. Before the army could depart however, news arrived that Jochi had died of his illness. Genghis thus grieved for his son and had the slanderous general executed.

Genghis Khan had divided his empire among his four surviving sons during his lifetime. Jochi was entrusted with the westernmost part of the empire, then lying between Ural and Irtysh rivers. In the kurultai of 1229 following Genghis Khan’s death, this partition was formalized and Jochi’s family (Jochi himself had died six months before Genghis Khan) was allocated the lands in the west up to ‘as far as the hooves of Mongol horses had trodden'. Following the Mongol custom, Genghis Khan bequeathed only four thousand ‘original’ Mongol troops to each of his three elder sons and 101,000 to Tolui, his youngest son. Consequently Jochi’s descendants extended their empire mostly with the help of auxiliary troops from the subjugated populations which happened to be Turkic. This was the chief reason why the Golden Horde acquired a Turkic identity. Jochi's inheritance was divided among his sons. His sons Orda and Batu founded the White Horde and the Blue Horde, respectively, and would later combine their territories into the Kipchak Khanate or Golden Horde. Another of Jochi’s sons, Shiban, received territories that lay north of Batu and Orda’s Ülüs.

Genghis Khan had made Jochi responsible for the supervision and conduct of the community hunt. Hunting was essentially a large scale military exercise designed specifically for the training of the army. It frequently encompassed thousands of square kilometers of area, required the participation of several tumens and lasted anywhere between one to three months. Rules and procedure of the conduct of the military exercise were encoded in the Yassa.

Certain incidences hint towards the fact that Jochi was of a kinder disposition than Genghis Khan, though the adjective “kind” must be interpreted by the standards of his times and milieu because Jochi had had his share of indulgence in massacres of civilians. On one occasion Jochi pleaded with his father to spare the life of a son of an enemy chief who had been taken captive and who happened to be a great archer. Jochi argued that such a great archer could be an asset to the Mongol army. Genghis Khan brushed aside this argument and had the captive executed.

Legacy[edit]

Jochi's descendant Berke was among the earliest Mongols to convert to Islam. Among his other descendants were Öz Beg Khan, Tokhtamysh and Hacı I Giray.

Under Jochi's son Batu, Mongol rule expanded to its westernmost limit, and the Golden Horde (Kipchak Khanate) was established to consolidate the Jochid ulus.

Map of Golden Horde[edit]

the Ulus of Jochi

Children[edit]

Jochi had at least 14 sons[2] and two daughters:

  • Orda (c. 1204-1280)
  • Batu (c. 1205-1255)
  • Berke, Khan of the Golden Horde from 1257-1267[3]
  • Berkhechir
  • Shiban
  • Tangad
  • Teval (Buval). He was the grandfather of Nogai Khan.
  • Chilagun
  • Sinqur
  • Chimbay
  • Muhammed
  • Udur
  • Tuq-timur, the ancestor of late khans of the Great Horde.
  • Shingum
  • Qoluyiqan.[4] She married Törelchi, eldest son of Quduqa-beki of the Oirats.
  • Daughter who married the Qarluq chief of Almaliq.

Ancestry[edit]


Hoelun
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yesugei Baghatur
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Börte
 
Temüjin (Genghis Khan)
 
Hasar
 
Hachiun
 
Temüge
 
Belgutei
 
Behter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jochi
 
 
Chagatai
 
 
 
Ögedei
 
 
Tolui

In fiction[edit]

Jochi appeared as a supporting character in the 2007 Japanese-Mongolian film Genghis Khan: To the Ends of the Earth and Sea, played by Kenichi Matsuyama.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Soucek, Svat A History of Inner Asia (2000), page 107.
  2. ^ H.H.Howorth-History of the Mongols, part.II div.II, p.35
  3. ^ David Morgan, The Mongols, p. 224
  4. ^ The Secret History of the Mongols: The life and times of Chinggis Khan (2001) Onon, Urgunge [ed.], Abingdon: Routledge-Curzon Press, pp. 222-223. "He [Chinggis Qahan] gave ... Jochi's daughter Qoluyiqan to Inalchi's elder brother Törelchi."
Jochi
Died: 1227
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Position established
Khan of the Ulus of Jochi
1225–1227
Succeeded by
Batu Khan