Timeline of the Mongol Empire

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Main article: Mongol Empire

This is the timeline of the Mongol Empire from 1206, when Temüjin received the title of Chinggis Khan, to the death in 1370 of the last emperor of Yuan Dynasty in China, who had been deposed in 1368. The Yuan emperors used the title of Khagan (Great Khan, or Emperor) of the Mongols as successors to Genghis as overlord of all the Mongol dominions, though after the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, their suzerainty over the other divisions of the Mongol Empire (initially the Chagatai Khanate, the Golden Horde, and the Ilkhanate) was almost notional. The Mongol Empire is usually considered to have come to an end in 1368, though the title of Khagan continued to be used by the rulers of Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia, a far less powerful successor entity, until 1634.

Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200.
  • 1206: Upon domination of Mongolia, Temüjin from the Orkhon Valley received the title Chinggis Khan, thought to mean Universal Ruler or, Oceanic Ruler or Firm, Resolute Ruler
  • 1207: The Mongols' operations against the Western Xia, which comprised much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet. This campaign lasted until 1210 with the Western Xia ruler submitting to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghur Turks also submitted peacefully to the Mongols and became valued administrators throughout the empire. The creation of classic Mongolian script.
  • 1211: Genghis Khan led his armies across the Gobi Desert against the Jin Dynasty of northern China.
  • 1215: The Mongols captured the Jin capital of Zhongdu in the Battle of Zhongdu.
  • 1218: The Mongols captured Zhetysu and the Tarim Basin, occupying Kashgar.
  • 1218: The execution of Mongol envoys by the Khwarezmian Shah Muhammad set in motion the first Mongol westward thrust.
  • 1219: The Mongols crossed the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and begin their invasion of Transoxiana.
  • 1219–1221: While the campaign in northern China was still in progress, the Mongols waged a war in central Asia and destroyed the Khwarezmid Empire. One notable feature was that the campaign was launched from several directions at once. In addition, it was notable for special units assigned by Genghis Khan personally to find and kill Ala al-Din Muhammad II, the Khwarazm shah who fled from them, and ultimately ended up hiding on an island in the Caspian Sea.
  • 1223: The Mongols gained a decisive victory at the Battle of the Kalka River, the first engagement between the Mongols and the East Slavic warriors.
  • 1227: Genghis Khan's death; Mongol leaders returned to Mongolia for kuriltai. The empire at this point covered nearly 24 million km², about four times the size of the Roman or Macedonian Empires.
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis' death
The Mongol Empire, ca. 1300. The gray area is the later Timurid empire.
  • 1294: Kublai Khan died. His grandson Oljeitu Temür became his successor of the Yuan Dynasty.
  • 1295: Islamization of Ilkhanate. The rulers of Thai states visited the court of the Yuan to show their respects.
  • 1299: The Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar (also known as the Third Battle of Homs). A Mongol victory over the Mamluks.
  • 1303: The Battle of Marj al-Saffar. Mongols are defeated by Mamluks. The end of the Mongol invasion to Syria.
  • 1304: Peace negotiation between Mongol khanates. However, the fighting between Duwa and Chapar, the son of Kaidu, broke out shortly afterwards.
  • 1305: The yam and trade routes between Mongol Khanates were reopened.
  • 1307: the Mongol conquest of Gilan region.
  • 1310: Chapar submitted to the emperor of Yuan Dynasty.
  • 1315: Islamization of Golden Horde. Ozbeg Khan presecuted non-Muslim Tatar-Mongols in Russia.
  • 1323: The Ossetian or Asud guard under Tegshi murdered Gegeen Khan of the Yuan Dynasty on his way from the summer palace Shangdu to the capital at Dadu. The Ilkhanate made a truce with the Mamluks, ending the half century long Mamluk-Ilkhanid war.
  • 1327: The large rebellion in Tver against Mongol rule. Ozbeg punished them harshly with the assistance of the Muscotives and sent Russian prisoners to his nominal suzerain Tugh Temür Khan of the Yuan.
  • 1335: Last effective Ilkhan Abu Said died, followed by the disintegration of Ilkhanate.
  • 1353: Last of the powerful Ilkhanid contender, Togha Temür, was assassinated.
  • 1356 Jani Beg conducted a military campaign in Azerbaijan and conquered the city of Tabriz, destroying Chupanid Dynasty and compelled the Jalayirids to surrender (two successor states of the Ilkhanate). He also asserted Jochid dominance over the Chagatai Khanate, attempting to unite three khanates of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1359: The assassination of Berdi Beg. The age of Great Troubles began.
  • 1368: Yuan Dynasty overthrown by the Ming Dynasty. The last Yuan ruler, Toghun Temür fled north to Shangdu.
  • 1370: Toghun Temür died in Yingchang. His son Ayushiridara retreated to Karakorum in Mongolia, which became known as the Northern Yuan. Timur became the Emir of Chagatai Khanate.

See also[edit]